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Social functioning is crucial for daily living and is an essential indicator of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. The pattern of social functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia (i.e. those who are cognitively intact or have mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI)) and its determinants are unclear.
In exploring the heterogeneity of social functioning among patients with Parkinson's disease-associated dementia, we determined the optimal cut-off score of the Parkinson's Disease Social Functioning Scale (PDSFS) for patients with PD-MCI, and the variables influencing patients’ social functioning.
A total of 302 participants underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and PDSFS; 120 patients with Parkinson's disease completed the measurements (MMSE, Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Group comparisons, receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman correlation and multiple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted.
The PD-MCI group scored the lowest on the PDSFS (F = 10.10, P < 0.001). The PDSFS cut-off score was 53 (area under the curve 0.700, sensitivity 0.800, specificity 0.534). The MMSE (β = 0.293, P = 0.002), Activities of Daily Living Scale (β = 0.189, P = 0.028) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (β = −0.216, P = 0.005) scores predicted the PDSFS score. Further, there was an interaction effect between the Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores on the PDSFS score (β = 0.305, P < 0.001).
We determined a PDSFS cut-off score for detecting PD-MCI and found that patients with PD-MCI have social dysfunction. Future research should focus on the effects of neuropsychiatry symptoms and activities of daily living on social functioning, and tailor the intervention programme for patients with Parkinson's disease.
Although maternal mental illnesses have been found to influence child health and development, little is known about the impact of maternal positive well-being on child health and development. Therefore, this longitudinal study investigated the effects of prenatal subjective well-being on birth outcomes and child development by considering the potential modifier effect of parity.
Pregnant women in early stages of pregnancy were recruited at five selected hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan, during their prenatal appointments since 2011. Self-reported evaluations were conducted at seven time points up to 2 years postpartum. Linear regression and generalized estimating equation models were used for examination.
Higher prenatal eudaimonic well-being was associated with longer gestational length (adjusted beta [aβ] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.68) and higher birth weight (aβ = 124.71, 95% CI = 35.75, 213.66). Higher positive and negative affect were associated with longer gestational length (aβ = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70) and smaller birth weight (aβ = −93.51, 95% CI = −178.35, −8.67), respectively. For child’s outcomes, we found an association between higher prenatal eudaimonic well-being and decreased risks of suspected developmental delay, particularly for children of multiparous mothers (adjusted odds ratio = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.70). Higher levels of prenatal depression and anxiety were significantly associated with increased risks of suspected developmental delay for children of primiparous mothers.
Positive prenatal maternal mental health may benefit birth outcomes and child development, particularly for children of multiparous mothers. Interventions for improving prenatal mental health may be beneficial for child development.
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is associated with overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Although existing research confirms the significance of economic and social factors as determinants of SSB intake, comparative studies on political factors and cross-national analyses are lacking. Research indicates that including women in the process of political decision-making promotes healthcare and child protection. This study examined how women’s parliamentary representation influences children’s and adolescents’ SSB intake compared with adults.
The study used cross-national food and beverage intake data from the Global Dietary Database. The outcome measurement was SSB consumption (g/day) for different population groups. We modelled SSB intake as a function of age groups, women’s parliamentary representation at the national level (the independent variable), regime types (the contextual factor) and import tariffs on SSB (the mediator) using country and time-fixed effects regression models.
One-hundred eighty-five countries across three waves from 2005 to 2015.
Different population groups.
The impact of female representation on reducing SSB consumption is more prevalent in children and adolescents than in adults. Furthermore, the effect of women’s parliamentary representation on SSB consumption among children and adolescents is conditional on a country’s democratic status. Finally, the marginal effect decreases when import tariffs on SSB are considered a link in a causal chain. No changes in adult SSB intake are statistically significant.
The findings suggest that the presence of women in the legislature can have a substantial impact on child and adolescent health.
In clinical environments, orthopedic implants are associated with a risk of infection during implantation. However, the growth paths of bacteria on metal, which is nontransparent, are difficult to observe. In this study, we visualized the DH5-alpha Escherichia coli bacterial growth path on the surface of magnesium by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and constructed a convolutional neural network-based artificial intelligence (AI) system to identify metal surfaces, bacteria, and its generated products to grade the growth stage of the bacteria implanted on the magnesium. The detection result of the E. coli growth stage by the AI system was close to that manually marked by experts, and it may greatly accelerate the investigation of the bacterial growth process in various types of metallic material.
Panonychus citri (McGregor) is the most common pest in citrus-producing regions. Special low-toxicity acaricides, such as spirocyclic tetronic acids and mite growth inhibitors, have been used for a long time in China. However, pesticide resistance in mites is a growing problem due to the lack of new acaricide development. Wide-spectrum insecticides, such as amitraz have gained acceptance among fruit growers. An amitraz-resistant strain of P. citri was obtained by indoor screening to examine field resistance monitoring of mites to acaricides and to explore the resistant mechanism of mites against amitraz. The amitraz-resistant strain of P. citri had an LC50 value of 2361.45 mg l−1. The resistance ratio was 81.35 times higher in the resistant strain of P. citri compared with the sensitive strain. Crossing experiments between the sensitive and resistant strains of P. citri were conducted, resulting in a D value of 0.11 for F1 SS♀×RS♂ and 0.06 for F1 RS♀×SS♂. Reciprocal cross experiments showed that the dose–mortality curves for the F1 generations coincided, indicating that the resistance trait was not affected by cytoplasmic inheritance. The dose–expected response relationship was evaluated in the backcross generation and a significant difference was observed compared with the actual value. The above results indicate that the inheritance of resistance trait was incompletely dominant, governed by polygenes on the chromosome. Synergism studies demonstrated that cytochrome P450s and esterase may play important roles in the detoxification of amitraz. Based on differential gene analysis, 23 metabolism-related genes of P. citri were identified, consistent with the results of synergism studies. Real-time PCR verification implied that P450s, ABC transporters, and acetylcholinesterase might influence the detoxification of amitraz by P. citri. These results provide the genetic and molecular foundation for the management of pest mite resistance.
It is well-known that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with changes in the dopaminergic system. However, the relationship between central dopaminergic tone and the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during receipt of rewards and penalties in the corticostriatal pathway in adults with ADHD is unclear.
Single-photon emission computed tomography with [99mTC]TRODAT-1 was used to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on subjects performing the Iowa Gambling Test.
DAT availability was found to be associated with the BOLD response, which was a covariate of monetary loss, in the medial prefrontal cortex (r = 0.55, P = .03), right ventral striatum (r = 0.69, P = .003), and right orbital frontal cortex (r = 0.53, P = .03) in adults with ADHD. However, a similar correlation was not found in the controls.
The results confirmed that dopaminergic tone may play a different role in the penalty-elicited response of adults with ADHD. It is plausible that a lower neuro-threshold accompanied by insensitivity to punishment could be exacerbated by the hypodopaminergic tone in ADHD.
Bereavement care is one of the major components of hospice palliative care. Previous studies revealed the barriers to the success of the system, including lack of time or support from mental health professionals. Few studies have explored the intrapersonal barriers to bereavement care by clinical staff. The aims of the study were to explore (1) the emotional and cognitive barriers of bereavement care by hospice palliative care staff and (2) the demographic and work characteristics related to these emotional and cognitive barriers.
The participants were clinical staff (n = 301) who were working in hospice palliative care units, including hospice wards, home care, and hospital-based palliative care teams. Their professional backgrounds included physicians (n = 12), nurses (n = 172), social workers (n = 59), psychologists (n = 34), spiritual care specialists (n = 15), and others (n = 9). A cross-sectional design was used and a standardized questionnaire including emotional and cognitive barriers was developed. Information on demographic and work characteristics was also collected. Content validity index, an exploratory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted.
One emotional barrier, “negative emotional reactions” (13 items, Cronbach's α = 0.92), and three cognitive barriers, “lack of ability” (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.85), “belief in avoidance” (5 items, Cronbach's α = 0.86), and “outcome expectancy” (4 items, Cronbach's α = 0.85) were identified. Clinical staff who had higher working stress, lower self-rated ability for bereavement care, and higher negative impact from major life loss tended to have higher emotional and cognitive barriers.
Significance of results
Clinical staff should be aware of intrapersonal barriers to bereavement care. Educational programs should be developed to improve the ability to engage in bereavement care.
Much effort has been devoted to improving the efficiency of animal cloning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BRG1 contained in Xenopus egg extracts on the development of cloned mouse embryos. The results showed that mouse NIH/3T3 cells were able to express pluripotent genes after treatment with egg extracts, indicating that the egg extracts contained reprogramming factors. After co-injection of Xenopus egg extracts and single mouse cumulus cells into enucleated mouse oocytes, statistically higher pronucleus formation and development rates were observed in the egg Extract− co-injected group compared with those in the no egg extract-injected (NT) group (38–66% vs 18–34%, P<0.001). Removal of BRG1 protein from Xenopus egg extracts was conducted, and the BRG1-depleted extracts were co-injected with single donor cells into recipient oocytes. The results showed that the percentages of pronucleus formation were significantly higher in both BRG1-depleted and BRG1-intact groups than that in the nuclear transfer (NT) group (94, 64% vs 50%, P<0.05). Furthermore, percentages in the BRG1-depleted group were even higher than in the BRG1-intact group (94% vs 64%). More confined expression of Oct4 in the inner cell mass (ICM) was observed in the blastocyst derived from the egg extract-injected groups. However, Nanog expression was more contracted in the ICM of cloned blastocysts in the BRG1-depleted group than in the BGR1-intact group. Based on the present study, BRG1 might not play an essential role in reprogramming, but the factors enhancing pronucleus formation and development of cloned mouse embryos are contained in Xenopus egg extracts.
This article mainly focuses on stabilization treatments that influence stress corrosion resistance of an AA5383-H15 alloy after undergoing sensitization treatment at 100 °C/168 h. The results show that without stabilization of the sensitized AA5383-H15 alloy, the β precipitates are distributed continuously like a mesh at grain boundary, and this is the main cause of intergranular corrosion failure. However, applying 3 different stabilization treatments (220 °C/3 h, 250 °C/3 h, and 280 °C/3 h) to the AA5383-H15 alloy shows a dramatic decrease in the β phase precipitation routes along the grain boundaries after the sensitization treatment, and thus an effective improvement in the corrosion resistance performance of AA5383-H15 alloys. Of all the stabilization treatments, the application of 250 °C/3 h stabilization treatment is found to be most effective. Applying 250 °C/3 h stabilization treatment facilitated partial recrystallization of the matrix, leading to suppress the continuous precipitation of the β phase along the grain boundaries during sensitization but instead precipitate in discontinuous mesh-like distribution, which can decrease its sensitivity to stress corrosion.
“Tailor-made” training programs have been started in two theme parks in North and East Taiwan after the dust explosion of Ba-xien theme park in 2015. The training programs emphasized several areas. They work to strengthen the incident command system (ICS) and the skills of first responders, especially evacuation, placement, triage, and first aid, as well as to assist the park’s cooperation with local disaster response units, such as the fire department and Health Bureau.
The first step was to find out the practical problems of the two theme parks, and then make a one-year, tailor-made training program according to the needs of parks and different levels of staff: senior supervisors, middle-level district supervisors, and frontline colleagues. After the phased training, the training results are inspected in the non-scripted exercise mode.
It was found that the staff are relatively familiar with the evacuation process and placement of tourists. The initial emergency responses such as triage, first aid skills, and patient transport gradually improve after several drills. The ICS operation and communication also became more effective and efficient. The regional emergency response units could understand these theme parks capability and how to cooperate with them.
The experience of emergency response training and exercise in these two theme parks has shown that such a model is feasible and should be valued.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Isolation of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) from patients in the community has been increasingly observed. A prediction model for MDR-GNB colonization and infection risk stratification on hospital admission is needed to improve patient care.
A 2-stage, prospective study was performed with 995 and 998 emergency department patients enrolled, respectively. MDR-GNB colonization was defined as isolates resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics, identified in either the surveillance or early (≤48 hours) clinical cultures.
A score-assigned MDR-GNB colonization prediction model was developed and validated using clinical and microbiological data from 995 patients enrolled in the first stage of the study; 122 of these patients (12.3%) were MDR-GNB colonized. We identified 5 independent predictors: age>70 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–3.17]; 1 point), assigned point value in the model), residence in a long-term-care facility (OR, 3.64 [95% CI, 1.57–8.43); 3 points), history of cerebrovascular accidents (OR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.24–4.01]; 2 points), hospitalization within 1 month (OR, 2.63 [95% CI, 1.39–4.96]; 2 points), and recent antibiotic exposure (OR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.16–4.11]; 2 points). The model displayed good discrimination in the derivation and validation sets (area under ROC curve, 0.75 and 0.80, respectively) with the best cutoffs of<4 and ≥4 points for low- and high-risk MDR-GNB colonization, respectively. When applied to 998 patients in the second stage of the study, the model successfully stratified the risk of MDR-GNB infection during hospitalization between low- and high-risk groups (probability, 0.02 vs 0.12, respectively; log-rank test, P<.001).
A model was developed to optimize both the decision to initiate antimicrobial therapy and the infection control interventions to mitigate threats from MDR-GNB.
Objective: To study the relationship of Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine level (CML)
with microstructure changes of white matter (WM), and cognitive impairment
in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to discuss the
potential mechanism underlying T2DM-associated cognitive impairment. Methods: The study was performed in T2DM patients (n=22) with disease course
≥5 years and age ranging from 65 to 75 years old. A control group consisted
of 25 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of
several WM regions was analyzed by diffusion tensor imaging scan. Plasma CML
levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cognitive
function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal
cognitive assessment (MoCA). Results: The total Mini-Mental State Examination score in the patient group
(25.72±3.13) was significantly lower than the control group (28.16±2.45)
(p<0.05). In addition, the total MoCA score in the patient group
(22.15±3.56) was significantly lower than the control group 25.63±4.12)
(p<0.01). In the patient group, FA values were significantly decreased in
the corpus callosum, cingulate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital
fasciculus, parietal WM, hippocampus, and temporal lobes relative to
corresponding regions of healthy controls (p<0.05). Plasma CML level was
negatively correlated with average FA values in the global brain (r=−0.58,
p<0.01) and MoCA scores (r=−0.47, p<0.05). Conclusions: In T2DM, WM microstructure changes occur in older patients, and
elevations in CML may play a role in the development of cognitive
Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2–4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (Ptrend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (Ptrend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (Pinteraction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.
This study aims to investigate barriers to the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) for teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in US universities. Although the development of ICT for teaching is growing, few published studies address ICT specifically regarding CFL teaching. Therefore, this study has reviewed the existing ICT literature's treatment of important ICT-related matters, including barrier factors, and has examined them in the context of CFL teaching. The current study features a mixed method, consisting of a survey and semi-structured interviews. Of the 47 CFL teachers who participated in the study, five volunteered for in-depth interviews. According to our findings, the most critical barriers to these CFL teachers’ adoption of ICT were insufficient support and insufficient time for developing technology-driven pedagogy and activities. These issues are reflected in CFL teachers’ unique subject expertise and workloads in existing universities’ curricula and approaches to instruction. In addition, age influences CFL teachers’ confidence in their use of ICT for the preparation of subject material and for teaching, whereas gender influences their willingness to spend time working on ICT.
A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C were implemented to grow high-quality Ga-doped MgxZn1-xO (GMZO) epi-layers. The GMZO films were deposited using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system and a 4 inch ZnO/MgO/Ga2O3 (75/20/5 wt %) target. The Hall results, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmittance were determined and are reported in this paper. The Hall results indicated that the increase in mobility was likely caused by the improved crystallization in the GMZO films after thermal annealing. The XRD results revealed that MgxZn1-xO (111) and MgO2 (200) peaks were obtained in the GMZO films. The absorption edges of the as-grown and annealed GMZO films shifted toward the short wavelength of 373 nm at a transmittance of 90%. According to these results, GMZO films are feasible for forming transparent contact layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.