To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The study of prosocial behavior has been an active area of research in social psychology that dates back to the beginnings of the last century. (For a review see Penner et al., 2005,) This large body of literature includes a diverse range of phenomena centering around the origins and tendencies of humans helping other humans, including traits such as empathy. In psychology the term “prosocial behavior” is typically used to indicate a behavior that provides benefit to another person. However, this same term, and all that it implies, has been increasingly applied to nonhuman vertebrate animal behavior and the neural mechanisms regulating these behaviors. It is within this latter context that the term prosocial has been used rather loosely with no clear definitions provided.
CHD remains one of the leading causes of mortality of children in the United States. There is limited research about the experience of parents from the diagnosis of their child with CHD through the death of their child. A prior study has shown that adults with heart failure go through a series of four transitions: 1) learning the diagnosis, 2) reframing the new normal, 3) taking control of the illness, and 4) understanding death is inevitable. In our qualitative study, we performed semi-structured interviews with parents who have a child die of CHD to determine whether the four transitions in adults apply to parents of children with CHD. We found that these four transitions were present in the parents we interviewed and that there were two novel transitions, one that proceeded the first Jones et al transition (“Prenatal diagnosis”) and one that occurred after the final Jones et al transition (“Adjustment after death”). It is our hope that identification of these six transitions will help better support families of children with CHD.
Background: Over 35,000 Canadians lose their lives to cardiac arrest each year. CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use are modifiable factors. Survival rates drop by 7-10% each minute that defibrillation is delayed, and survival rates are less than 5% after 12 minutes of ventricular fibrillation which stresses the need for bystander AED use in out-of-hospital arrests. Niagara Region lacks a publicly accessible registry of AEDs. AED access is a major focus in King County, Washington which has higher survival rates and has all AEDs registered with Emergency Medical Services. Aim Statement: This project aims to log 100 or more AEDs within a year into a publicly accessible registry and to connect the registry information to medical trainees in the Niagara region and all employees of the Niagara Health System involved in patient care. Measures & Design: PulsePoint is an application used to register AEDs within the Niagara region. PulsePoint allows users to geotag AEDs while tracking data entries. Over 16 weeks, 4 PDSA cycles tested the effectiveness of logging methods for AEDs including opportunistic logging, daily emailed reminders, and contacting organizations with high likelihood of having an AED. Information about the project and registry was shared with residents and medical students in Niagara. A second phase of cycles involves relaying information to Niagara Health system employees and the medical community. A final cycle will target a broader group of local organizations with intermediate probability of having AEDs. Primary outcome measures include the numbers of regional AEDs logged and members reached by knowledge sharing cycles. Evaluation/Results: PulsePoint was found to be an effective, free, publicly accessible resource to log AEDs within the Niagara region. The initial round of 4 PDSA cycles added a total of 56 new AEDs within the region, which were logged into PulsePoint app and the Excel spreadsheet. Through the fourth PDSA cycle, 136 businesses were contacted and made aware of the project and the AED application. In addition,138 health-related colleagues and medical students were contacted to raise awareness. PDSA cycles five through eight are currently ongoing or in the planning stages. Discussion/Impact: Raising awareness among emergency services and sharing information about the registry to local CPR training providers will be paramount. Creating awareness of PulsePoint and installing AEDs in locations that currently lack such devices could ultimately improve cardiac arrest survival rates within Niagara Region.
This report documents the last pteraspids, (armored, jawless members of the Heterostraci), which are otherwise only known from the Early Devonian of the Old Red Sandstone Continent. Tuberculate pteraspid heterostracans are described from the Middle Devonian beds of two formations in western North America. The late Givetian Yahatinda Formation of Alberta and British Columbia consists of channels cut into lower Paleozoic rocks and represents deposition in marine to littoral environments. Clavulaspis finis (Elliott et al., 2000a) new combination is redescribed from additional material from the Yahatinda Formation and reassigned to the new genus Clavulaspis because the original genus name is invalid. The Eifelian Spring Mountain beds of Idaho consist of a large channel that represents a clastic-dominated estuarine environment. It contains Scutellaspis wilsoni new genus new species, and the previously described species from the Spring Mountain beds is redescribed and reassigned to Ecphymaspis new genus, which was prompted by new material and a review of the validity of the original genus name. Phylogenetic analysis shows that these three new taxa form part of the derived clade Protaspididae.
Background: There are few published reports on the safety and efficacy of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in the presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy. Our objective was to describe institutional experience with pediatric SEEG in terms of (1) insertional complications, (2) identification of the epileptogenic zone and (3) seizure outcome following SEEG-tailored resections. Methods: Retrospective review of 29 patients pediatric drug resistant epilepsy patients who underwent presurgical SEEG between 2005 – 2018. Results: 29 pediatric SEEG patients (15 male; 12.4 ± 4.6 years old) were included in this study with mean follow-up of 6.0 ± 4.1 years. SEEG-related complications occurred in 1/29 (3%)—neurogenic pulmonary edema. A total of 190 multi-contact electrodes (mean of 7.0 ± 2.5per patient) were implanted across 30 insertions which captured 437 electrographic seizures (mean 17.5 ± 27.6 per patient). The most common rationale for SEEG was normal MRI with surface EEG that failed to identify the EZ (16/29; 55%). SEEG-tailored resections were performed in 24/29 (83%). Engel I outcome was achieved following resections in 19/24 cases (79%) with 5.9 ± 4.0 years of post-operative follow-up. Conclusions: Stereoelectroencephalography in presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy is a safe and effective way to identify the epileptogenic zone permitting SEEG-tailored resection.
Background: Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) tractography is commonly used in neurosurgical practice, but is largely limited to the preoperative setting. This is due primarily to image degradation caused by susceptibility artifact when conventional single-shot (SS) echo-planar imaging DTI is acquired for open cranial, surgical position intraoperative DTI (iDTI). A novel, artifact-resistant, readout-segmented (RS) DTI has not yet been evaluated in the intraoperative MRI (iMRI) environment. Our objective was to evaluate the performance of RS-DTI versus SS-DTI for intraoperative white matter imaging. Methods: Pre- and intraoperative 3T, T1-weighted and DTI (RS-iDTI and SS-iDTI) in 22 adults undergoing intraaxial iMRI resections (low-grade glioma: 14, 64%; high-grade glioma: 7, 32%; cortical dysplasia: 1). Regional susceptibility artifact, anatomical deviation relative to T1WI, and tractographic output were compared between iDTI sequences. Results: RS-iDTI resulted in less regional susceptibility artifact and mean anatomic deviation (RS-iDTI: 2.7±0.2 mm versus SS-iDTI 7.5±0.4 mm; p<0.0001). Tractographic failure occurred in 8/22 (36%) patients for SS-iDTI whereas RS-iDTI permitted successful reconstruction in 4 of these 8. Maximal tractographic differences between DTI sequences were substantial (mean 9.7±5.7 mm). Conclusions: Readout-segmented EPI enables higher quality and more accurate DTI for surgically relevant tractography of major white matter tracts in intraoperative, open cranium, neurosurgical applications at 3T.
Introduction: Simulation is becoming widely adopted across medical disciplines and by different medical professionals. For medical students, emergency medicine simulation has been shown to increase knowledge, confidence and satisfaction. At the University of Ottawa Skills and Simulation Centre, third-year medical students participate in simulated scenarios common to Emergency Medicine (EM) as part of their mandatory EM clerkship rotation. This study aims to evaluate simulation as part of the EM clerkship rotation by assessing changes in student confidence following a simulation session. Methods: In groups of seven, third year medical students at the University of Ottawa completed simulation sessions of the following: Status Asthmaticus, Status Epilepticus, Urosepsis and Breaking Bad News. Student confidence with each topic was assessed before and after simulation with a written survey. Confidence scores pre- and post-simulation were compared with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Forty-eight third years medical students in their core EM clerkship rotation, between September 2017 and August 2018 participated in this study. Medical student confidence with diagnosis of status asthmaticus (N = 44, p = 0.0449) and status epilepticus (N = 45, p = 0.0011) increased significantly following simulation, whereas confidence with diagnosis of urosepsis was unchanged (N = 45, p = 0.0871). Treatment confidence increased significantly for status asthmaticus (N = 47, p = 0.0009), status epilepticus (N = 48, p = 0.0005) and urosepsis (N = 48, p < 0.0001). Confidence for breaking bad news was not significantly changed after simulation (N = 47, p = 0.0689). Conclusion: Simulation training in our EM clerkship rotation significantly increased the confidence of medical students for certain common EM presentations, but not for all. Further work will aim to understand why some simulation scenarios did not improve confidence, and look to improve existing scenarios.
Introduction: Learners, ether medical students or residents, often provide the initial assessment of patients visiting the Emergency Department (ED). Their involvement in ED patient care has been shown to increase length of stay, time to disposition decision, utilization of imaging and admission rates. It is unclear, however, if learners have an impact on the rate of short-term unscheduled return visits. The objective of this study was to determine if the involvement of learners in ED visits increases the rate of short-term unscheduled return visits. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of ED visit data at a single tertiary care center over a one-year period. Short-term unscheduled return visits (return visits) were defined as ED visits presenting within 72 hours of discharge from an initial non-admit ED visit and resulting in an admission to an inpatient unit on the second visit. The primary outcome was the rate of return visits for each staff physician, with and without learners involved during the initial visit. The secondary outcome assessed the interaction of level of training (medical student year 3, 4, resident year 1, 2, etc.) on return visit rates. For the primary outcome, statistical analysis was with a Wilcoxon Matched Pairs test; staff alone vs with learners. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare learner level of training. Results: Return visits accounted for 1858 (1.09%) of all visits (N = 172494) to this tertiary care ED over the one-year study period. Return visits were statistically more likely when learners were involved in the initial ED visit (1.16%, CI 0.12), compared to initial visits seen by staff physicians alone (0.88%, CI 0.09) (p < 0.0001). Return rates were statistically higher for PGY2 (1.67% CI 0.35) and PGY3 (1.66% CI 0.28) residents compared to staff physicians alone (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in return visit rates between staff physicians and third year medical students (1.07% CI 0.27), fourth year medical students (1.21% CI 0.37), PGY1 (1.42% CI 0.22), PGY4 (1.23% CI 0.54) or PGY5 (1.33% CI 0.49) residents. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the involvement of learners in ED patient assessments increased the rate of short-term unscheduled return visits. Moreover, return visit rates were highest for PGY2 and PGY3 residents. Further work is needed to understand the factors that contribute to this phenomenon.
Two chondrichthyan assemblages of Late Mississippian/Early Pennsylvanian age are now recognized from the western Grand Canyon of northern Arizona. The latest Serpukhovian Surprise Canyon Formation has yielded thirty-one taxa from teeth and dermal elements, which include members of the Phoebodontiformes, Symmoriiformes, Bransonelliformes, Ctenacanthiformes, Protacrodontoidea, Hybodontiformes, Neoselachii (Anachronistidae), Paraselachii (Gregoriidae, Deeberiidae, Orodontiformes, and Eugeneodontiformes), Petalodontiformes, and Holocephali. The euselachian grade taxa are remarkably diverse with four new taxa recognized here; the Protacrodontidae: Microklomax carrieae new genus new species and Novaculodus billingsleyi new genus new species, and the Anchronistidae: Cooleyella platera new species and Amaradontus santucii new genus new species The Surprise Canyon assemblage also has the youngest occurrence of the elasmobranch Clairina, previously only known from the Upper Devonian. The Surprise Canyon Formation represents a nearshore fluvial infilling of karstic channels, followed by a shallow marine bioherm reef, and finally deeper open water deposition. The early Bashkirian Watahomigi Formation represents open marine deposition and contains only two taxa: a new xenacanthiform, Hokomata parva new genus new species, and the holocephalan Deltodus. The relationship between the Surprise Canyon and Watahomigi chondrichthyan assemblages and other significant coeval chondrichthyan assemblages suggests that there may have been eastern and western distinctions among the Euamerican assemblages during the Serpukhovian due to geographic separation by the formation of Pangea.
The Arizona Department of Health Services identified unusually high levels of influenza activity and severe complications during the 2015–2016 influenza season leading to concerns about potential increased disease severity compared with prior seasons. We estimated state-level burden and severity to compare across three seasons using multiple data sources for community-level illness, hospitalisation and death. Severity ratios were calculated as the number of hospitalisations or deaths per community case. Community influenza-like illness rates, hospitalisation rates and mortality rates in 2015–2016 were higher than the previous two seasons. However, ratios of severe disease to community illness were similar. Arizona experienced overall increased disease burden in 2015–2016, but not increased severity compared with prior seasons. Timely estimates of state-specific burden and severity are potentially feasible and may provide important information during seemingly unusual influenza seasons or pandemic situations.
Background: Neurosurgical residents face a unique combination of challenges, including long duty hours, technically challenging cases, and uncertain employment prospects. We sought to assess the demographics, interests, career goals, self-rated happiness, and overall well-being of Canadian neurosurgery residents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was developed and sent through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative to every resident enrolled in a Canadian neurosurgery program as of April 1, 2016. Results: We analyzed 76 completed surveys of 146 eligible residents (52% response rate). The median age was 29 years, with 76% of respondents being males. The most popular subspecialties of interest for fellowship were spine, oncology, and open vascular neurosurgery. The most frequent self-reported number of worked hours per week was the 80- to 89-hour range. The majority of respondents reported a high level of happiness as well as stress. Sense of accomplishment and fatigue were reported as average to high and overall quality of life was low for 19%, average for 49%, and high for 32%. Satisfaction with work-life balance was average for 44% of respondents and was the only tested domain in which significant dissatisfaction was identified (18%). Overall, respondents were highly satisfied with their choice of specialty, choice of program, surgical exposure, and work environment; however, intimidation was reported in 36% of respondents and depression by 17%. Conclusions: Despite a challenging residency and high workload, the majority of Canadian neurosurgery residents are happy and satisfied with their choice of specialty and program. However, work-life balance, employability, resident intimidation, and depression were identified as areas of active concern.
Background: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) is a surgical option in well-selected cases of pediatric medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The objective of this study was to compare the surgical outcome and the rate of reoperation for ongoing or recurrent seizures between SAH and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in pediatric TLE. Methods: Retrospective review of 78 pediatric intractable TLE patients referred to the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at our institution between 1988 and 2015 treated initially with either a trans-middle temporal gyrus SAH (19) or ATL (59). Patients underwent baseline long-term video electroencephalography and 1.5-Tesla MRI. Neuropsychological testing was performed preoperatively and 12-months postoperatively (including reoperations). Results: The mean follow-up was 64 months (range, 12-186 months). The average age at initial surgery was 10.6±5 years with an average delay of 5.7±4 years between seizure onset and surgery. Ultimately 78% were seizure-free (61/78) at most recent follow-up. Seizure freedom after initial surgical treatment was achieved in 81% of patients who underwent ATL (48 patients) versus 42% in SAH (8 patients; p<0.001). Of patients with ongoing disabling seizures following SAH, reoperation (ATL) was offered in 8 resulting in seizure freedom in 63%, without interval neuropsychological decline. Conclusions: SAH amongst well-selected pediatric TLE results in significantly worse seizure control compared with ATL.
Negative bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression but findings in healthy high-risk groups are conflicting.
Healthy middle-aged dizygotic twins (N = 42) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): 22 twins had a co-twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping.
Unexpectedly, high-risk twins showed reduced fear vigilance and lower recognition of fear and happiness relative to low-risk twins. During face processing in the scanner, high-risk twins displayed distinct negative functional coupling between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex and pregenual anterior cingulate. This was accompanied by greater fear-specific fronto-temporal response and reduced fronto-occipital response to all emotional faces relative to baseline. The risk groups showed no differences in mood, subjective state or coping.
Less susceptibility to fearful faces and negative cortico-limbic coupling during emotional face processing may reflect neurocognitive compensatory mechanisms in middle-aged dizygotic twins who remain healthy despite their familial risk of depression.
Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Methods: Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Results: Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. Conclusions: This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.
A high proportion of patients with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD) will experience recurring episodes, whilst some develop resilience and remain in recovery. The neural basis of resilience to recurrence is elusive. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC) was previously found in cross-sectional studies of MDD, suggesting its potential pathophysiological importance. The current study aimed to investigate whether resting-state connectivity to a left sgACC seed region distinguishes resilient patients from those developing recurring episodes.
A total of 47 medication-free remitted MDD patients and 38 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline. Over 14 months, 30 patients remained resilient whilst 17 experienced a recurring episode.
Attenuated interhemispheric left-to-right sgACC connectivity distinguished the resilient from the recurring-episode and control groups and was not correlated with residual depressive symptoms.
The current study revealed a neural signature of resilience to recurrence in MDD and thereby elucidates the role of compensatory adaptation in sgACC networks.
Three new species of the new genus Phyllonaspis are described from Early Devonian localities in the western United States. Phyllonaspis laevis, P. serratus, and P. taphensis are broad, flattened cyathaspids with lateral brims and fine dermal ornament, that show a close relationship to the cyathaspids Boothiaspis and Alainaspis from the late Silurian and Early Devonian of the Canadian Arctic. These taxa are here accommodated within the new subfamily Boothiaspidinae within the family Cyathaspididae. This relationship supports previous evidence of faunal connection between these two areas and indicates dispersal around the Old Red Sandstone Continent from a center in the Canadian Arctic. Isolated oral plates allow a reconstruction of the oral cover and increase our knowledge of the range of oral structures in this family.