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From unemployment to Brexit to climate change, capitalism is in trouble and ill-prepared to cope with the challenges of the coming decades. How did we get here? While contemporary economists and policymakers tend to ignore the political and social dimensions of capitalism, some of the great economists of the past - Adam Smith, Friedrich List, John Maynard Keynes, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi and Albert Hirschman - did not make the same mistake. Leveraging their insights, sociologists John L. Campbell and John A. Hall trace the historical development of capitalism as a social, political, and economic system throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. They draw comparisons across eras and around the globe to show that there is no inevitable logic of capitalism. Rather, capitalism's performance depends on the strength of nation-states, the social cohesion of capitalist societies, and the stability of the international system - three things that are in short supply today.
Without nation-states Covid-19, climate change, international cyberattacks, and other threats would go unchecked. In The World of States, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall challenge the view that nation-states have lost their relevance in the context of globalization and rising nationalism. The book traces how states evolved historically, how contemporary states differ from one another, and the interactions between them. States today confront a host of challenges, but two features make some states more effective than others: institutional arrangement and national identity. The second edition has been updated to discuss why the BRICS countries (with the exception of China) are no longer the rising powers they were once thought to be; the effects of Brexit on the European Union; the legacy of the Trump administration for US politics and hegemony; and how the coronavirus may upset the world of states going forward.
Depression and insomnia commonly co-occur. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms through which insomnia influences depression. Recent research and theory highlight reward system dysfunction as a potential mediator of the relationship between insomnia and depression. This study is the first to examine the impact of insomnia on reward learning, a key component of reward system functioning, in clinical depression.
The sample consisted of 72 veterans with unipolar depression who endorsed sleep disturbance symptoms. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, self-report measures of insomnia, depression, and reward processing, and a previously validated signal detection task (Pizzagalli et al., 2005, Biological Psychiatry, 57(4), 319–327). Trial-by-trial response bias (RB) estimates calculated for each of the 200 task trials were examined using linear mixed-model analyses to investigate change in reward learning.
Findings demonstrated diminished rate and magnitude of reward learning in the Insomnia group relative to the Hypersomnia/Mixed Symptom group across the task. Within the Insomnia group, participants with more severe insomnia evidenced the lowest rates of reward learning, with increased RB across the task with decreasing insomnia severity.
Among individuals with depression, insomnia is associated with decreased ability to learn associations between neutral stimuli and rewarding outcomes and/or modify behavior in response to differential receipt of reward. This attenuated reward learning may contribute to clinically meaningful decreases in motivation and increased withdrawal in this comorbid group. Results extend existing theory by highlighting impairments in reward learning specifically as a potential mediator of the association between insomnia and depression.
Community pharmacies were underutilized as vaccination locations during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since that time, community pharmacies are a common location for seasonal influenza vaccinations with approximately one-third of adults now getting vaccinated at a pharmacy. Leveraging community pharmacies to vaccinate during a pandemic such as pandemic influenza or the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic will result in a more timely and comprehensive public health response. The purpose of this article is to summarize the results of a strategic planning meeting held in 2017 that focused on operationalizing pandemic influenza vaccinations at a regional supermarket chain pharmacy. Participating in the planning session from the supermarket chain were organizational experts in pharmacy clinical programs, managed care, operations leadership, supply chain, information technology, loss prevention, marketing, and compliance. Additionally, experts from the county and state departments of health and university faculty collaborated in the planning session. Topics addressed included (1) establishing a memorandum of understanding with the state, (2) developing an internal emergency response plan, (3) scaling the pandemic response, (4) considerations for pharmacy locations, (5) staffing for pandemic response, (6) pandemic vaccine-specific training, (7) pharmacy workflow, (8) billing considerations, (9) documentation, (10) supplies and equipment, (11) vaccine supply chain, (12) communications, and (13) security and crowd control. Information from this planning session may be valuable to community pharmacies across the nation that seek to participate in COVID-19 pandemic vaccinations.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
Toddler milk (i.e. a nutrient-fortified milk-based drink marketed for children 12–36 months old) is increasingly being marketed in the USA despite not being recommended for young children. There is evidence of targeted toddler milk marketing to Latinos in the USA. This study aimed to explore toddler milk perceptions and behaviours among Latino and non-Latino parents.
An online survey assessed toddler milk perceptions, behaviours and interpretations of nutrition-related claims. Multivariable logistic and linear regression explored socio-demographic correlates of parent reported past purchases and perceived healthfulness.
National convenience sample of 1078 US parents of children aged 2–12 years (48 % Latino).
About half of parents (51 %) had previously purchased toddler milk and few (11 %) perceived toddler milk as unhealthy. Latino parents were more likely to have purchased toddler milk than non-Latino parents (P < 0·001), but there were no differences in perceived product healthfulness (P = 0·47). Compared to parents born in the USA, parents living in the USA 10 years or less were more likely to have purchased toddler milk (P < 0·001) and perceive toddler milk as healthier (P = 0·002). Open-ended interpretations of claims were primarily positive, suggesting ‘health halo’ effects.
Common misperceptions about toddler milk healthfulness suggest stronger labelling regulations are needed. Greater reported purchases by Latino parents and recent immigrants warrant further investigation.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Feeding cattle with on-pasture supplementation or feedlot diets can increase animal efficiency and system profitability while minimizing environmental impacts. However, cattle system profit margins are relatively small and nutrient supply accounts for most of the costs. This paper introduces a nonlinear profit-maximizing diet formulation problem for beef cattle based on well-established predictive equations. Nonlinearity in predictive equations for nutrient requirements poses methodological challenges in the application of optimization techniques. In contrast to other widely used diet formulation methods, we develop a mathematical model that guarantees an exact solution for maximum profit diet formulations. Our method can efficiently solve an often-impractical nonlinear problem by solving a finite number of linear problems, that is, linear time complexity is achieved through parametric linear programming. Results show the impacts of choosing different objective functions (minimizing cost, maximizing profit and maximizing profit per daily weight gain) and how this may lead to different optimal solutions. In targeting improved ration formulation on feedlot systems, this paper demonstrates how profitability and nutritional constraints can be met as an important part of a sustainable intensification production strategy.
Introduction: In 2018, Canadian postgraduate specialist Emergency Medicine (EM) programs began implementing a competency-based medical education (CBME) assessment system. To support improvement of this assessment program, we sought to evaluate its short-term educational outcomes nationally and within individual programs. Methods: Program-level data from the 2018 resident cohort were amalgamated and analyzed. The number of Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA) assessments (overall and for each EPA) and the timing of resident promotion through program stages was compared between programs and to the guidelines provided by the national EM specialty committee. Total EPA observations from each program were correlated with the number of EM and pediatric EM rotations. Results: Data from 15 of 17 (88.2%) EM programs containing 9,842 EPA observations from 68 of the 77 (88.3%) Canadian EM specialist residents in the 2018 cohort were analyzed. The average number of EPAs observed per resident in each program varied from 92.5 to 229.6 and correlated strongly with the number of blocks spent on EM and pediatric EM (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Relative to the guidelines outlined by the specialty committee, residents were promoted later than expected and with fewer EPA observations than suggested. Conclusion: We present a new approach to the amalgamation of national and program-level assessment data. There was demonstrable variation in both EPA-based assessment numbers and promotion timelines between programs and with national guidelines. This evaluation data will inform the revision of local programs and national guidelines and serve as a starting point for further reaching outcome evaluation. This process could be replicated by other national assessment programs.
Introduction: A critical component for successful implementation of any innovation is an organization's readiness for change. Competence by Design (CBD) is the Royal College's major change initiative to reform the training of medical specialists in Canada. The purpose of this study was to measure readiness to implement CBD among the 2019 launch disciplines. Methods: An online survey was distributed to program directors of the 2019 CBD launch disciplines one month prior to implementation. Questions were developed based on the R = MC2 framework for organizational readiness. They addressed program motivation to implement CBD, general capacity for change, and innovation-specific capacity. Questions related to motivation and general capacity were scored using a 5-point scale of agreement. Innovation-specific capacity was measured by asking participants whether they had completed 33 key pre-implementation tasks (yes/no) in preparation for CBD. Bivariate correlations were conducted to examine the relationship between motivation, general capacity and innovation specific capacity. Results: Survey response rate was 42% (n = 79). A positive correlation was found between all three domains of readiness (motivation and general capacity, r = 0.73, p < 0.01; motivation and innovation specific capacity, r = 0.52, p < 0.01; general capacity and innovation specific capacity, r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Most respondents agreed that successful launch of CBD was a priority (74%). Fewer felt that CBD was a move in the right direction (58%) and that implementation was a manageable change (53%). While most programs indicated that their leadership (94%) and faculty and residents (87%) were supportive of change, 42% did not have experience implementing large-scale innovation and 43% indicated concerns about adequate support staff. Programs had completed an average of 72% of pre-implementation tasks. No difference was found between disciplines (p = 0.11). Activities related to curriculum mapping, competence committees and programmatic assessment had been completed by >90% of programs, while <50% of programs had engaged off-service rotations. Conclusion: Measuring readiness for change aids in the identification of factors that promote or inhibit successful implementation. These results highlight several areas where programs struggle in preparation for CBD launch. Emergency medicine training programs can use this data to target additional implementation support and ongoing faculty development initiatives.
To investigate associations between schizophrenia candidate gene polymorphisms and regional cortical thickness and volume in patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects.
Genotyping was performed using PCR and pyrosequencing techniques. Cortical morphology was analyzed by processing magnetic resonance brain images with the FreeSurfer software package. General linear model analysis was used to study associations between gene variants and cortical thickness in patients and controls, respectively. Regional cortical volumes were defined from automatic cortical parcellations. Our first studies from 96 patients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy control subjects demonstrate that polymorphisms in the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene may be associated with variation in frontal lobe morphology. Associations seem to be stronger in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy controls.
Craving in negative emotional situations (negative craving) is commonly associated with relapse and heavy alcohol use. Elevated dynorphin levels were associated with negative emotions, while variations in the OPRK1 and PDYN genes encoding OPRK1 receptor and dynorphins were associated with alcohol dependence.
To investigate potential overlap in the genetic factors underlying, negative craving and alcohol dependence.
Examine the association of the negative craving and genetic variation in the OPRK1 and PDYN genes.
13 PDYN and 10 OPRK1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), including those previously reported to be associated with alcohol dependence were genotyped in 196 alcohol dependent subjects. The raw scores of the negative subscale of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS) were utilized as a quantitative measure of negative craving. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations after controlling for age and gender.
Gene-level haplotype testing demonstrated significant association of negative craving with variation in PDYN (p < 0.05) but not OPRK1 gene. The rs2281285 - rs199794 haplotype showed significant association (p = 0.0236) with negative craving, while rs2235749 - rs10485703 haplotype showed marginally significant association (p = 0.055). This replicates previous findings of association between these haplotypes and alcohol dependence. Negative craving was also associated with PDYN rs2281285 variant (p = 0.012) with estimated effect size of 6.95 (SE = 2.75). This new association finding was not significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.18).
Our findings support association of PDYN sequence variation with negative craving in alcohol dependent subjects. Future studies should investigate functional mechanisms of this association.
[Improvement in daily accessible risk assessments]
We show enhanced patient safety through a quality improvement methodology project in an intensive psychiatric care unit of a psychiatric hospital in southwest of Scotland. This is a project as part of the national patient safety programme in mental health. The Scottish Patient Safety Programme for Mental Health aims to systematically reduce harm experienced by people using mental health services in Scotland, by supporting frontline staff to test, gather real-time data and reliably implement interventions, before spreading across their catchment area.
Multidisciplinary staff worked together in improving recording of daily electronic and paper based risk assessments from a baseline of 20% to nearly 100% over a sixth month period. We expect better quality risk management by readily accessible risk assessments and safe practise through enhanced safety perception by the patients as well as staff. Patient and staff safety perception tools were designed to measure impact of improvement in risk management. We have seen drop in the number of critical incidents and challenging situations requiring restraint following coordinated approach to risk assessment and easy access to key information. We have been successful as the frontline staff became part of the process of change and this has enabled sustained improvement.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet of the last glacial period terminated in several lobes along its southern margin. The timing of maximum extent may have varied among the terminal lobes owing to internal ice sheet dynamics and spatially variable external controls. Some terminal ice lobes, such as the westernmost James Lobe, remain poorly dated. To determine the timing of maximum ice extent in this key location, we have mapped glacial deposits left by the Pierre Sublobe in South Dakota and applied 10Be surface exposure age dating on boulders on moraine ridges associated with three distinct late Quaternary glacial drifts. The oldest and most extensive “Tazewell” drift produced variable 10Be surface exposure ages spanning 20–7 ka; the large range is likely attributable to moraine degradation and subsequent boulder exhumation. The oldest ages of about 20 ka are probably limiting minimum ages for the Tazewell moraine surfaces. By contrast, exposure ages of the youngest “Mankato” drift of the easternmost Pierre Sublobe tightly cluster at about 16 ka. This age for the Pierre Sublobe is consistent with the nearby Des Moines Lobe, suggesting both acted together.
Psychiatric comorbidities and alcohol craving are known contributors to differences in alcohol consumption patterns.
Univariate and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association and interactions between the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS) negative, positive and temptation sub-scale scores, sex, as well as co-morbid depression and anxiety determined by Psychiatric Research Interview of Substance and Mood Disorders (PRISM) with alcohol consumption measured by Time Line Follow Back (TLFB) during preceding 90 days in 287 males and 156 females meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence.
IDTS positive, negative and temptation scores were strongly associated with increased alcohol consumption measures including the number of drinks per day and number of drinking days per week (P < 0.0001). Male sex was associated with higher amount of alcohol consumption per drinking day (P < 0.001), but not with the number of drinking days per week (P > 0.05). In men, lifetime history of depression was associated with fewer drinking days (P = 0.0084) and fewer hazardous drinking days (P = 0.0214) but not with differences in daily alcohol consumption. In women, depression history was not significantly associated with alcohol consumption measures. Post-hoc sex-stratified analyses suggested that the association of the negative IDTS score with total amount of alcohol consumed by men may be modified (decreased) by lifetime depression history. We found no associations of alcohol consumption measures with anxiety or substance-induced depression.
Decreased frequency of drinking in male alcoholics with lifetime depression history is unexpected. This finding emphasizes the complex relationships between alcoholism and depression, which require further investigation.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Equal access to health care treatment is a highly prioritized goal in most OECD countries. Timely access has become a priority too; in Denmark now with a 4-week deadline from referral to diagnosis. When mental health services become more centralized and allocation of patients to treatment further away from home become more common, it could have a negative impact on the goal of equal access.
To determine the impact of socioeconomic position (SEP) and distance to provider on outpatient mental health care utilization among incident users of antidepressants.
A nationwide, Danish, register based, follow-up study on frequencies of contacts to out-patient psychiatric services, psychologist consultations supported by public funding and therapeutic talks by general practice.
Outpatient-psychiatric services were reached more often by patients in low SEP measured by income, but their frequencies of visits were less. Contacts to psychologists were less than half for patients in low SEP and less frequent too. Mental health service by GP showed low SEP associated with low contact. No difference in use of emergency or inpatient psychiatric services was found. Distance to provider showed interaction with SEP and contact to psychologist and frequencies of contact to outpatient psychiatrists. When distance increased by 5 km, contact to psychologist fell by 11% among lowest income group and frequencies of visits to outpatient psychiatrist fell by 5%.
Lower SEP is associated with lower mental health care utilization. Increased distance to provider increases inequity in mental health service utilization.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To examine associations of tree nut snack (TNS) consumption with diet quality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in UK adults from National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2014.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from 4-d food diaries, blood samples and physical measurements for CVD risk markers. To estimate diet quality, modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and modified Healthy Diet Score (HDS) were applied. Associations of TNS consumption with diet quality and markers of CVD risk were investigated using survey-adjusted multivariable linear regression adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, socio-economic and smoking status, region of residency and total energy and alcohol intake.
UK free-living population.
4738 adults (≥19 years).
TNS consumers had higher modified MDS and HDS relative to non-consumers. TNS consumers also had lower BMI, WC, SBP and DBP and higher HDL compared to non-consumers, although a dose-related fully adjusted significant association between increasing nut intake (g per 4184 kJ/1000 kcal energy intake) and lower marker of CVD risk was only observed for SBP. TNS consumption was also associated with higher intake of total fat, mono-, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin A, thiamin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium and iron; and lower intake of saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, total carbohydrate, starch, free sugar, sodium and chloride.
TNS consumers report better dietary quality and consumption was associated with lower CVD risk factors. Encouraging replacement of less healthy snacks with TNS should be encouraged as part of general dietary guidelines.