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Communicating evidence that a policy is effective can increase public support although the effects are small. In the context of policies to increase healthier eating in out-of-home restaurants, we investigate two ways of presenting evidence for a policy's effectiveness: (i) visualising and (ii) re-expressing evidence into a more interpretable form. We conducted an online experiment in which participants were randomly allocated to one of five groups. We used a 2 (text only vs visualisation) × 2 (no re-expression vs re-expression) design with one control group. Participants (n = 4500) representative of the English population were recruited. The primary outcome was perceived effectiveness and the secondary outcome was public support. Evidence of effectiveness increased perceptions of effectiveness (d = 0.14, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that visualising, or re-expressing, changed perceptions of effectiveness (respectively, d = 0.02, p = 0.605; d = −0.02, p = 0.507). Policy support increased with evidence but this was not statistically significant after Bonferroni adjustment (d = 0.08, p = 0.034, α = 0.006). In conclusion, communicating evidence of policy effectiveness increased perceptions that the policy was effective. Neither visualising nor re-expressing evidence increased perceived effectiveness of policies more than merely stating in text that the policy was effective.
While adolescent-onset schizophrenia (ADO-SCZ) and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder with psychosis (psychotic ADO-BPD) present a more severe clinical course than their adult forms, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we study potentially state- and trait-related white matter diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) abnormalities along the adolescent-onset psychosis continuum to address this need.
Forty-eight individuals with ADO-SCZ (20 female/28 male), 15 individuals with psychotic ADO-BPD (7 female/8 male), and 35 healthy controls (HCs, 18 female/17 male) underwent dMRI and clinical assessments. Maps of extracellular free-water (FW) and fractional anisotropy of cellular tissue (FAT) were compared between individuals with psychosis and HCs using tract-based spatial statistics and FSL's Randomise. FAT and FW values were extracted, averaged across all voxels that demonstrated group differences, and then utilized to test for the influence of age, medication, age of onset, duration of illness, symptom severity, and intelligence.
Individuals with adolescent-onset psychosis exhibited pronounced FW and FAT abnormalities compared to HCs. FAT reductions were spatially more widespread in ADO-SCZ. FW increases, however, were only present in psychotic ADO-BPD. In HCs, but not in individuals with adolescent-onset psychosis, FAT was positively related to age.
We observe evidence for cellular (FAT) and extracellular (FW) white matter abnormalities in adolescent-onset psychosis. Although cellular white matter abnormalities were more prominent in ADO-SCZ, such alterations may reflect a shared trait, i.e. neurodevelopmental pathology, present across the psychosis spectrum. Extracellular abnormalities were evident in psychotic ADO-BPD, potentially indicating a more dynamic, state-dependent brain reaction to psychosis.
Democratic cooperation is a particularly complex type of arrangement that requires attendant institutions to ensure that the problems inherent in collective action do not subvert the public good. It is perhaps due to this complexity that historians, political scientists, and others generally associate the birth of democracy with the emergence of so-called states and center it geographically in the “West,” where it then diffused to the rest of the world. We argue that the archaeological record of the American Southeast provides a case to examine the emergence of democratic institutions and to highlight the distinctive ways in which such long-lived institutions were—and continue to be—expressed by Native Americans. Our research at the Cold Springs site in northern Georgia, USA, provides important insight into the earliest documented council houses in the American Southeast. We present new radiocarbon dating of these structures along with dates for the associated early platform mounds that place their use as early as cal AD 500. This new dating makes the institution of the Muskogean council, whose active participants have always included both men and women, at least 1,500 years old, and therefore one of the most enduring and inclusive democratic institutions in world history.
Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and its relationship to circulating FA and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1·44 % energy from LA) or high LA (HLA; 6·21 % energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25, were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at postnatal day 40 (n 6–8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic pressure–volume relationship (PVR), and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after occlusion. Thus, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, FA and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying FA and cardiac function in the female offspring.
Disease transmission and behaviour change are both fundamentally social phenomena. Behaviour change can have profound consequences for disease transmission, and epidemic conditions can favour the more rapid adoption of behavioural innovations. We analyse a simple model of coupled behaviour change and infection in a structured population characterised by homophily and outgroup aversion. Outgroup aversion slows the rate of adoption and can lead to lower rates of adoption in the later-adopting group or even behavioural divergence between groups when outgroup aversion exceeds positive ingroup influence. When disease dynamics are coupled to the behaviour-adoption model, a wide variety of outcomes are possible. Homophily can either increase or decrease the final size of the epidemic depending on its relative strength in the two groups and on R0 for the infection. For example, if the first group is homophilous and the second is not, the second group will have a larger epidemic. Homophily and outgroup aversion can also produce dynamics suggestive of a ‘second wave’ in the first group that follows the peak of the epidemic in the second group. Our simple model reveals dynamics that are suggestive of the processes currently observed under pandemic conditions in culturally and/or politically polarised populations such as the USA.
Hernando de Soto's expedition through the southeastern United States between 1539 and 1543 is often regarded as a watershed moment for the collapse of Indigenous societies across the region. Historical narratives have proposed that extreme depopulation as a result of early contact destabilized Indigenous economies, politics, networks, and traditions. Although processes of depopulation and transformation were certainly set in motion by this and earlier colonial encounters, the timing, temporality, and heterogeneous rhythms of postcontact Indigenous histories remain unclear. Through the integration of radiocarbon and archaeological data from the Mississippian earthen platform mound at Dyar (9GE5) in central Georgia, we present a case of Indigenous endurance and resilience in the Oconee Valley that has long been obfuscated by materially based chronologies and typologies. Bayesian chronological modeling suggests that Indigenous Mississippian traditions persisted for up to 130 years beyond contact with European colonizers. We argue that advances in modeling radiocarbon dates, along with meaningful consultation/collaboration with descendant communities, can contribute to efforts that move us beyond a reliance on materially based chronologies that can distort and erase Indigenous histories.
The standard theory of rationality posits that agents order preferences according to average utilities associated with different choices. Expected utility theory has repeatedly failed as a predictive theory, as reflected in a growing literature in behavioural economics. Evolutionary theorists have suggested that seemingly irrational behaviours in contemporary contexts may have once served important functions, but existing work linking fitness and choice has not adequately addressed the challenges of constructing an evolutionary theory of decision making. In particular, fitness itself is not a reasonable metric for decision making since its timescale exceeds the lifespan of the decision-maker. Consequently, organisms use proximate systems that work on appropriate timescales and are amenable to feedback and learning. We develop an evolutionary principal–agent model in which individuals utilize a set of proximal choice variables to account for the non-linear dependence of these variables on consumption. While this is insufficient to maximize fitness in the presence of environmental stochasticity, maximum fitness can be achieved by adopting pessimistic probability weightings compatible with the rank-dependent expected utility family of choice models. In particular, pessimistic probability weighting emerges naturally in an evolutionary framework because of extreme intolerance to zeros in multiplicative growth processes.
Parental investment theory predicts that biases in investment favour migration by driving some of the sibling group to disperse for resources. Here we test hypotheses arising from this theory to explain patterns of rural–urban migration in south-central Ethiopia considering familial and individual strategies. We focus on the migration of low-skilled men, predicting two scenarios based on a low level of resource availability. Firstly, last-born sons will be more likely to migrate in order to offset their intra-household disadvantage when resources are limited (sibling competition). Alternatively, in households facing livelihood insecurity, older sons will migrate in order to free resources for their younger dependant brothers (reflecting sibling cooperation). Demographic, economic and relational data were collected from 217 families of male migrants, including information for 830 male adults. We performed multivariate analyses, including Bayesian generalised linear models and mixed models, to analyse quantitative data with a focus on household and individual likelihood of out-migration. Consistent with the predictions from parental investment theory, migration is dependent on intra-household resource allocation. Depending on the stage of the family cycle and livelihood context, families and individuals present different strategies: labour migration may result from sibling competition or from cooperation for resource enhancement.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), modulated by metabolites of linoleic acid (LA), is important in regulating cardiovascular function. In pregnancy, LA is vital for foetal development. We investigated the effects of elevated LA in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts in vitro and of a high linoleic acid (HLA, 6.21%) or low linoleic acid (LLA, 1.44%) diet during pregnancy in maternal and offspring hearts. H9c2 cell viability was reduced following LA exposure at concentrations between 300 and 1000 µM. HLA diet decreased cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) mRNA expression in foetal hearts from both sexes. However, HLA diet increased CB2 expression in maternal hearts. The mRNA expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in foetal hearts was higher in females than in males irrespective of diet and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) mRNA expression showed an interaction between diet and sex. Data indicate that a high LA diet alters cell viability and CB2 expression, potentially influencing cardiac function during pregnancy and development of the offspring’s heart.
It has been hypothesised that refugees have an increased risk of suicide.
To investigate whether risk of suicide is higher among refugees compared with non-refugee migrants from the same areas of origin and with the Swedish-born population, and to examine whether suicide rates among migrants converge to the Swedish-born population over time.
A population-based cohort design using linked national registers to follow 1 457 898 people born between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1984, classified by migrant status as refugees, non-refugee migrants or Swedish-born. Participants were followed from their 16th birthday or date of arrival in Sweden until death, emigration or 31 December 2015, whichever came first. Cox regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios for suicide by migrant status, controlling for age, gender, region of origin and income.
There were no significant differences in suicide risk between refugee and non-refugee migrants (hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 0.93–1.76) and both groups had a lower risk of suicide than Swedish born. During their first 5 years in Sweden no migrants died by suicide; however, after 21–31 years their suicide risk was equivalent to the Swedish-born population (hazard ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.79–1.22). After adjustment for income this risk was significantly lower for migrants than the Swedish-born population.
Being a refugee was not an additional risk factor for suicide. Our findings regarding temporal changes in suicide risk suggest that acculturation and socioeconomic deprivation may account for a convergence of suicide risk between migrants and the host population over time.
We assessed whether the risk of various psychotic disorders and non-psychotic bipolar disorder (including mania) varied by migrant status, a region of origin, or age-at-migration, hypothesizing that risk would only be elevated for psychotic disorders.
We established a prospective cohort of 1 796 257 Swedish residents born between 1982 and 1996, followed from their 15th birthday, or immigration to Sweden after age 15, until diagnosis, emigration, death, or end of 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model hazard ratios by migration-related factors, adjusted for covariates.
All psychotic disorders were elevated among migrants and their children compared with Swedish-born individuals, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]migrants: 2.20, 95% CI 1.96–2.47; aHRchildren : 2.00, 95% CI 1.79–2.25), affective psychotic disorders (aHRmigrant1.42, 95% CI 1.25–1.63; aHRchildren: 1.22 95% CI 1.07–1.40), and other non-affective psychotic disorders (aHRmigrant: 1.97, 95% CI 1.81–2.14; aHRchildren: 1.68, 95% CI 1.54–1.83). For all psychotic disorders, risks were generally highest in migrants from Africa (i.e. aHRschizophrenia: 5.24, 95% CI 4.26–6.45) and elevated at most ages-of-migration. By contrast, risk of non-psychotic bipolar disorders was lower for migrants (aHR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.52–0.64) overall, and across all ages-of-migration except infancy (aHR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.01–1.42), while risk for their children was similar to the Swedish-born population (aHR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.93–1.08).
Increased risk of psychiatric disorders associated with migration and minority status may be specific to psychotic disorders, with exact risk dependent on the region of origin.
The final rule for the protection of human subjects requires that informed consent be “in language understandable to the subject” and mandates that “the informed consent must be organized in such a way that facilitates comprehension.” This study assessed the readability of Institutional Review Board-approved informed consent forms at our institution, implemented an intervention to improve the readability of consent forms, and measured the first year impact of the intervention.
Readability assessment was conducted on a sample of 217 Institutional Review Board-approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015. A plain language informed consent template was developed and implemented and readability was assessed again after 1 year.
The mean readability of the baseline sample was 10th grade. The mean readability of the post-intervention sample (n=82) was seventh grade.
Providing investigators with a plain language informed consent template and training can promote improved readability of informed consents for research.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Develop a plain language informed consent template that met IRB and regulatory requirements. Evaluate the effectiveness of the template at improving the readability of informed consents. Field test the informed consent with low health literacy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a retrospective analysis of over 200 UAMS IRB approved, investigator initiated informed consents from 2013 to 2015 to determine the readability before intervention. The mean grade level readabilities were derived from the results of 3 readability formulas (Flesch-Kincaid, SMOG, and Fry) using open-source readability tools. A plain language informed consent template that meets IRB and regulatory requirements was developed, adhering to health literacy best practices for written communication. The template was made available to investigators as an optional resource, and IRB committees were trained on use of the template. In addition, a focus group will be conducted to qualitatively assess understandability of the template with study participants identified as having inadequate health literacy. Data analysis will include readability assessment of IRB approved informed consents post intervention with and without use of the plain language template, as well as qualitative feedback from focus group participants. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The retrospective analysis revealed a mean readability of 10th grade for IRB approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015 (n=217). The readability of the developed plain language template was 5th grade. Preliminary post-intervention results show adoption of the template by investigators (n=16) resulted in informed consents with a mean readability of 7th grade (range 6–9th grade), compared to a mean of 10th grade (range 7–11th grade) for the comparator (“no adoption” group, n=24). Data collection will continue through May 2017. The focus group is forthcoming and results will be included in the poster. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Low health literacy is common in individuals with healthcare disparities and can limit their participation in clinical research. Few studies have examined interventions to address this barrier to research. Preliminary results of this study support the utilization of a plain language informed consent template in investigator-initiated research. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of stakeholder engagement among CTSA leadership, health literacy experts, the institutional review board, investigators, and research subjects in the development and testing of this intervention to make informed consents “understandable to the subject” while containing all required elements.
Uncertainty (i.e., variable payoffs with unknown probabilities) brings together a number of features of the authors' argument. It leads to present bias, even for completely rational agents with time-consistent preferences. As an evolutionary product of Pleistocene climate instability, humans possess broad adaptations to environmental uncertainty, giving rise to key features of the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD).
We demonstrate quantitative core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy of iron oxide nanoparticles and imaging resolution of Ag nanoparticles in liquid down to 0.24 nm, in both transmission and scanning transmission modes, in a novel, monolithic liquid cell developed for the transmission electron microscope (TEM). At typical SiN membrane thicknesses of 50 nm the liquid-layer thickness has a maximum change of only 30 nm for the entire TEM viewing area of 200×200 µm.