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Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Monocytes and macrophages are involved in a wide range of biological processes and parasitic diseases. The characterization of the molecular mechanisms governing such processes usually requires precise control of the expression of genes of interest. We implemented a tetracycline-controlled gene expression system in the U937 cell line, one of the most used in vitro models for the research of human monocytes and macrophages. Here we characterized U937-derived cell lines in terms of phenotypic (morphology and marker expression) and functional (capacity for phagocytosis and for Leishmania parasite hosting) changes induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Finally, we provide evidence of tetracycline-inducible and reversible Lamin-A gene silencing of the PMA-differentiated U937-derived cells.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals.
Scaffolds based on two different geometries were constructed by additive manufacturing: one based on a triply periodic minimal surface, the Schwarz D surface, and the other based on a rectangular geometry with orthogonal through-holes. For construction of the scaffolds, two different materials were used: polylactic acid (PLA) in filament form and alumina in printable paste form. The structure of the resulting scaffolds was characterized via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and cell proliferation was assessed for each geometry and material, using fluorescence microscopy and DNA quantification via NanoDrop. Additive manufacturing allowed us to obtain scaffolds with the assessed materials while guaranteeing the interconnectivity of the pores in each one. The curved surfaces constructed with PLA were more favorable for cell attachment and proliferation of the CHO-K1 cell line.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
Recently the use of nanomaterials for the diagnosis and detection of malignant diseases has increased due to the versatility and properties of these nanostructures. For this work 60 nm commercial gold nanoparticles (TED PELLA inc.) and Nanostars manufactured by chemical synthesis (precursor reagent: HAuCl4, cationic surfactant: CTAB) of 117 nm were used for coating. Malachite green Isotyocianate (MGITC), mPEG-SH and ortho-pyridyldisulfide-polyethylene glycol-N-succinimidyl propionate (OPSS-PEG-NHS) was used. A SERS active nanoparticle complex was obtained by addition of a solution of MGITC to the gold nanoparticles colloidal solution in a 1:6 ratio. Later, an mPEG-SH solution was added to the mix. The nanoparticle-MGITC-mPEG-SH complex stability was revised using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and a JEOL JEM 1000 transmission electron microscope. The SERS spectra were registered with a Raman Thermoscientific DXR microscopy system. Amplified bands associated with OPSS-PEG-NHS were identified in 389, 622, 859, 929, 1080, 1283, 1360, 1443, 1490 and 1450 cm-1. The results indicate that through this methodology it is possible to identify gold nanomaterials coated with polymer through the Raman technique. In addition, greater amplification is observed with the use of nanostars compared to gold spheres. Finally, these nanomaterials are available for the marking of specific membrane for the study of different types of cancer by the SERS technique.
This research shows the development of alternative Cu-based materials for applications where enhanced thermal properties are desired. Cu/AlN composites were fabricated from mixtures of pure Cu and copper plated AlN-Cu composite powders. The ceramic phase was added in amounts of 10, 20 and 30 vol.% and the mixtures sintered by pulsed electric current sintering process (PECS). The results showed that the AlN particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix and that the true contacts between hard particles are reduced because of the deposited copper on their surfaces, improving the connectivity of the matrix phase and bonding at the metal-ceramic interface. The relative density of the Cu/AlN composites was major than 97% in all cases. Thermal conductivity of the composites was high and decreased with the ceramic content from 359 to 194 W/mK, for 10 and 30% AlN, respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion followed a lineal behavior with temperature and is also reduced with the ceramic content.
Although dendrochronological methods have the potential to provide precise calendar dates, they are virtually absent in Mesoamerican archaeological research. This absence is due to several long-standing, but erroneous, assumptions: that tree rings in this region do not reflect annual growth and environmental variability, that an adequate number of samples do not exist, and that tree-ring measurements cannot be useful without modern trees to link prehispanic chronologies. In this article we present data from the sites of La Quemada and Los Pilarillos, located in the Malpaso Valley, Zacatecas, to demonstrate that suitable archaeologically derived samples of dendrochronologically useful species do exist, that the samples from these sites are measurable and cross-datable, and that the tree rings can yield precise calendar dates using a method that “wiggle-matches” radiocarbon dates on tree-ring sequences. The work demonstrates the potential of these methods to address chronological, and, in the future, climatic questions, which have so far eluded archaeological work in the region.
Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U.S.)–Mexico border region.
This study analyzed data from a hospice needs assessment collected from 189 family caregivers of Latino patients at a home health agency in a rural U.S.–Mexico border region. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were used to address our aims.
About half of the family caregivers (n = 96, 50.8%) reported to have ever engaged in EoL discussion with patients. Significant predictors of EoL discussion included life-sustaining treatment preference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, p < 0.05); knowledge of an advance directive (AD) (OR = 5.50, p < 0.01); and distrust of physicians (OR = 0.29, p < 0.01). Caregivers who preferred extending the life of their loved one even if he/she had to rely on life supports were less likely to engage in EoL communication. Also, caregivers who worried that physicians might want to stop treatments (i.e., “pull the plug”) too soon were less likely to do so. Conversely, caregivers who had knowledge about ADs were more likely to engage in EoL communication.
Significance of Results:
EoL communication is a complex process influenced by individual, social, and cultural values and the beliefs of both the patient and his/her family. Inclusion of family caregivers in the ACP process and facilitating culturally tailored EoL communication between patients and family caregivers is important.
A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population.
A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL–90–R Symptoms Inventory.
There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI–HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p < 0.03]. This effect was observed 15–30 minutes after waking up (p < 0.01) and at bedtime (p < 0.06). Moreover, the professionals with burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it.
Significance of results:
A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.
Since work organizations became the subject of scientific research, how to operationalize and measure dimensions of work design has been an issue, mainly due to concerns about internal consistency and factor structure. In response, Morgeson and Humphrey (2006) built the Work Design Questionnaire –WDQ–, an instrument that identifies and measures these dimensions in different work and organizational contexts. This paper presents the instruent’s adaptation into Spanish using reliability and validity analysis and drawing on a sample of 1035 Spanish workers who hold various jobs in an array of occupational categories. The total instrument’s internal consistency was Cronbach’s alpha of .92 and the various scales’ reliability ranged from .70 to .96, except for three dimensions. There was initially a difference in the comparative fit of the two versions’ factor structures, but the model with 21 work characteristics (motivational -task and knowledge-, social, and work context) showed the highest goodness of fit of the various models tested, confirming previous results from the U.S. version as well as adaptations into other languages and contexts. CFA results indicated goodness of fit of factor configurations corresponding to each of the four major categories of work characteristics, with CFI and TLI around .90, as well as SRMR and RMSEA below .08. Thus it brings to the table a reliable, valid measure of work design with clear potential applications in research as well as professional practice, applications that could improve working conditions, boost productivity, and generate more personal and professional development opportunities for workers.
Hospice is an important method of promoting quality end-of-life (EoL) care, yet its utilization is relatively low in underserved populations. The unique characteristics of a border community—such as a lack of healthcare resources and cultural integration—impact EoL decision making. The aim of our study was to assess the willingness to use hospice care services and its predictors among family caregivers of Latino patients in the United States (U.S.)–Mexico border region of Southern California.
This study analyzes secondary data from a home health agency in the U.S.–Mexico border region. Quantitative data were collected via a face-to-face interview with 189 caregivers of patients enrolled in the agency. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were employed to address our study objectives.
The majority (83%) of family caregivers were willing to use hospice services for their loved ones. The factors impacting willingness to use hospice services included the primary language of the caregiver (OR = 6.30, CI95% = 1.68, 23.58); trust in doctors to make the right decisions (OR = 3.77, CI95% = 1.05, 13.57); and the belief that using hospice care means giving up on life (OR = 0.52, CI95% = 0.30; 0.88). Caregivers who trusted doctors to make the best decisions for their loved ones and English-speaking caregivers were more willing to utilize hospice services, while caregivers who held a strong belief that hospice care means giving up on life were less likely to consider using hospice care for their loved ones.
Significance of results:
The willingness of family caregivers to use hospice services for their loved ones is influenced by cultural perspectives about hospice care. As the importance of family involvement in EoL care planning has been highlighted, family caregivers' beliefs about hospice care services need to be addressed within their particular cultural context.
A very realistic 1:17 scale physical model of a 140-ton gas-stirred industrial steel ladle was used to evaluate flow patterns measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), considering a three-phase system (air-water-oil) to simulate the argon-steel-slag system and to quantify the effect of the slag layer on the flow patterns. The flow patterns were evaluated for a single injector located at the center of the ladle bottom with a gas flow rate of 2.85 l/min, with the presence of a slag phase with a thickness of 0.0066 m. The experimental results obtained in this work are in excellent agreement with the trends reported in the literature for these gas-stirred ladles. Additionally, a mathematical model was developed in a 2D gas-stirred ladle considering the three-phase system built in the physical model. The model was based on the Eulerian approach in which the continuity and the Navier Stokes equations are solved for each phase. Therefore, there were three continuity and six Navier-Stokes equations in the system. Additionally, turbulence in the ladle was computed by using the standard k-epsilon turbulent model. The agreement between numerical simulations and experiments was excellent with respect to velocity fields and turbulent structure, which sets the basis for future works on process analysis with the developed mathematical model, since there are only a few three-phase models reported so far in the literature to predict fluid dynamics in gas-stirred steel ladles.
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in a general term describing stressed alloy fracture that occurs by crack propagation in specifically environments, and has the appearance of brittle fracture, yet it can occur in ductile materials like AISI 304L used in internal components of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The high levels of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide generated during an operational Normal Water Condition (NWC) promotes an Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP), enough to generate SCC in susceptible materials. Changes in water chemistry have been some of the main solutions for mitigate this degradation mechanism, and one of these changes is reducing the ECP by the injection of Hydrogen in the feed water of the reactor; this addition moves the ECP below a threshold value, under which the SCC is mitigated (-230mV vs SHE). This paper shows the characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy of the oxide film formed in to a crack propagated during a Rising Displacement Test method (RDT), on Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) conditions: 20 ppb O2, 125 ppb H2, P=8MPa, T=288°C, using a CT specimen of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304L sensitized. The characterization allowed identifying the magnetite formation since an incipient way, until very good formed magnetite crystals.