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In a qualitative study of healthcare workers and patients discharged on oral antibiotics, we identified 5 barriers to antibiotic decision making at hospital discharge: clinician perceptions of patient expectations, diagnostic uncertainty, attending physician–led versus multidisciplinary team culture, not accounting for total antibiotic duration, and need for discharge prior to complete data.
A key barrier to translation of biomedical research discoveries is a lack of understanding among scientists regarding the complexity and process of implementation. To address this challenge, the National Science Foundation’s Innovation Corps™ (I-Corps™) program trains researchers in entrepreneurship. We report results from the implementation of an I-Corps™ training program aimed at biomedical scientists from institutions funded by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS).
National/regional instructors delivered 5-week I-Corps@NCATS short courses to 62 teams (150 individuals) across six institutions. Content included customer discovery, value proposition, and validating needs. Teams interviewed real-life customers and presented the value of innovations for specific end-users weekly, culminating in a “Finale” featuring their refined business thesis and business model canvas. Methodology was developed to evaluate the newly adapted program. National mixed-methods evaluation assessed program implementation, reach, effectiveness using observations of training delivery and surveys at Finale (n = 55 teams), and 3–12 months post-training (n = 34 teams).
Innovations related to medical devices (33%), drugs/biologics (20%), software applications (16%), and diagnostics (8%). An average of 24 interviews was conducted. Teams reported increased readiness for commercialization over time (83%, 9 months; 14%, 3 months). Thirty-nine percent met with institutional technology transfer to pursue licensing/patents and 24% pursued venture capital/investor funding following the short courses.
I-Corps@NCATS training provided the NCATS teams a rigorous and repeatable process to aid development of a business model based on customer needs. Outcomes of this pilot program support the expansion of I-Corps™ training to biomedical scientists for accelerating research translation.
The criteria for objective memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are vaguely defined. Aggregating the number of abnormal memory scores (NAMS) is one way to operationalise memory impairment, which we hypothesised would predict progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia.
As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 896 older adults who did not have dementia were administered a psychometric battery including three neuropsychological tests of memory, yielding 10 indices of memory. We calculated the number of memory scores corresponding to z ≤ −1.5 (i.e., NAMS) for each participant. Incident diagnosis of AD dementia was established by consensus of an expert panel after 3 years.
Of the 722 (80.6%) participants who were followed up, 54 (7.5%) developed AD dementia. There was a strong correlation between NAMS and probability of developing AD dementia (r = .91, p = .0003). Each abnormal memory score conferred an additional 9.8% risk of progressing to AD dementia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for NAMS was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) .81–.93, p < .01]. The odds ratio for NAMS was 1.67 (95% CI 1.40–2.01, p < .01) after correcting for age, sex, education, estimated intelligence quotient, subjective memory complaint, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score and apolipoprotein E ϵ4 status.
Aggregation of abnormal memory scores may be a useful way of operationalising objective memory impairment, predicting incident AD dementia and providing prognostic stratification for individuals with MCI.
We investigated the risk factors and origins of the first known occurrence of VRE colonization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Canberra Hospital.
A retrospective case-control study.
A 21-bed neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and a 15-bed special care nursey (SCN) in a tertiary-care adult and pediatric hospital in Australia.
All patients admitted to the NICU and SCN over the outbreak period: January–May 2017. Of these, 14 were colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and 77 were noncolonized.
Demographic and clinical variables of cases and controls were compared to evaluate potential risk factors for VRE colonization. Whole-genome sequencing of the VRE isolates was used to determine the origin of the outbreak strain.
Swift implementation of wide-ranging infection control measures brought the outbreak under control. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a strong association between early gestational age and VRE colonization (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94–7.00). Whole-genome sequencing showed the isolates to be highly clonal Enterococcus faecium ST1421 harboring a vanA gene and to be closely related to other ST1421 previously sequenced from the Canberra Hospital and the Australian Capital Territory.
The colonization of NICU patients was with a highly successful clone endemic to the Canberra Hospital likely introduced into the NICU environment from other wards, with subsequent cross-contamination spreading among the neonate patients. Use of routine surveillance screening may have identified colonization at an earlier stage and have now been implemented on a 6-monthly schedule.
Recognizing public education as a public good, policymakers have focused on providing those with direct interest in public schools opportunities to influence educational policy making. In the nineteenth century, this often meant providing women the right to vote on and to hold public school offices. Frequently conflated, suffrage and public office holding are actually two different, yet related, citizenship rights. Using state and territorial legislative records as a starting place, this article redefines the understanding of school suffrage by complicating the traditional narrative relative to its relationship with full woman suffrage. In doing so, it also provides evidence that before 1900 women were granted the right to hold public education offices, ultimately being elected in forty-three of forty-eight states before the twentieth century, thus broadening the understanding of women’s political agency prior to attaining full suffrage.
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
In his 1916 book, The Measurement of Intelligence, Lewis Terman presented the first version of the Stanford-Binet scale and his testing results for groups of California children. Singling out a few children whose scores fell in the range he categorized as “feeble-minded,” Terman commented:
[They] represent the level of intelligence that is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they came. The fact that one meets this type with such extraordinary frequency among Indians, Mexicans, and negroes suggests quite forcibly that the whole question of racial differences in mental traits will have to be taken up anew and by experimental methods.1
In 1950, the Denver Catholic Register published an article describing and challenging the varieties of “prejudice” that a military pilot moving from base to base in the United States might encounter. To “successfully transact business” in the vicinity of various “metropolitan landing fields,” the writer admonished, the veteran must:
Remember to be not too sanguine about people of Oriental ethnic origin when talking with a merchant in Seattle, that he must speak about the Jew with a slight sneer in Eastern cities, that the Colored person must be “kept in his place” in Houston, that in reservation country the Indian must be treated as a man would treat a child and that in the San Antonio-Los Angeles-Denver triangle it is wiser to remember that the Mexican-American is a second-class citizen.
This study proposes a sampling method for ground-truthing LiDAR-derived data that will allow researchers to verify or predict the accuracy of results over a large area. Our case study is focused on a 24 km2 area centered on the site of Yaxnohcah in the Yucatan Peninsula. This area is characterized by a variety of dense tropical rainforest and wetland vegetation zones with limited road and trail access. Twenty-one 100 x 100 m blocks were selected for study, which included examples of several different vegetation zones. A pedestrian survey of transects through the blocks was conducted, recording two types of errors. Type 1 errors consist of cultural features that are identified in the field, but are not seen in the digital elevation model (DEM) or digital surface model (DSM). Type 2 errors consist of features that appear to be cultural when viewed on the DEM or DSM, but are caused by different vegetative features. Concurrently, we conducted an extensive vegetation survey of each block, identifying major species present and heights of stories. The results demonstrate that the lidar survey data are extremely reliable and a sample can be used to assess data accuracy, fidelity, and confidence over a larger area.
Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (Pfor heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
Neuropathologists constituted a small field in post-war England, perched between neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery and pathology, but recognised as a discrete field of expertise. Despite this recognition, the success of the neighbouring fields of neurosurgery, psychosurgery and neurobiology, and the consultant status granted to pathologists in the National Health Service, neuropathologists struggled to stabilise their field. A discourse of skills, acquired and acquirable, became central to their attempts to situate the field in relation to surgeons’ handicraft, physicians’ diagnostic acumen and the technologies of the biological sciences.
Most cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are sporadic, but outbreaks in hospital settings suggest an infectious cause. Our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experienced an outbreak of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). We aimed to assess whether the enhancement of infection prevention and control measures would be associated with a reduction in the number of cases of NEC.
Retrospective chart review.
A 24-bed, university-affiliated, inborn level 3 NICU.
Infants of less than 30 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1,500 g admitted to the NICU between January 2007 and December 2008 were considered at risk of NEC. All cases of NEC were reviewed.
Infection prevention and control measures, including hand hygiene education, were enhanced during the outbreak. Avoidance of overcapacity in the NICU was reinforced, environmental services (ES) measures were enhanced, and ES hours were increased.
Two hundred eighty-two at-risk infants were admitted during the study. Their gestational age and birth weight (mean ± SD) were 28.2 ± 2.7 weeks and 1,031 ± 290 g, respectively. The proportion of NEC was 18/110 (16.4%) before the outbreak, 1/54 (1.8%) during the outbreak, and 4/118 (3.4%) after the outbreak. After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, gender, and singleton versus multiple births, the proportion was lower in the postoutbreak period than in the preoutbreak period (P< .002).
Although this observational study cannot establish a causal relationship, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of NEC following implementation of enhanced infection prevention and control measures to manage an MSSA outbreak.
To identify risk factors for loss to cardiology follow-up among children and young adults with congenital heart disease.
We used a matched case-control design. Cases were born before January, 2001 with moderate or complex congenital heart disease and were previously followed up in the paediatric or adult cardiology clinic, but not seen for 3 years or longer. Controls had been seen within 3 years. Controls were matched 3:1 to cases by year of birth and congenital heart disease lesion. Medical records were reviewed for potential risk factors for loss to follow-up. A subset of cases and controls participated in recorded telephone interviews.
A total of 74 cases (66% male) were compared with 222 controls (61% male). A history of missed cardiology appointments was predictive of loss to follow-up for 3 years or longer (odds ratio 13.0, 95% confidence interval 3.3–51.7). Variables protective from loss to follow-up were higher family income (odds ratio 0.87 per $10,000 increase, 0.77–0.98), cardiac catheterisation within 5 years (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1–0.6), and chart documentation of the need for cardiology follow-up (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2–0.8). Cases lacked awareness of the importance of follow-up and identified primary care physicians as their primary source of information about the heart, rather than cardiologists. Unlike cases, controls had methods to remember appointments.
A history of one or more missed cardiology appointments predicted loss to follow-up for 3 or more years, as did lack of awareness of the need for follow-up. Higher family income, recent catheterisations, and medical record documentation of the need for follow-up were protective.
Numerous barriers to maintaining infection control practices through the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) exist in the emergency department (ED). This study examined the knowledge, self-reported behaviours, and barriers to compliance with infection control practices and the use of PPE in Canadian pediatric EDs.
A self-administered survey instrument consisting of 21 questions was developed and piloted for this study. The survey was mailed to all individuals listed in the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada database of physicians practicing pediatric emergency medicine in Canada.
A total of 186 physicians were surveyed, and 123 (66%) participated. Twenty-two percent of participants reported that they had never received PPE training and 32% had not been trained in the previous 2 years. Fifty-three percent reported being very or somewhat comfortable with their knowledge of transmission-based isolation practices. Participants were correct on a mean of 4.9 of 11 knowledge-based questions (SD 1.7). For scenarios assessing self-reported use of PPE, participants selected answers that reflected PPE use in accordance with national infection control standards in a mean of 1.0 of 6 scenarios (SD 1.0). Participants reported that they would be more likely to use PPE if patients were clearly identified prior to physician assessment, equipment was accessible, and PPE use was made a priority in their ED.
Knowledge and self-reported adherence to recommended infection control practices among Canadian pediatric emergency physicians is suboptimal. Early identification of patients requiring PPE, convenient access to PPE, and improved education regarding isolation and PPE practices may improve adherence.