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Breast cancer prevention is of great importance to reduce high incidence in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations and the association with breast cancer risk in black urban women from Soweto, South Africa. A total of 396 breast cancer cases and 396 population-based controls from the South African Breast Cancer study (SABC) matched on age and demographic settings were included. Validated questionnaires were used to collect dietary and epidemiological data. To assess adherence to these recommendations, an eight-point adherence score was developed, using tertiles among controls for scoring each recommendation (0, 0·5 and 1) with zero indicating the lowest adherence to the recommendations. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models to analyse associations between the WCRF/AICR score and breast cancer risk. Greater adherence (>4·5 v. <3·25) to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations was associated with a significant inverse association with breast cancer risk overall (OR = 0·54, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·91) and specifically in postmenopausal women (OR = 0·55, 95 % CI 0·34, 0·95), in cases with oestrogen positive and progesterone positive breast cancer subtypes (OR = 0·54, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·89 and OR = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·89, respectively) and in obese women (OR = 0·52, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·81). No significant association with breast cancer risk was observed in premenopausal women. Greater adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations may reduce breast cancer risk in this black urban population of Soweto. Adherence thereof should be encouraged and form a part of cost-effective breast cancer prevention guidelines.
We use three-dimensional (3-D) fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations to study the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in a simulation of decaying turbulence created by anisotropic counter-propagating low-frequency Alfvén waves consistent with critical-balance theory. We observe the formation of small-scale current-density structures such as current filaments and current sheets as well as the formation of magnetic flux ropes as part of the turbulent cascade. The large magnetic structures present in the simulation domain retain the initial anisotropy while the small-scale structures produced by the turbulent cascade are less anisotropic. To quantify the occurrence of reconnection in our simulation domain, we develop a new set of indicators based on intensity thresholds to identify reconnection events in which both ions and electrons are heated and accelerated in 3-D particle-in-cell simulations. According to the application of these indicators, we identify the occurrence of reconnection events in the simulation domain and analyse one of these events in detail. The event is related to the reconnection of two flux ropes, and the associated ion and electron exhausts exhibit a complex 3-D structure. We study the profiles of plasma and magnetic-field fluctuations recorded along artificial-spacecraft trajectories passing near and through the reconnection region. Our results suggest the presence of particle heating and acceleration related to small-scale reconnection events within magnetic flux ropes produced by the anisotropic Alfvénic turbulent cascade in the solar wind. These events are related to current structures of the order of a few ion inertial lengths in size.
Several questions still exist in the literature on the relationship between cumulative exposure to work-related incidents and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in First Responders (FR).
To address three unanswered questions in the field.
(1) Are different cumulative exposure scoring algorithms similarly related to PTSD?
(2) Is PTSD associated only with incidents rated as severe and traumatic?
(3) Can we identify cut-off scores of cumulative exposure that maximize sensitivity and specificity to predict PTSD?
To better characterize the relationship between cumulative exposure and PTSD in FR.
The association between exposure and PTSD was examined with logistic and linear regression and with receiver operating characteristic analysis in 349 FR.
(1) The strength of the association between PTSD and total cumulative exposure indexes varied across different scoring algorithms.
(2) Compared to total cumulative exposure indexes and to sub-scores of exposure to non-traumatic and/or less severe incidents, sub-scores indexing exposure to severe traumatic events only were more strongly and significantly associated with PTSD.
(3) The use of two cut-off scores maximizes sensitivity and specificity to predict PTSD.
(1) The relationship between current PTSD and cumulative exposure is partially dependent on the approach used to quantify exposure.
(2) Focusing on the assessment of cumulative exposure to severe traumatic events is sufficient to predict PTSD, and might be more useful and effective in research and clinical decision-making.
(3) Sensitivity and specificity of exposure scores might help improve secondary prevention (early detection and effective intervention) of individuals at risk.
Item Response Theory (IRT) allows for dimensional scaling of the severity of a disorder, and comparison of symptoms’ properties across different measures of the same trait and across groups. IRT has never been applied to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
To determine discrimination and severity parameters of PTSD symptoms measured with two instruments, and to examine gender- and age-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) of PTSD indicators.
To inform the dimensional scaling of PTSD in youth.
IRT was applied to PTSD items measured with the DPS and the PTSD-RI in 6,733 9/11-exposed youths. DIF analysis was performed in the sample stratified by gender and age (8-13; 14-21).
DPS and PTSD-RI items are most informative at intermediate and severe levels of PTSD, respectively. Across instruments, discrimination was greatest for insomnia and nightmares, and lowest for 9/11-related thoughts. Severity parameters were highest for avoidance and numbing symptoms, and lowest for 9/11-related thoughts. The majority of PTSD symptoms showed significant DIF across subgroups.
DPS and PTSD-RI criteria are informative at different levels of PTSD severity. PTSD symptoms differentially discriminate among individuals along the PTSD continuum, and are most informative at different levels of PTSD severity. These results could inform dimensional scaling of PTSD, and allow for flexibility in assigning cut-off points for facilitating clinical decision-making. PTSD criteria do not provide the same information across subgroups defined by gender and age, suggesting that symptoms differ in the way they represent severe post-traumatic stress reactions across groups.
Increased incidence rates of psychotic disorder have been consistently observed in immigrants with significant variability across ethnic groups. These findings have been attributed to cross-cultural biases, i.e. misinterpretation of culturally appropriate ideas leading to an overestimation of these disorders among ethnic minorities. Another alternative explanation constitutes the selection hypothesis positing that the increased rate is due to selective migration of predisposed people. We will present two studies that aimed at testing these hypotheses by examining (a) whether risk factors for psychosis are more prevalent among future emigrants, and (b) whether psychotic symptoms differ in severity and nature according to ethnic group. The first study was conducted among a cohort of 50 087 conscripts who were assessed at age 18 on cannabis use, IQ, psychiatric diagnosis, social adjustment, history of trauma and urbanicity of place of upbringing. Through data linkage we examined whether these exposures predicted emigration out of Sweden. The second study included 301 first episode psychosis (FEP) patients within a defined catchment area in Montreal, Canada. Patients were administered scales for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms, as well as general psychopathology. Symptom scores of the reference group were compared to those of patients with different ethnic backgrounds. The results of these studies will be discussed in light of candidate explanations for the increased risk of psychotic disorder among immigrants. Future avenues using data from the EUropean Gene-Environment Interaction (EU-GEI) project will be proposed.
To explore if better diet quality scores as a measure of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are associated with a lower incidence of hypertension and non-fatal CVD.
Prospective analysis of the 1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The Australian Recommended Foods Score (ARFS) was calculated as an indicator of adherence to the ADG; the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) measured adherence to the MedDiet. Outcomes included hypertension and non-fatal CVD. Generalised estimating equations estimated OR and 95 % CI across quartiles of diet quality scores.
1946–1951 cohort of the ALSWH (n 5324), without CVD, hypertension and diabetes at baseline (2001), with complete FFQ data.
There were 1342 new cases of hypertension and 629 new cases of non-fatal CVD over 15 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that women reporting better adherence to the ARFS (≥38/74) had 15 % (95 % CI 1, 28 %; P = 0·05) lower odds of hypertension and 46 % (95 % CI 6, 66 %; P = 0·1) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. Women reporting better adherence to the MDS (≥8/17) had 27 % (95 % CI 15, 47 %; P = 0·0006) lower odds of hypertension and 30 % (95 % CI 2, 50 %; P = 0·03) lower odds of non-fatal CVD.
Better adherence to diet quality scores is associated with lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. These results support the need for updated evidenced based on the ADG as well as public health nutrition policies in Australia.
Cold-water coral reefs are biodiversity hotspots of the deep sea. The most dominant reef-building cold-water coral in the Atlantic is Lophelia pertusa, which builds vast and structurally complex habitats. Studying the behaviours of deep-sea species is challenging due to the technological difficulties in making prolonged observations in situ, so little is known about the behavioural ecology of this important species. Observations in laboratory studies can help to enhance our understanding of the range of behaviours these species exhibit. Here we present video evidence that the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa is capable of producing mucus nets as part of their feeding strategy. This finding suggests that L. pertusa has a more diverse range of feeding strategies than previously thought.
The consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables can acutely lower blood pressure and improve mediators shown to optimise vascular health. However, we do not yet understand the impact of long-term habitual dietary nitrate intake and its association with CVD. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and risk of CHD in women from the Nurses’ Health Study. We prospectively followed 62 535 women who were free from diabetes, CVD and cancer at baseline in 1986. Information on diet was updated every 4 years with validated FFQ. The main outcome was CHD defined by the occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 26 years of follow-up, 2257 cases of CHD were identified. When comparing the highest quintile of nitrate intake with the lowest quintile, in aged-adjusted analysis there was a protective association for CHD (RR=0·77, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·97; P=0·0002) which dissipated after further adjustment for smoking, physical activity, BMI and race (RR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·04; P=0·27). This magnitude of association was further attenuated once we adjusted for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index excluding vegetable and fruit consumption (RR=1·04, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·20; P=0·34). Dietary nitrate intake was not related to the risk of CHD after adjustment for other lifestyle and non-vegetable dietary factors in a large group of US women.
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide, a consequence of mostly poor lifestyle and dietary behaviours. Although whole fruit and vegetable consumption has been consistently shown to reduce CVD risk, the exact protective constituents of these foods are yet to be clearly identified. A recent and biologically plausible hypothesis supporting the cardioprotective effects of vegetables has been linked to their inorganic nitrate content. Approximately 60–80 % inorganic nitrate exposure in the human diet is contributed by vegetable consumption. Although inorganic nitrate is a relatively stable molecule, under specific conditions it can be metabolised in the body to produce NO via the newly discovered nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway. NO is a major signalling molecule in the human body, and has a key role in maintaining vascular tone, smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet activity and inflammation. Currently, there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that inorganic nitrate can lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular compliance in humans. The aim of this review is to present an informative, balanced and critical review of the current evidence investigating the role of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in the development, prevention and/or treatment of CVD. Although there is evidence supporting short-term inorganic nitrate intakes for reduced blood pressure, there is a severe lack of research examining the role of long-term nitrate intakes in the treatment and/or prevention of hard CVD outcomes, such as myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiological evidence is needed in this field to justify continued research efforts.
To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering.
Subjects were adults ages 18–55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman’s rank correlation and Pearson’s χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module.
Out of the three ADHD domains, the inattentive ADHD scores had the strongest association with the MWQ (total: rs=0.34, df=39, p=0.03; inattentive: rs=0.38, df=39, p=0.02; Hyperactive: rs=0.17, df=39, p=0.28). Correlation analyses between individual items on the ADHD module and the MWQ showed that two inattention items (‘failure to pay attention to detail’ and ‘trouble following instructions’) were positively associated with total scores on the MWQ (p=0.02). These two inattention items had the strongest association with the MWQ (rs=0.45, df=38, p=0.004). ROC analyses showed that the combined score of the two significant inattention items had the highest efficiency (AUC=0.71) in classifying high-level mind wanderers as defined by scores greater than the median split on the MWQ. The combined score of the two inattention items best identified high-level mind wanderers.
Results suggest a way to operationalise mind wandering using the symptoms of ADHD.
Perinatal factors are associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Improvements in obstetric and maternal healthcare and positive socioeconomic development in Sweden from the 1950s onwards could be expected to affect incidence estimates. However, commonly incidence rates are calculated during a specific year, i.e. time of diagnosis, which mirrors proximal precipitating risk factors. To examine whether incidence estimates are compatible with the hypothesis of an impact of perinatal exposures on the risk of the different disorders we here instead calculate incidence rates for consecutive birth cohorts born between 1955 and 1967. We hypothesized that schizophrenia incidence would be more affected compared to bipolar disorder and other affective psychoses since most perinatal risk factors are more pronounced in schizophrenia aetiology.
Birth cohorts of individuals born in Sweden and resident in Stockholm (N = 2 16 322), were followed in The National Patient Register regarding incident inpatient episodes Incident cases/10 000 person-years and birth cohort were calculated. Linear regression was used to estimate change in incidence rate.
We found stable birth cohort-based incidence estimates for bipolar disorder and other affective psychoses, but a continuous reduction in incidence estimates for schizophrenia as well as other non-affective psychoses in subsequent birth cohorts from 1955 to 1967.
The consecutive birth cohort-based incidence estimates unveiled patterns that are compatible with the hypothesis of an impact of early life exposures decreasing over time, in the aetiology of schizophrenia, whereas this pattern is less apparent in affective psychoses..
The way the pH falls post-slaughter has an impact on meat quality. Pork longissimus muscles (n=48) were sorted in fast- (FG) (n=15) and normal glycolysing (NG) (n=33) muscles according to the post-slaughter pH 45 min values (FG<6.0; NG>6.0). FG muscles (5.84±0.04) compared with NG muscles (6.27±0.04) were accompanied with higher temperature, electrical conductivity, lightness and yellowness, and reduced grill loss and shear force values (P<0.05), but there were no pH-dependent changes of the drip loss and redness results. FG muscles had higher (P<0.05) percentages of fast-twitch glycolytic and lower proportions of fast-twitch oxidative and slow-twitch oxidative (P<0.05) muscle fibres. The study confirms the relationship of pH value to meat quality and muscle fibre characteristics also showing that pH values have no impact on intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory function.
The selection hypothesis posits that the increased rates of psychosis observed among migrants are due to selective migration of people who are predisposed to develop the disorder. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether risk factors for psychosis are more prevalent among future emigrants.
A cohort of 49 321 Swedish military conscripts was assessed at age 18 years on cannabis use, IQ, psychiatric diagnosis, social adjustment, history of trauma and urbanicity of place of upbringing. Through data linkage we examined whether these exposures predicted emigration out of Sweden. We also calculated the emigrants' hypothetical relative risk compared with non-emigrants for developing a non-affective psychotic disorder.
Low IQ [odds ratio (OR) 0.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3–0.9] and ‘poor social adjustment’ (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8) were significantly less prevalent among prospective emigrants, whereas a history of urban upbringing (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–3.7) was significantly more common. Apart from a non-significant increase in cannabis use among emigrants (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.1), there were no major group differences in any other risk factors. Compared to non-emigrants, hypothetical relative risks for developing non-affective psychotic disorder were 0.7 (95% CI 0.4–1.2) and 0.8 (95% CI 0.7–1.0), respectively, for emigrants narrowly and broadly defined.
This study adds to an increasing body of evidence opposing the selection hypothesis.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the muscle fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and its relation to growth performance in the random bred control (RBC) and heavy weight (HW) Japanese quail lines at 42 days of age. The HW line had greater body (232.0 v. 100.2 g, P < 0.001) and pectoralis major muscle (19.0 v. 6.2 g, P < 0.001) weights than the RBC line. Color differences were observed between the superficial and deep regions of the pectoralis major muscle, with the superficial region showing a higher value of lightness than the deep region of the RBC or HW lines (P < 0.001). The percentage of the superficial region in the pectoralis major muscle was higher in the HW line compared with the RBC line (46.2% v. 38.0%, P = 0.017). There were no significant differences in the total fiber number in the superficial and deep regions between the two quail lines (P = 0.718). The HW quail line showed a larger mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA; 375.5 v. 176.6 μm2, P < 0.001) and type IIA fiber CSA (243.7 v. 131.9 μm2, P < 0.001) than the RBC quail line. The HW line also had greater CSA percentage (60.2% v. 34.2%, P < 0.001) and number percentage (41.6% v. 14.2%, P < 0.001) of type IIB fibers, although there were no significant differences in type IIB fiber CSA between the RBC and HW lines (P = 0.219). Therefore, greater body and muscle weights of the HW line are caused by differences in muscle fiber characteristics, especially the proportion of type IIB fiber and the CSA of type IIA fiber, compared with the RBC line. The results of this study suggest that muscle fiber hypertrophy has more impact on body and muscle weights of the different quail lines than muscle fiber hyperplasia.
Sixty-five Holstein–Friesian calves were randomly allocated to one of eight nutritional treatments at 4 days of age. In this factorial design study, the treatments comprised of four levels of milk replacer (MR) mixed in 6 l of water (500, 750, 1000 and 1250 g/day) × two crude protein (CP) concentrations (230 and 270 g CP/kg dry matter (DM)). MR was fed via automatic teat feeders and concentrates were offered via automated dispensers during the pre-wean period. MR and calf starter concentrate intake were recorded until weaning with live weight and body measurements recorded throughout the rearing period until heifers entered the dairy herd at a targeted 24 months of age. There was no effect of MR protein concentration on concentrate or MR intake, and no effect on body size or live weight at any stage of development. During the pre-weaning period, for every 100 g increase in MR allowance, concentrate consumption was reduced by 39 g/day. While, for every 100 g increase in the amount of MR offered, live weight at days 28 and 270 increased by 0.76 and 2.61 kg, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing MR feed levels increased (P < 0.05) heart girth and body condition score at recordings during the first year of life, but these effects disappeared thereafter. Increasing MR feeding level tended to reduce both age at first observed oestrus and age at first service but no significant effect on age at first calving was observed. Neither MR feeding level nor MR CP content affected post-calving live weight or subsequent milk production. Balance measurements conducted using 44 male calves during the pre-weaning period showed that increasing milk allowance increased energy and nitrogen (N) intake, diet DM digestibility, true N digestibility and the biological value of the dietary protein. Increasing the MR protein content had no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of N or DM.
In 2010, Business Ethics Quarterly published ten articles that considered the potential contributions to business ethics research arising from recent scholarship in a variety of philosophical and social scientific fields (strategic management, political philosophy, restorative justice, international business, legal studies, ethical theory, ethical leadership studies, organization theory, marketing, and corporate governance and finance). Here we offer short responses to those articles by members of Business Ethics Quarterly’s editorial board and editorial team.
The crystal structure of lizardite-1T from Gew-graze, Cornwall, has been refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to R1 of 0.0263 and 0.0557, for two crystals having P31m space group and lattice parameters a = 5.2905(5) Å, c = 7.2815(8) Å, and a = 5.3111(10) Å, c = 7.2907(15) Å, respectively. The Gew-graze lizardite is very close to the end-member composition, so these refinements confirm the existence of well crystallized pure Mg-lizardite and show this to be the most weakly H-bonded lizardite ever refined. With regard to its lattice parameters, Si–O bond distances and geometrical parameters controlled by interlayer interactions (i.e. H-bonding), the Gew-graze Mg end-member lizardite yields slight but observable geometrical differences compared with previous refined structures for specifically, aluminous, lizardites.
A chrysotile disc is proposed as the fundamental seed structure for the formation of chrysotile asbestos fibres, polygonal serpentine fibres and polyhedral lizardite spheres. The curvature, fivefold symmetry and hydrogen-bonding alignment of the layers in the seed disc control the formation of the 15 or 30 sectors in polygonal serpentine and the orientations of the planar arrays of 15 or 30 radial crystals in polyhedral serpentine. A polygonized disc precursor to polygonal fibre formation has been observed at an arrested stage of growth in a synthesis experiment.