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Schizophrenia has been primarily conceptualized as a disorder of high-order cognitive functions with deficits in executive brain regions. Yet due to the increasing reports of early sensory processing deficit, recent models focus more on the developmental effects of impaired sensory process on high-order functions. The present study examined whether this pathological interaction relates to an overarching system-level imbalance, specifically a disruption in macroscale hierarchy affecting integration and segregation of unimodal and transmodal networks.
We applied a novel combination of connectome gradient and stepwise connectivity analysis to resting-state fMRI to characterize the sensorimotor-to-transmodal cortical hierarchy organization (96 patients v. 122 controls).
We demonstrated compression of the cortical hierarchy organization in schizophrenia, with a prominent compression from the sensorimotor region and a less prominent compression from the frontal−parietal region, resulting in a diminished separation between sensory and fronto-parietal cognitive systems. Further analyses suggested reduced differentiation related to atypical functional connectome transition from unimodal to transmodal brain areas. Specifically, we found hypo-connectivity within unimodal regions and hyper-connectivity between unimodal regions and fronto-parietal and ventral attention regions along the classical sensation-to-cognition continuum (voxel-level corrected, p < 0.05).
The compression of cortical hierarchy organization represents a novel and integrative system-level substrate underlying the pathological interaction of early sensory and cognitive function in schizophrenia. This abnormal cortical hierarchy organization suggests cascading impairments from the disruption of the somatosensory−motor system and inefficient integration of bottom-up sensory information with attentional demands and executive control processes partially account for high-level cognitive deficits characteristic of schizophrenia.
In order to improve the working performance of the lower limb rehabilitation robot and the safety of the trained object, the mechanical characteristics of a cable-driven lower limb rehabilitation robot (CDLR) are studied. The dynamic model of the designed CDLR was established. Four kinds of cable tension optimization algorithms were proposed to obtain a good rehabilitation training effect, and the quality of the feasible workspace of the CDLR was analyzed. Finally, a real-time evaluation index of the cable tension optimization algorithms was given to measure the calculation speed of the optimization algorithms. The numerical research results were provided to confirm the characteristics of the four kinds of the optimization algorithms. The research results provide a basis for the follow-up research on the safety and compliance control strategy of the CDLR system.
NaY zeolite was synthesized from kaolin/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intercalation composites using an in situ crystallization technique. The effects of the intercalation ratios and the amounts of the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite on the synthesis of an NaY zeolite molecular sieve were studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, N2 adsorption–desorption and scanning electron microscopy. In the in situ synthesis system, when the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was added, pure NaY zeolite was formed. By increasing the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity of the samples increased, and after reaching the maximum amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity decreased with further increases of the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added. To higher intercalation ratio, the crystallinity can be greatly improved at the lower addition content. At an intercalation ratio of 84%, the added amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was 2.5% and the crystallinity of the NaY zeolite molecular sieve reached a maximum value of 45%. At intercalation ratios of 55% and 22%, the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added was 15% and the crystallinities of the NaY zeolite molecular sieves were 44% and 47%, respectively. The NaY zeolite has good thermal stability and a particle diameter of ~0.5 μm. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore volume of the sample were 519 m2 g–1 and 0.355 cm3 g–1, respectively.
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is one of the most dynamic components of the global climate system. Although poorly understood, knowledge of long-term spatial differences in EAWM variability during the glacial–interglacial cycles is important for understanding the dynamic processes of the EAWM. We reconstructed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the EAWM since the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a comparison of proxy records and long-term transient simulations. A loess grain-size record from northern China (a sensitive EAWM proxy) and the sea surface temperature gradient of an EAWM index in sediments of the southern South China Sea were compared. The data–model comparison indicates pronounced spatial differences in EAWM evolution, with a weakened EAWM since the LGM in northern China but a strengthened EAWM from the LGM to the early Holocene, followed by a weakening trend, in southern China. The model results suggest that variations in the EAWM in northern China were driven mainly by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, whereas orbital insolation and ice sheets were important drivers in southern China. We propose that the relative importance of insolation, ice sheets, and atmospheric CO2 for EAWM evolution varied spatially within East Asia.
In the present paper, the authors investigated the microstructures and mechanical properties of dual-phase Co–Ti–V-based superalloys with different additions of Ru. The results showed that with the increase of Ru contents, the size of γ′ precipitates of the alloy gradually raised, the volume fraction of γ′ phase slightly, and the lattice misfit between γ/γ′ phases increased. Ru was enriched in the γ′ phase, and the elemental partition coefficients (KX = Cγ′/Cγ) of Ti and V increased with the increment of Ru. The Ru contents have no remarkable influence on the solvus temperatures of γ′ in the Co–Ti–V alloys. The yield strength at 1000 °C of the Co–10Ti–11V–0.5Ru alloy was the highest, while the yield strength of the 1Ru alloy was the smallest. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the γ′ shape in the compressed specimen containing 0.5Ru remain integrated, while the γ′ in other alloys were cut into several parts.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary fully oxidised β-carotene (OxBC, C40H60O15) supplementation during the perinatal period on immune status and productivity in a sow model. At day 85 of pregnancy, 150 sows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments with fifty sows per treatment. The three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 4 or 8 mg/kg OxBC in the basal diet. The feeding trial was conducted from gestation day 85 until day 21 of lactation. Dietary OxBC supplementation greatly enhanced colostrum IgM, IgA and IgG levels, and the IgM and IgG content of 14-d milk. Dietary OxBC supplementation decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 levels in colostrum, as well as the TNF-α and IL-18 levels in 14-d milk. There was also a tendency towards an increase in the soluble CD14 level in 14-d milk. Although dietary treatments did not affect average daily feed intake nor backfat thickness loss during lactation, dietary OxBC supplementation tended to enhance litter weight and individual piglet weight at weaning. There was a trend towards increased lactose concentration in 14-d milk with increasing dietary OxBC. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with OxBC during the perinatal period enhances the lactose concentration of sow milk and the immune status of sows, which is reflected by improved cytokine status and immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk, and thus tending to increase litter weight and individual piglet weight at weaning. The results also provide a scientific nutritional reference for perinatal mothers due to the biological similarity between pigs and humans.
Aggressive behaviour is common in animals and typically has lifetime consequences. As younger males have higher residual reproductive value than older males and lose more from injuries than older males do, the propensity for fighting tends to increase with age in many empirical reports and species. However, fighting patterns in those empirical reports cannot confirm the hypothesis that individuals cannot readily inflict injuries on their opponents. To address this shortcoming, a parasitoid wasp species, Anastatus disparis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), was used as an experimental model to explore the characteristics of aggression from a life-history perspective; this wasp exhibits extreme fighting, resulting in contestants experiencing injury and death. Results showed that the energetic costs of fighting to injury significantly shortened life and caused the loss of most mating ability. Inconsistent with general predictions, the frequency and intensity of fighting in A. disparis significantly decreased with male age. Further study results showed significantly more young males were received by and successfully mated with virgin females, and most genes related to energy metabolism were downregulated in aged males. Our study provided supporting evidence that young A. disparis males show more aggression likely because of their resource holding potential and sexual attractiveness decline with age.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to over 213 countries and territories. We sought to describe the clinical features of fatalities in patients with severe COVID-19.
We conducted an Internet-based retrospective cohort study through retrieving the clinical information of 100 COVID-19 deaths from nonduplicating incidental reports in Chinese provincial and other governmental websites between January 23 and March 10, 2020.
Approximately 6 of 10 COVID-19 deaths were males (64.0%). The average age was 70.7 ± 13.5 y, and 84% of patients were elderly (over age 60 y). The mean duration from admission to diagnosis was 2.2 ± 3.8 d (median: 1 d). The mean duration from diagnosis to death was 9.9 ± 7.0 d (median: 9 d). Approximately 3 of 4 cases (76.0%) were complicated by 1 or more chronic diseases, including hypertension (41.0%), diabetes (29.0%) and coronary heart disease (27.0%), respiratory disorders (23.0%), and cerebrovascular disease (12.0%). Fever (46.0%), cough (33.0%), and shortness of breath (9.0%) were the most common first symptoms. Multiple organ failure (67.9%), circulatory failure (20.2%), and respiratory failure (11.9%) are the top 3 direct causes of death.
COVID-19 deaths are mainly elderly and patients with chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Multiple organ failure is the most common direct cause of death.
We aimed to investigate the associations between school-level characteristics and obesity among Chinese primary school children with consideration of individual-level characteristics.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015/2016. School-level characteristics were assessed using an interviewer-administered school questionnaire, and a ‘school-based obesity prevention index’ was further developed. Individual-level characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Objectively measured height and weight of students were collected, and obesity status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria for Asian children. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the associations among the school- and individual-level characteristics and obesity of students.
Thirty-seven primary schools from an urban and a rural district of Beijing, China.
School staffs, 2201 students and their parents.
The school-based obesity prevention index involved the number of health professionals, availability of students’ health records, monitoring students’ nutrition status, frequency of health education activities, reporting achievements of obesity prevention activities to parents, duration of physical activity during school time and availability of playground equipment. The prevalence of obesity was lower in schools with the higher index value compared with that in schools with the lower index value (OR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·40, 0·79). Some individual-level characteristics were negatively associated with childhood obesity: liking sports, duration of screen time ≤2 h/d, perceived lower eating speed, parental non-overweight/obesity.
Irrespective of individual-level characteristics, the specific school-level characteristics had a cumulative effect on obesity among Chinese primary school children. Further school-based obesity intervention should consider these characteristics simultaneously.
Drug use disorders are an important issue worldwide. Systematic attempts to estimate the global incidence of drug use disorders are rare. We aimed to determine the incidence of drug use disorders and their trends.
We obtained the annual incident cases and age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of drug use disorders from 1990 to 2017 using the Global Health Data Exchange query tool. The estimated annual percentage changes of the ASR were used to quantify and evaluate the trends in the incidence rate. Gaussian process regression and the Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to assess the relationship between the ASR and socio-demographic index (SDI).
The number of drug use disorders’ cases increased by 33.5% from 1990 to 2017 globally, whereas the ASR exhibited a stable trend. The ASR was higher in men than in women. Most cases (53.1%) of drug use disorders involved opioid. A positive association (ρ=0.35, p < 0.001) was found between ASR and SDI. Teenagers aged 15–19 years had the highest incidence rate.
The incident cases of drug use disorders were increasing, but the incidence rate did not change significantly from 1990 to 2017. Current preventive measures and policies for drug use disorders might have little effect. The present results suggest that future strategies should focus on men, teenagers and high-risk regions in order to improve the current status of drug use disorders.
General overnutrition, and a diet rich in fat and sugar are among the key risk factors for the development of metabolic diseases including diabetes type 2 and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). While being among the most commonly consumed oils world-wide, the effects of soybean oil on the development of metabolic diseases are yet not understood. Indeed, existing data is in part contradictory. Based on this background, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of soybean oil consumption on the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more progressed stage of NAFLD, and insulin resistance.
Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a liquid standard control diet (C) or a liquid fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC, 25E% butterfat, 50% (wt/wt) fructose, 0.155% (wt/wt) cholesterol) or a FFC supplemented with soybean oil (FFC + S, 21E% butterfat + 4E% soy oil), with FFC and FFC + S-fed groups being pair fed for 13 weeks to induce steatohepatitis. After 7 and 12 weeks of feeding, a glucose tolerance test was performed. Indicators of liver damage, inflammation, intestinal barrier function and markers of insulin signaling cascade were measured in intestinal, liver and muscle tissue.
As expected FFC-fed mice developed early signs of NASH and insulin resistance. Despite similar caloric intake and body weight gain, development of NASH and insulin resistance were significantly attenuated in FFC + S-fed mice when compared to FFC-fed animals. Indeed, signs of hepatic inflammation e.g. number of inflammatory foci and neutrophils as well as activity of transaminase in plasma were almost at the level of control in FFC + S-fed mice. Prevalence of macrovesicular steatosis being the predominant type of fat accumulation found in FFC-fed animals was also markedly lower in FFC + S-fed mice. Furthermore, while in muscle and liver tissue of FFC-fed mice insulin receptors mRNA expression was significantly different from C-fed animals, insulin receptors expression in FFC + S-fed mice was almost at the level of controls. The protective effects of soybean oil supplementation on the development of metabolic alterations were associated with a protection against the induction of TLR4 mRNA expression and dependent signaling molecules in liver tissue.
Taking together, our results indicate that supplementation with soybean oil may attenuate the development of diet-induced NASH and insulin resistance in mice and that this may be related to alteration of TLR4-dependent signaling cascade in liver tissue. (Funded in parts by UFOP e.V.)
A nanoparticle-based drug delivery system is first established by mesoporous silica encapsulating amino acid–intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) to construct nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS. The amino acids including phenylalanine (Phe) and histidine (His) with aromatic groups are intercalated into LDH as the cores Phe-LDH and His-LDH. These nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS display multispaces of the interlayer spaces of LDH and porous channels of mesoporous silica to load drugs. Moreover, amino acid molecules provide the interaction sites to improve effectively loading amounts of drugs. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as the cargo molecules to observe the delivery in vitro. The results indicate that the maximum loading amounts of drugs are up to 392 mg/g at 60 °C for 12 h in the nanocomposite Phe-LDH@MS. All the nanocomposites exhibit the sustained release of 5-FU at pH 4 and pH 7.4. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model is used to fit the kinetic plot of the drug release in vitro, which concludes that 5-FU release from AA-LDH@MS belongs to Fickian diffusion.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Cellulitis is a common infection of the skin and soft tissue. Susceptibility to cellulitis is related to microorganism virulence, the host immunity status and environmental factors. This retrospective study from 2001 to 2013 investigated relationships between the monthly incidence rate of cellulitis and meteorological factors using data from the Taiwanese Health Insurance Dataset and the Taiwanese Central Weather Bureau. Meteorological data included temperature, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, total rainfall and total number of rainy days. In otal, 195 841 patients were diagnosed with cellulitis and the incidence rate was strongly correlated with temperature (γS = 0.84, P < 0.001), total sunshine hours (γS = 0.65, P < 0.001) and total rainfall (γS = 0.53, P < 0.001). The incidence rate of cellulitis increased by 3.47/100 000 cases for every 1° elevation in environmental temperature. Our results may assist clinicians in educating the public of the increased risk of cellulitis during warm seasons and possible predisposing environmental factors for infection.
Propofol is a intravenous anaesthetic most commonly used in ultrasound oocyte retrieval. We studied if the use of propofol had an effect on mouse oocyte maturation, pregnancy, childbirth and progeny and investigated the correlation between propofol side effects and reproductive performance in mice. There was no statistical difference in mating, pregnancy, childbirth, litter size, the number of stillbirths and survival between each group (P>0.05). Propofol also had no effect on polar body extrusion in oocyte maturation as well as on pronucleus formation and, subsequently, early embryo development (P>0.05). An increased concentration of propofol had no effect on this result, although propofol at more than 0.01 mg/ml reduced polar body extrusion. Different concentrations of propofol had no effect on oocyte culture in vitro, pronucleus formation and early embryo development.
Introduction: To investigate the effects of paroxetine (PAR) on motor and cognitive function recovery in patients with non-depressed ischemic stroke (nD-AIS).
Methods: One hundred sixty-seven patients hospitalized for non-depressed acute ischemic stroke were selected and divided into treatment (T) and control (C) groups using a random number table. All patients received conventional secondary ischemic stroke prevention and rehabilitation training; patients in Group T additionally received treatment with PAR (10 mg/day during week 1 and 20 mg/day thereafter) for 3 months. The follow-up observation lasted 6 months. The Fugl–Meyer motor scale (FMMS), Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) were used on D0, D15, D90, and D180 (T0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively; D180 = 90 days after treatment cessation) after study initiation, and scores were compared between the groups.
Results: The FMMS and MoCA scores differed significantly between Groups T and C at T2 and T3 (p < .05); by contrast, these scores did not differ significantly between the groups at T1 (p > .05). Furthermore, the HAMD scores differed significantly between the two groups at T3 (p < .05), but not at T1 and T2 (p > .05).
Conclusions: PAR treatment may improve motor and cognitive function recovery in patients with nD-AIS. Moreover, PAR may reduce the occurrence of depression after stroke.