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Sustainable energy economics in Latin America has become relevant due to the region’s dependence on the oil market and the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic review of the ten major economies in the region based on gross domestic product is conducted. We primarily analyze production performance of hydro, wind, and solar energies, in terms of total gigawatt hours produced, current participation levels in energy matrices, and total installed capacity. Current and future trends and legal frameworks for each technology and country are discussed. Our analyses indicate that Latin America and the Caribbean can potentially increase the usage of renewable energy sources given a plethora of natural resources, favorable geographical and climatic conditions, and existing large-scale hydro installations to counteract the inconsistency of wind and solar projects. Therefore, governments in the region must overhaul sustainable policies to increase awareness and reduce energy dependence on foreign powers.
Cognitive decline is common in the old age, but some evidence suggests it may already occur during adulthood. Previous studies have linked age, gender, educational attainment, depression, physical activity, and social engagement to better cognitive performance over time. However, most studies have used global measures of cognition, which could mask subtle changes in specific cognitive domains. The aim of this study is to examine trajectories of recent and delayed memory recall from a variable-centered perspective, in order to elucidate the impact of age, gender, educational attainment, depression, physical activity, and social engagement on recent and delayed memory both at initial time and across a 10-year period.
Design and participants:
The sample was formed by 56,616 adults and older adults that participated in waves 4 to 8 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).
We used latent growth modeling to establish latent recent and delayed memory trajectories, and then tested the effects of the aforementioned covariates on the latent intercept and slopes.
Results showed that both recent and delayed recall display a quadratic trajectory of decline. All covariates significantly explained initial levels of immediate and delayed recall, but only a few had statistically significant effects on the slope terms.
We discuss differences between present results and those previously reported in studies using a person-centered approach. This study provides evidence of memory decline during adulthood and old adulthood. Further, results provide support for the neural compensation reserve theory.
‘Beckett lo pone en inglés de la mejor manera posible’ (‘Beckett puts it into English in the best possible way’).2 This rare comment on Samuel Beckett’s translation of An Anthology of Mexican Poetry, compiled by Octavio Paz and published by Indiana University Press in 1958, is notable because it comes from a Mexican poet, José Emilio Pacheco, recipient of the Cervantes Prize in 2009 and himself a translator of Beckett into Spanish.3 The volume of poems translated by Beckett has elicited very little response from Mexican critics in the more than sixty years since it was published. Yet it is indeed pertinent to recall Pacheco’s judgement here in that it offers the opinion of an accomplished poet with a vast knowledge of the original tradition to which the poems belong, a view from the other side of the language spectrum, so to speak.4
The hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and its population has declined by over 80% in the last century. The Eastern Pacific population is one of the most threatened hawksbill populations globally. Western Mexico is the northern distribution limit for hawksbill sea turtles in the Eastern Pacific and recent research indicates that the Mexican Pacific portion of the population is a separate management unit because of the restricted movements of these turtles. Here we use the most complete database of sighting records in the north-west Pacific of Mexico to identify sites where hawksbill turtles are present. We also develop a conservation index to determine the conservation status of hawksbill turtle sites. Our results demonstrate the importance of this region for juveniles and the relevance of rocky reefs and mangrove estuaries as habitats for hawksbill turtles. We identified 52 sites with records of hawksbill turtles. Most of these sites (71%) are not protected; however, sites with high conservation value included islands and coastal sites along the Baja California peninsula that are established as marine protected areas. Reefs and mangrove estuaries relevant for hawksbill turtles are probably also significant fish nursery areas that are important for local fishing communities, creating opportunities for conservation strategies that combine science, local engagement and policy to benefit both local fishing communities and hawksbill sea turtle conservation.