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The present study explores how language learners apply gender stereotypes in learning a novel language with grammatical gender. Adult, English-speaking participants were exposed to picture–sound pairs from a miniature language. Each picture was of a matched gendered professional (e.g., male tennis player, female tennis player) with a nonsense form [CVCV-go/gu]. Participants were exposed to 32 picture–sound pairs (16 male, and 16 female, all matched) five times in a randomized order. Following training, participants were given a two-alternative forced-choice test with novel picture–word pairs. Participants were presented with a novel picture paired with two words (e.g., [befegu vs. befebo]) and were asked to choose which word most likely portrayed the meaning conveyed by the picture. These novel items contained gender-matched professions (e.g., male and female chemist), neutral items (office supplies), stereotypically female items (makeup), and stereotypically male items (tools). Participants assigned the appropriate gender to the novel professions, and assigned gender in line with the stereotyped objects at a rate significantly greater than chance (but not for neutral items). These results support the hypothesis that learning a language with a binary grammatical gender might be influenced by gender stereotypes.
This article navigates ruptures and transformations in the processes of resistance performed by Iranian workers between two key events of the history of contemporary Iran: the 1979 Revolution and the 2009 Green Movement. It explores how labor activism emerged in the Islamic Republic, and illustrates how it managed to survive. Drawing from the concepts of resistance, collective awareness and counter-conduct as its theoretical basis – between Antonio Gramsci and Michel Foucault – the article details the changing strategies that workers adopted over time and space to cope with the absence of trade unions, monitoring activities, and repression in the workplace. It demonstrates that workers' agency was never fully blocked by the Islamic Republic. However, it tests the limits imposed by the social context to discourage activism, beyond state coercive measures and policies.
Maladaptive offspring emotion regulation has been identified as one pathway linking maternal and child psychological well-being in school-aged children. Whether such a pathway is present earlier in life still remains unclear. The present study investigated the role of preschoolers’ emotion reactivity and regulation in the association between maternal psychological distress and child internalizing and externalizing problems. Children’s emotion reactivity and regulation were assessed through both observed behavior and physiology. At 42 months of age, children (n = 251; 128 girls) completed a fear induction task during which their heart-rate variability was assessed and their behavior was monitored, and maternal self-reports on depressive mood and anxiety were collected. At 48 months mothers and fathers reported on their children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Higher maternal depressive mood was associated with lower child fear-related reactivity and regulation, as indexed by heart-rate variability. The latter mediated the association between higher maternal depressive mood and higher preschoolers’ externalizing problems. Overall, our findings support the role of preschoolers’ emotion reactivity and regulation in the relationship between maternal psychological distress and children’s socio-emotional difficulties. This role may also depend on the discrete emotion to which children react or seek to regulate as, here, we only assessed fear-related reactivity and regulation.
Associations were variably anchored in space and place.1 Being active in different spheres of life, associations carved their own space into the urban fabric or in the countryside to accommodate their multifaceted activities. Associations were emplaced in civic, sacred and funerary space, enriching and expanding it through their dedicatory, honorific, religious and commemorative practices.2 In these respects, their activities informed the built environment, which in turn framed social interaction.
Dietary recommendations (DR) in the USA may be inadequate at improving diets in racial/ethnic minority communities and may require redesign of the systems driving their development over the long term. Meanwhile, cultural adaptation of evidence-based DR may be an important strategy for mitigating nutrition disparities, but less is known about the adaptability of these recommendations to meet the needs of diverse groups. We examined the content and origin of major DRs – aspects that provide context on their potential universality across populations and evaluated their potential for cultural adaptation.
Case studies of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Mediterranean diet (MD), the EAT-Lancet diet (EAT) and the NOVA classification system.
Racial/ethnic minority populations.
Current DR differ in their origin/evolution but are similar in their reductionist emphasis on physical health. DASH has been successfully adapted for some cultures but may be challenged by the need for intensive resources; MD may be more beneficial if applied as part of a broader set of food procurement/preparation practices than as just diet alone; EAT-Lancet adaptation may not honor existing country-specific practices that are already beneficial to human and environmental health (e.g. traditional/plant-based diets); evidence for cultural adaptation is limited with NOVA, but classification of levels of food processing has potential for widespread application.
For DR to equitably support diverse populations, they must move beyond a Eurocentric or ‘general population’ framing, be more inclusive of cultural differences and honour social practices to improve diet and reduce disparities.
Hugh Edmund Ford (1851–1930), first abbot of the English Benedictine monastery at Downside in Somerset, had a reputation, especially in monastic circles, as a scholarly and reforming monk. He is much less well known than his contemporary confrères, Cardinal Aidan Gasquet and Abbot Cuthbert Butler, lacking Gasquet’s public profile and Butler’s list of much-respected publications. Ford’s considerable political and diplomatic skills were honed in the promotion of a monastic reform movement which transformed the English Benedictine Congregation. He travelled widely on monastic business and also on account of his always delicate health. More surprisingly, in 1918, he acted as an agent for the British government on a mission to neutral Switzerland, where the Benedictine abbey of Einsiedeln provided a refuge for many Germans displaced from Rome when Italy entered the Great War in 1915. Ford made use of the various ecclesiastical networks available to him,including the Benedictine Confederation centred on S. Anselmo in Rome and connections made through the school at Downside. This article places Ford in these and other Catholic networks and demonstrates how they were put to use in the Allied cause during the First World War.
This study analysed Strongyloides stercoralis genetic variability based on a 404 bp region of the cox1 gene from Latin-American samples in a clinical context including epidemiological, diagnosis and follow-up variables. A prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted to evaluate clinical and parasitological evolution after ivermectin treatment of 41 patients infected with S. stercoralis. Reactivation of the disease was defined both by clinical symptoms appearance and/or direct larvae detection 30 days after treatment or later. We described 10 haplotypes organized in two clusters. Most frequent variants were also described in the Asian continent in human (HP24 and HP93) and canine (HP24) samples. Clinical presentation (intestinal, severe, cutaneous and asymptomatic), immunological status and eosinophil count were not associated with specific haplotypes or clusters. Nevertheless, presence of cluster 1 haplotypes during diagnosis increased the risk of reactivation with an odds ratio (OR) of 7.51 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.38–44.29, P = 0.026]. In contrast, reactivation probability was 83 times lower if cluster 2 (I152V mutation) was detected (OR = 0.17, CI 95% 0.02–0.80, P = 0.02). This is the first analysis of S. stercoralis cox1 diversity in the clinical context. Determination of clusters during the diagnosis could facilitate and improve the design of follow-up strategies to prevent severe reactivations of this chronic disease.
This chapter asks why support for redistribution has not intensified as income inequality in the United States has grown. I review recent literature on this question, including empirical evidence from within as well as beyond the United States, and focusing primarily on research that asks how correct information about inequality affects support for redistribution. First, I consider whether a lack of correct information about inequality is to blame. While citizens commonly underestimate both wealth and income inequality, recent evidence suggests that eliminating such underestimation (by providing citizens with correct information) may not significantly change attitudes toward redistribution. Recent experiments that inform participants about the true extent of inequality have produced inconsistent results with several null findings. Reviewing these findings, I suggest that if information effects exist, they are likely to be conditional on context. Variables that may make information about inequality more consequential for normative attitudes include (a) whether information about the respondent’s own position in the income distribution is included, (b) whether economic mobility is implicated, and (c) whether inequality is seen as changeable. Research is ongoing in each of these areas. More broadly, it seems clear that ideas surrounding the fairness of inequality and the deservingness of social groups are important determinants of support for redistribution, and that these ideas probably matter more than facts about income inequality. The chapter concludes by considering whether Americans are exceptional in how they react to income inequality. While Americans exhibit relatively high confidence in meritocracy, I argue that the dynamics through which we should understand support for redistribution are fundamentally the same in the United States as they are in other industrialized countries.
Anticipatory coarticulation is an indispensable feature of speech dynamics contributing to spoken language fluency. Research has shown that children speak with greater degrees of vowel anticipatory coarticulation than adults – that is, greater vocalic influence on previous segments. The present study examined how developmental differences in anticipatory coarticulation transfer to the perceptual domain.
Using a gating paradigm, we tested 29 seven-year-olds and 93 German adult listeners with sequences produced by child and adult speakers, hence corresponding to low versus high vocalic anticipatory coarticulation degrees. First, children predicted vowel targets less successfully than adults. Second, greater perceptual accuracy was found for low compared to highly coarticulated speech. We propose that variations in coarticulation degrees reflect perceptually important differences in information dynamics and that listeners are more sensitive to fast changes in information than to a large amount of vocalic information spread across long segmental spans.
Cultural identities are developed through new critical frameworks for Asian American aesthetics. The shifting demographic changes in Asian America as well as the growth of new literary forms such as graphic narratives shape our critical investments and produce alternative subject formations. Arguing for plurality and flexibility, this chapter looks at the productive ways that experimental forms of literature such as graphic narratives can resist the totalization and commodification of Asian American identity. Rejecting reductive stereotypical representations of Asian Americans and emphasizing the need for a reconceptualization of how we discuss race, graphic narratives challenge existing caricatures and stereotypes, problematize the narratives of race, and offer experimental forms of representation.
Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are broad, pervasive themes and patterns of emotions, memories, cognition and physical sensations that impede the goal of individuals. Maladaptive behaviours can occur as a response to maladaptive or negative schemas, often culminating in depression or anxiety. The current meta-analysis integrates the existing literature to estimate the magnitude of effect of association between EMS and depression among adolescents and young adults. A systematic search of seven different databases including Embase, CINAHL, Medline, ASSIA, Psych INFO, Scopus and Web of Science was carried out identifying 24 relevant studies of adolescents (10–18 years) and young adults (19–29 years). The random-effect model estimate for association between overall EMS and depression was r = 0.56 (95% CI 0.49–0.63, Z = 12.88, p ≤ 0.0001), suggesting higher predominant EMS significantly linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms, with a large effect size. Separate meta-analytical results with schema domains indicated moderately stronger associations between schemas of disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance and other-directedness with depression. Age and gender were not found to have any significant moderating effect on the associations. The findings suggest that it is vital for clinicians to identify specific maladaptive schemas contributing towards depression, to have a better understanding of underlying cognitive processes and in turn promote psychological health, well-being and resilience in adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, findings will also assist clinicians to focus more on the content of three significant schema domains, which emerged as particularly salient factors underlying adolescent depression.
Critical incident frameworks applied within schools are a means to support school staff to respond and guide planning to reduce critical incidents rates. This article explores the significance of the Therapeutic Crisis Intervention in Schools (TCI-S) critical incident framework to decrease the prevalence of behavioural critical incidents and to improve staff and student emotional competence in schools. The application of the TCI-S framework to reduce critical incidents within the United States and the United Kingdom school systems are demonstrated through upskilling school staff in social-emotional and co-regulation skills. It is suggested that TCI-S has the potential to support students with behavioural and emotional challenges and increase staff competency to implement trauma-informed practices that ultimately will reduce critical incidents.
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a widespread livelihood in low- and middle-income countries; however, many in ASM communities face high levels of poverty and malnutrition. The food environments in ASM communities have non-agricultural rural characteristics that differ from those in urban and agricultural rural areas examined in much existing food environment literature.
We examine these complex external and personal food environments in ASM communities via a study using qualitative and quantitative methods. Market surveys and a cross-sectional household survey, plus qualitative mining site non-participant observations and in-depth structured interviews, were conducted in three waves.
Eighteen study sites in ASM communities in northern Guinea.
Surveys covered mothers in mining households with young children (n 613); in-depth interviews engaged caregivers of young children (n 45), food vendors (n 40) and young single miners (n 15); observations focused on mothers of young children (n 25).
The external food environment in these ASM communities combines widespread availability of commercially processed and staple-heavy foods with lower availability and higher prices for more nutritious, non-staple foods. Within the personal food environment, miners are constrained in their food choices by considerable variability in daily cash income and limited time for acquisition and preparation.
We demonstrate that ASM communities have characteristics of both urban and rural populations and argue for greater nuance and appreciation of complexity in food environment research and resultant policy and programming.
Drawing on the history of the Bank of Naples, this article sheds new light on the power struggle between the central government and the Southern elites in Risorgimento Italy. Since unification, the Bank has been portrayed as the archetypal victim of a predatory (Northern) Italian government. This article, by deconstructing the myth surrounding the Bank, shows how this characterisation was carefully crafted by its Neapolitan management. Exploiting to the fullest the new political and economic role they had acquired under the aegis of a constitutional government, the Bank's governors appropriated and invested with new meanings Risorgimento ideals to further the Bank's cause as well as their own. Constantly shifting the focus from finance to politics, they posed as champions of those municipal, regional or even national liberties the government was either unable or unwilling to defend. This narrative provided an ideological smokescreen obscuring the economic and partly private nature of the confrontation between the central government and the Bank, and reinforced the view of a South victimised by the new Italian state still in currency today.
Jean de Blanot, the enigmatic Iacobus Aurelianus, and Jean Blanc de Marseille are the first known French lawyers trained in Italy to have shown interest in one of the most famous custumals in medieval Europe, the Lombard book of fiefs known by the name of Libri Feudorum. Considering that this compilation was increasingly gaining authority in the Italian law schools, this chapter shows how these three lawyers re-elaborated these teachings and compared (or opposed) them to local bodies of norms. By observing how they developed different notions of custom and argued about the validity of the Libri Feudorum outside Lombardy, the chapter unveils the problematic dialectics between Civil law, local custom, and practice, and provides some insights into the making of the ius commune, its practical and historical roots, its geographical dimensions.