To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Long-term care facility (LTCF) employees pose potential risk for COVID-19 outbreaks. Association between employee infection prevention (IP) adherence with facility COVID-19 outbreaks remains a knowledge gap. Methods: From April through December 2020, prior to COVID-19 vaccination, we tested asymptomatic Veterans’ Affairs (VA) community living center (CLC) residents twice weekly and employees monthly, which increased to weekly with known exposure, for SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal PCR. Employees voluntarily completed multiple choice questionnaires assessing self-reported IP adherence at and outside work. Surveys were longitudinally administered in April, June, July, and October 2020. Changes in paired employee responses for each period were analyzed using the McNemar test. We obtained COVID-19 community rates from surrounding Davidson and Rutherford counties from the Tennessee Department of Health public data set. CLC resident COVID-19 cases were obtained from VA IP data. Incidence rate and number of positive tests were calculated. Results: Between April and December 2020, 444 employees completed at least 1 survey; 177 completed surveys in both April and June, 179 completed surveys in both June and July, and 140 completed surveys in both July and October (Fig. 1). Across periods, employee surveys demonstrated an increase in masking at work and outside work between April and June (63% to 95% [P < .01] and 36% to 63% [P < .01], respectively), and June to July (95% to 99% [P < .05] and 71% to 84% [P < .01], respectively) that were both maintained between July and October (Fig. 2). Distancing at work and limiting social contacts outside work significantly decreased from April to June but increased in subsequent periods, although not significantly. COVID-19 community incidence peaked in July and again in December, but CLC resident COVID-19 cases peaked in August, declined, and remained low through December (Fig. 3). Discussion: Wearing a mask at work, which was mandatory, increased, and voluntary employee masking outside work also increased. CLC COVID-19 cases mirrored community increases in July and August; however, community cases increased again later in 2020 while CLC cases remained low. Employees reporting distancing at work and limiting social contacts outside work decreased preceding the initial rise in CLC cases but increased and remained high after July. Conclusions: These data from the pre–COVID-19 vaccination era suggest that widespread, increased support for and emphasis on LTCF IP adherence, especially masking, may have effectively prevented COVID-19 outbreaks in the vulnerable LTCF population.
The Trial Innovation Network has established an infrastructure for single IRB review in response to federal policies. The Network’s single IRB (sIRBs) have successfully supported over 70 multisite studies via more than 800 reliance arrangements. This has generated several lessons learned that can benefit the national clinical research enterprise, as we work to improve the conduct of clinical trials. These lessons include distinguishing the roles of the single IRB from institutional Human Research Protections programs, establishing a consistent sIRB review model, standardizing collection of local context and supplemental, study-specific information, and educating and empowering lead study teams to support their sites.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder with complex etiology, with a significant portion of disease risk imparted by genetics. Traditional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) produce principal evidence for the association of genetic variants with disease. Transcriptomic imputation (TI) allows for the translation of those variants into regulatory mechanisms, which can then be used to assess the functional outcome of genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in a broader setting through the use of phenome-wide association studies (pheWASs) in large and diverse clinical biobank populations with electronic health record phenotypes.
Here, we applied TI using S-PrediXcan to translate the most recent PGC-ED AN GWAS findings into AN-GReX. For significant genes, we imputed AN-GReX in the Mount Sinai BioMe™ Biobank and performed pheWASs on over 2000 outcomes to test the clinical consequences of aberrant expression of these genes. We performed a secondary analysis to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) and sex on AN-GReX clinical associations.
Our S-PrediXcan analysis identified 53 genes associated with AN, including what is, to our knowledge, the first-genetic association of AN with the major histocompatibility complex. AN-GReX was associated with autoimmune, metabolic, and gastrointestinal diagnoses in our biobank cohort, as well as measures of cholesterol, medications, substance use, and pain. Additionally, our analyses showed moderation of AN-GReX associations with measures of cholesterol and substance use by BMI, and moderation of AN-GReX associations with celiac disease by sex.
Our BMI-stratified results provide potential avenues of functional mechanism for AN-genes to investigate further.
To evaluate the fatty acid profiles and relevant vitamin and mineral compositions of margarine/margarine-like products and butter blend products available in the US marketplace and to compare with butter.
Analysis of the food and nutrient composition information available for margarine/margarine-like products, butter blend products and butter in the 2021 version of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) Food and Nutrient Database.
The US retail food marketplace in 2020.
A selection of eighty-three margarine/margarine-like or butter blend products available in the USA in 2020 and regular and whipped butter (both salted and unsalted).
All products contained no or negligible amounts of trans fat. Mean daily values (DV) for SFA per 1 tablespoon ranged from 11 % for margarine/margarine-like tub and squeeze products to 18 % for margarine/margarine-like stick products and butter blend products. In contrast, one tablespoon butter provides 36 % of the DV for SFA. Results from ANOVA comparing the percent of total fat from SFA, PUFA and MUFA by product type indicated significant differences for SFA (P < 0·01) and PUFA (P < 0·01), but not MUFA (P = 0·07).
Leading brands of margarine/margarine-like and butter blend products examined in this study were found to be in greater alignment with current dietary recommendations for fatty acids and cholesterol than butter. Margarine/margarine-like tub and squeeze products were found to be optimal over margarine/margarine-like stick products and butter blend products. Future research should include an examination of private label products.
Increased frequency and occurrence of herbicide-resistant biotypes heightens the need for alternative wild oat management strategies. This study aimed to exploit the height differential between wild oat and crops by targeting wild oat between panicle emergence and seed shed timing. Two field studies were conducted either in Lacombe, AB, or Lacombe, AB and Saskatoon, SK, from 2015 to 2017. In the first study, we compared panicle removal methods: hand clipping, use of a hedge trimmer, and a selective herbicide crop topping application to a weedy check and an industry standard in-crop herbicide application in wheat. These treatments were tested early (at panicle emergence), late (at initiation of seed shed), or in combination at one location over 3 yr. In the second study, we investigated optimal timing of panicle removal via a hedge trimmer with weekly removals in comparison to a weedy check in wheat and lentil. This study was conducted at two locations, Lacombe, AB, and Saskatoon, SK, over 3 yr. Among all the tested methods, the early crop topping treatment consistently had the largest impact on wild oat density, dockage, seedbank, and subsequent year crop yield. The early (at panicle emergence) or combination of early and late (at initiation of seed shed) treatments tended to reduce wild oat populations the following season the most compared to the late treatments. Subsequent wild oat populations were not influenced by panicle removal timing, but only by crop and location interactions. Panicle removal timing did significantly affect wild oat dockage in the year of treatment, but no consistent optimal timing could be identified. However, the two studies together highlight additional questions to be investigated, as well as the opportunity to manage wild oat seedbank inputs at the panicle emergence stage of the wild oat lifecycle.
To prioritise and refine a set of evidence-informed statements into advice messages to promote vegetable liking in early childhood, and to determine applicability for dissemination of advice to relevant audiences.
A nominal group technique (NGT) workshop and a Delphi survey were conducted to prioritise and achieve consensus (≥70 % agreement) on thirty evidence-informed maternal (perinatal and lactation stage), infant (complementary feeding stage) and early years (family diet stage) vegetable-related advice messages. Messages were validated via triangulation analysis against the strength of evidence from an Umbrella review of strategies to increase children’s vegetable liking, and gaps in advice from a Desktop review of vegetable feeding advice.
A purposeful sample of key stakeholders (NGT workshop, n 8 experts; Delphi survey, n 23 end users).
Participant consensus identified the most highly ranked priority messages associated with the strategies of: ‘in-utero exposure’ (perinatal and lactation, n 56 points) and ‘vegetable variety’ (complementary feeding, n 97 points; family diet, n 139 points). Triangulation revealed two strategies (‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’) and their associated advice messages suitable for policy and practice, twelve for research and four for food industry.
Supported by national and state feeding guideline documents and resources, the advice messages relating to ‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’ to increase vegetable liking can be communicated to families and caregivers by healthcare practitioners. The food industry provides a vehicle for advice promotion and product development. Further research, where stronger evidence is needed, could further inform strategies for policy and practice, and food industry application.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Mobile app may help improve the depression symptoms among underserved patients OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Depression is one of most common mental health conditions and the leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting about one in 10 adults in the US. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that affect feasibility of incorporating mobile app self-management tools for depression in integrated primary care settings. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study of depressed patients at two primary care clinics in a Midwest academic medical center. Adult patients (≥19 years) who had an active or previous diagnosis of depression were included in the study. A self-administered survey collected information pertaining to demographics, smartphone ownership, data plan type, smartphone application usage, mobile app self-management interest, health literacy, and patient activation. Chi-square analysis was conducted to compare the patient demographic characteristics, the smartphone ownership, phone plan, smartphone use for health information between two clinics. Multinominal logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the patient activation and patient characteristics. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Over 80% of patients owned a smartphone, 80.5% were willing to use data for depression management, and 68.9% believe an app can help in depression management. A higher literacy level was significantly associated with higher level of patient activation (Chi-square=8.5453; p=0.0360). These results suggest that planning interventions that use mobile apps within this patient population is likely feasible and the intended underserved patients at these clinics have an interest in using depression related apps which is similar to findings found by other studies exploring app interest. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Understanding patient activation levels within a given population can help to shape corresponding needs. The use of depression related self-management mobile apps will likely require the development of educational materials to facilitate patient use and engagement which means understanding the literacy needs of this population as well.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To characterize the oncogenic potential of HNSCC cell lines harboring 17 non-canonical PIK3CA mutations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Non-canonical PIK3CA mutant constructs generated via site-directed mutagenesis are subcloned into doxycycline-inducible vector pLVX-Puro. Serum-dependent HNSCC cell line (PCI-52-SD1) is then stably transfected with vectors and undergo doxycycline-induction. Cell survival is determined by depriving cells of fetal bovine serum for 72 hours and quantifying remaining cells with 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Cell proliferation and migration is evaluated with colony formation assays and transwell assays respectively. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date, the survival behavior of eight non-canonical mutants was assessed. Three mutants – Q75E, V71I, and E970K – exhibited 18.7-26.7% greater survival rate relative to cells transfected with wild-type. Five mutants – R519G, Y606C, W328S, C905S, and M1040I – demonstrated survival rates that differed only by −4.3% to +6.6% relative to wild-type. We hypothesize the three activating mutants that exhibited increased survival will also demonstrate increased cell proliferation and migratory behavior whereas the three neutral mutants will not differ from control. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Ongoing HNSCC PI3K inhibitor trials could be more effective if all PIK3CA hyperactivation mutations are known. Identifying non-canonical mutation effects could result in greater efficacy if drugs are restricted only to those with activating mutations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: JRG and DEJ are co-inventors of cyclic STAT3 decoy and have financial interests in STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. holds an interest in a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. The remaining authors declare no conflicts.
Identify social structures that serve as root causes of health disparities
Critically evaluate the ways in which racism, culture, and power perpetuate disparity
Use critical reflection to shape their research and advocate for institutional change
METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Integrated Translational Health Research Institute of Virginia (iTHRIV) Health Equity curriculum provides a lens for participants to view health disparities, social structures that create and perpetuate disparities, and the path to a more equitable future. This longitudinal workforce curriculum incorporates the principles of critical race theory (CRT), including: race as a social construct, structural determinism, intersectionality, and the social construction of knowledge. Learners gain practical experience through facilitated group discussions and critical reflection of their own work including research question design, recruitment, dissemination, and enhancing the faculty pipeline. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To measure the impact of the curriculum, we will evaluate learners’ participation in mentoring activities for persons from underrepresented backgrounds; participation in local and national diversity and inclusion efforts; engagement in community-based research; ability to account for implicit bias and power imbalances in their research design, including in recruitment and retention; and share research findings with community members and research participants. Evaluation strategies will include quantitative and qualitative methodologies. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There is growing recognition of the impact of racism on the development and perpetuation of health disparities. Public health critical race praxis (an adaptation of CRT) is emerging as a theoretical framework to empower researchers to challenge the status quo in order to achieve health equity.
In January 1957, at the height of the Algerian War, Algerian nationalists formed the Algerian Red Crescent to provide aid and humanitarian assistance to civilians and combatants. However, the French Red Cross (CRF) had long been active in Algeria and according to International Committee of the Red Cross guidelines, individual countries are only permitted one national society. The Algerian nationalists were aware of this stipulation, yet they firmly maintained that the CRF was not neutral and actively discriminated against Algerians. This chapter examines CRF activities in Algeria during the Algerian War and analyzes how national society frequently encountered difficult situations that forced its delegates to choose between its humanitarian mission and nationalist (French) politics. More often than not the latter prevailed. Despite being a national society that was supposed to be neutral, its activities were skewed toward the French military and civilian population. The CRF had two faces: one that presented the organization as neutral, and one that prioritized the needs of French soldiers, thus violating the CRF’s core principles. This chapter highlights the intersection of politics and humanitarianism and demonstrates the persistent power of nationalism at the end of empire.
We examined whether change in added sugar intake is associated with change in δ13C, a novel sugar biomarker, in thirty-nine children aged 5–10 years selected from a Colorado (USA) prospective cohort of children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Reported added sugar intake via FFQ and δ13C in erythrocytes were measured at two time points a median of 2 years apart. Change in added sugar intake was associated with change in the δ13C biomarker, where for every 1-g increase in added sugar intake between the two time points, there was an increase in δ13C of 0⋅0082 (P = 0⋅0053), independent of change in HbA1c and δ15N. The δ13C biomarker may be used as a measure of compliance in an intervention study of children under the age of 10 years who are at increased risk for type 1 diabetes, in which the goal was to reduce dietary sugar intake.
The National Institutes of Health requires data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) for all phase III clinical trials. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute requires DSMBs for all clinical trials involving more than one site and those involving cooperative agreements and contracts. These policies have resulted in the establishment of DSMBs for many implementation trials, with little consideration regarding the appropriateness of DSMBs and/or key adaptations needed by DSMBs to monitor data quality and participant safety. In this perspective, we review the unique features of implementation trials and reflect on key questions regarding the justification for DSMBs and their potential role and monitoring targets within implementation trials.
The objective of this study is to compare aneuploidy rates between three distinct areas of the human trophectoderm: mural, polar and a region in between these two locations termed the ‘mid’ trophectoderm. This is a cohort study on in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients undergoing comprehensive chromosome screening at the blastocyst stage at a private IVF clinic. All embryos underwent assisted hatching on day 3 with blastocyst biopsy and comprehensive chromosome screening. Biopsied blastocysts were divided into three groups depending on which area (polar, mid, or mural) of the trophectoderm was protruding from the zona pellucida and biopsied. Aneuploidy rates were significantly higher with cells from the polar region of the trophectoderm (56.2%) compared with cells removed from the mural region of the trophectoderm (30.0%; P = 0.0243). A comparison of all three areas combined also showed a decreasing trend, but this did not reach clinical significance, polar (56.2%), mid (47.4%) and mural trophectoderm (30.0%; P = 0.1859). The non-concordance demonstrated between polar and mural trophectoderm can be attributed to biological occurrences including chromosomal mosaicism or procedural differences between embryologists.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.
Objectives: Apathy is a debilitating symptom of Huntington’s disease (HD) and manifests before motor diagnosis, making it an excellent therapeutic target in the preclinical phase of Huntington’s disease (prHD). HD is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by cognitive and motor impairment, and psychiatric abnormalities. Apathy is not well characterized within the prHD. In previous literature, damage to the caudate and putamen has been correlated with increased apathy in other neurodegenerative and movement disorders. The objective of this study was to determine whether apathy severity in individuals with prHD is related to striatum volumes and cognitive control. We hypothesized that, within prHD individuals, striatum volumes and cognitive control scores would be related to apathy. Methods: We constructed linear mixed models to analyze striatum volumes and cognitive control, a composite measure that includes tasks assessing with apathy scores from 797 prHD participants. The outcome variable for each model was apathy, and the independent variables for the four separate models were caudate volume, putamen volume, cognitive control score, and motor symptom score. We also included depression as a covariate to ensure that our results were not solely related to mood. Results: Caudate and putamen volumes, as well as measures of cognitive control, were significantly related to apathy scores even after controlling for depression. Conclusions: The behavioral apathy expressed by these individuals was related to regions of the brain commonly associated with isolated apathy, and not a direct result of mood symptoms. (JINS, 2019, 25, 462–469)
This chapter explores the ubiquity of porn in adolescents' lives. The authors present a synthesis of the research about adolescent sexual development and pornography, with a unique focus on the way that the porn industry's profit model affects the availability of certain kinds of porn over others. They argue that the increasing availability and commodification of pornography, including the use of algorithms in online porn-tube sites to present users with the most violent and objectifying pornography, naturalizes traditional and non-egalitarian attitudes toward women, and may put young users and their partners at risk for violence.