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This chapter sheds light on the growing relevance of frugal innovation as EMNCs leverage competitive advantages through its means. We highlight the three component parts (open, sustainable and cost innovation) of this process. Drawing on case studies and a survey of Brazilian MNCs, we demonstrate the stakes of frugal innovation as a catch-up strategy.
Using microsatellite loci, we assessed the mating system and genetic diversity of the dioecious tropical tree Genipa americana in a natural population (NP) and a progeny test (PT). For NP, we also estimated the paternity correlation within and among fruits and mean pollen dispersal distance. As expected for dioecious species, all offspring originated from outcrossing (t = 1). Mating among relatives (1 − ts) and paternity correlation (rp) were variable among progenies (1 − ts = 0.03–0.19; rp = 0.04–0.40), but greater in NP than in PT. Fixation index (F) was generally significant and lower in adults than in offspring, indicating selection against inbred individuals. Paternity correlation was higher within (0.40) than among (0.26) fruits, indicating a lower effective number of pollen donors (Nep) within (2.5) than among (3.8) fruits. Due to the higher rp in NP, the effective size within progenies (Ne) was lower (2.69) than PT (3.27). The pollen dispersal pattern was strongly leptokurtic, suggesting long-distance pollen dispersal (mean of 179 m). The results show that both populations can be used for seed collection in environmental reforestation programmes; however, considering that PT is structured in maternal progenies, NP is more suitable for seed collection due to the lower probability of mating among related trees.
The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) has been described in many low-/middle-income countries. We investigated food addiction, thyroid hormones, leptin, the lipid/glucose profile and body composition in DBM children/adolescents. Subjects were allocated into groups according to nutritional status: control (C, n 28), weight excess (WE, n 23) and DBM (WE plus mild stunting, n 22). Both the DBM and WE groups showed higher mean insulin concentrations than the control (DBM = 57·95 (95 % CI 47·88, 70·14) pmol/l, WE = 74·41 (95 % CI 61·72, 89·80) pmol/l, C = 40·03 (95 % CI 34·04, 47·83) pmol/l, P < 0·001). WE and DBM showed more food addiction symptoms than the control (3·11 (95 % CI 2·33, 3·89), 3·41 (95 % CI 2·61, 4·20) and 1·66 (95 % CI 0·95, 2·37)). In DBM individuals, addiction symptoms were correlated with higher body fat and higher insulin and leptin levels. These data provide preliminary evidence consistent with the suggestion that DBM individuals have a persistent desire to eat, but further studies are required to confirm these results in a larger study. These hormonal changes and high body fat contribute to the development of diabetes in long term.
Oceanic islands and seamounts are considered biodiversity hotspots. Here, we present a taxonomy and community analyses of hyperiid amphipods collected near oceanic islands and over seamounts of the Juan Fernández Archipelago and Desventuradas Archipelago in the South-east Pacific. Both archipelagos are separated by about 800 km over the meridional gradient, suggesting the existence of different hyperiid communities because of apparent geographic isolation and distinctive oceanographic characteristics between regions. To test this hypothesis, zooplankton samples were collected from 19 stations during the CIMAR 22 ‘Oceanic Island’ cruise in October–November 2016. In total, 56 species of hyperiids were found, of which Phrosina semilunata, Lestrigonus schizogeneios, Hyperietta stephenseni, Hyperioides longipes, Phronimella elongata and Primno latreillei were the most abundant and recurrent species. The species richness (S), Shannon–Wiener diversity (H’) and dominance (D) of both the archipelagos were not significantly different. Additionally, except for a small group of rare species, the species composition was similar in both areas. Most species showed greater abundances than those observed in the coastal upwelling zone off Chile, whereas shared species between regions suggested the presence of a single biogeographic unit comprising the coastal transition zone and oceanic area off Chile within which both archipelagos are included. Correlation analysis indicated that salinity was the best predictor for the community structure, which provides evidence that the contributions of previously described water masses of the South-east Pacific may influence the spatial distribution and composition of the hyperiid community.
This paper presents a novel method for modeling a 3-degree of freedom open kinematic chain using quaternions algebra and neural network to solve the inverse kinematic problem. The structure of the network was composed of 3 hidden layers with 25 neurons per layer and 1 output layer. The network was trained using the Bayesian regularization backpropagation. The inverse kinematic problem was modeled as a system of six nonlinear equations and six unknowns. Finally, both models were tested using a straight path to compare the results between the Newton–Raphson method and the network training.
Number of romantic/sexual relationships is suggested as a proxy of potential reproductive success. Cross-culturally, both sexes desire playful long-term mates and playfulness predicts relationship quality. It is yet to be tested, however, if playfulness is associated with number of long- and short-term relationships. We hypothesised that specific playfulness dimensions would correlate with the number of lifetime short- and long-term relationships. We expected that lighthearted playfulness would be associated with more short-term relationships, while other-directed playfulness would be associated with the number of long-term relationships. In total, 1191 Brazilian adults (mean age = 28.7 years, standard deviation = 10.2) responded to online sociodemographic questions and a playfulness inventory. Other-directed playfulness positively predicted the number of short-term and long-term partners in men and whimsical playfulness predicted the number of short-term relationships in women. This suggests that playfulness is used by both sexes to compete for access to more and better mates, but in slightly different ways. For the first time, we show that playful adults have more partners and that playfulness can be used as a part of mating strategies.
Obesity is an epidemic associated with many diseases. The nutraceutical Zingiber officinale (ZO) is a potential treatment for obesity; however, the molecular effects are unknown. Swiss male mice were fed a high-fat diet (59 % energy from fat) for 16 weeks to generate a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model and then divided into the following groups: standard diet + vehicle; standard diet + ZO; DIO + vehicle and DIO + ZO. Those in the ZO groups were supplemented with 400 mg/kg per d of ZO extract (oral administration) for 35 d. The animals were euthanised, and blood, quadriceps, epididymal fat pad and hepatic tissue were collected. DIO induced insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and DNA damage in different tissues. Treatment with ZO improved insulin sensitivity as well as decreased serum TAG, without changes in body weight or adiposity index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were lower in the liver and quadriceps in the DIO + ZO group compared with the DIO group. ZO treatment reduced the reactive species and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA in blood and liver in obese animals. The endogenous antioxidant activity was higher in the quadriceps of DIO + ZO. These results in the rat model of DIO may indicate ZO as an adjuvant on obesity treatment.
New guidelines for peanut allergy prevention in high-risk infants recommend introducing peanut during infancy but do not address breastfeeding or maternal peanut consumption. We assessed the independent and combined association of these factors with peanut sensitization in the general population CHILD birth cohort (N = 2759 mother–child dyads). Mothers reported peanut consumption during pregnancy, timing of first infant peanut consumption, and length of breastfeeding duration. Child peanut sensitization was determined by skin prick testing at 1, 3, and 5 years. Overall, 69% of mothers regularly consumed peanuts and 36% of infants were fed peanut in the first year (20% while breastfeeding and 16% after breastfeeding cessation). Infants who were introduced to peanut early (before 1 year) after breastfeeding cessation had a 66% reduced risk of sensitization at 5 years compared to those who were not (1.9% vs. 5.8% sensitization; aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.68). This risk was further reduced if mothers introduced peanut early while breastfeeding and regularly consumed peanut themselves (0.3% sensitization; aOR 0.07, 0.01–0.25). In longitudinal analyses, these associations were driven by a higher odds of outgrowing early sensitization and a lower odds of late-onset sensitization. There was no apparent benefit (or harm) from maternal peanut consumption without breastfeeding. Taken together, these results suggest the combination of maternal peanut consumption and breastfeeding at the time of peanut introduction during infancy may help to decrease the risk of peanut sensitization. Mechanistic and clinical intervention studies are needed to confirm and understand this “triple exposure” hypothesis.
To examine children’s exposure to food and beverage advertising across a year of Colombian television based on whether products exceed Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)-defined nutrient thresholds.
Nutritional information was obtained for all foods and beverages advertised and used to categorise each product according to the product category (e.g. beverage, snack food) and nutritional quality based on the PAHO model for identifying products in excess of free sugars, Na or saturated fat or containing non-caloric sweeteners or trans-fat. Television audience ratings data were used to derive the average child audience (unique child viewers) per ad and the number of times ads were seen by children in a single week (weekly impressions) based on product category and nutritional quality.
All food and beverage ads on cable and over-the-air TV in Colombia in 2017.
Of all instances of TV ads, 89·3 % were of unhealthy products. A larger proportion of male and female children, as well as children from low (88·01 %), mid (89·10 %) and high (89·10 %) socio-economic status, are exposed to advertising of unhealthy products, but no significant difference was found between these proportions.
The majority of foods and beverages advertised to Colombian children are unhealthy. These findings highlight a need to implement statutory measures to reduce children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertising in Colombia, as obesity and overweight have been increasing among school-age children in Colombia, and exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods is a known contributor to children’s food intake and obesity.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in a highly endemic area in Brazil, comparing it to the Kato-Katz (KK) technique for sensitivity, specificity and the intensity of the reaction of the test in relation to the parasitic load. The community in Sergipe, Brazil, participated in the study, providing three stool samples, one of urine (POC-CCA) and fingers tick blood sample was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, kappa coefficient and Spearman's correlation were calculated for the POC-CCA test using the KK as the reference. The prevalence of schistosomiasis by KK testing was 48.82%; POC-CCA (t+) 66.14%; POC-CCA (t−) 45.24%. ELISA results showed 100% agreement in individuals with high and moderate eggs per gram (EPG). POC-CCA presented good diagnostic performance in individuals with medium and high EPG, but there were a high number of false negatives in individuals with low intensity infections. As observed, POC-CCA-filter test improves accuracy and sensitivity compared to a conventional test.
Many people around the globe rely on the low-cost transport of goods and commodities that commercial shipping provides. Indeed, about 90 per cent of the world’s traded goods are transported by sea, with more than 70 per cent of this being containerized cargo (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2017). Shipping densities are illustrated in Figure 1.1, demonstrating the great concentration of traffic along key routes.
Shipping is responsible for transporting 90% of the world's trade. This book provides a comprehensive review of the impact shipping has on the environment. Topics covered include pollutant discharges such as atmospheric emissions, oil, chemical waste, sewage and biocides; as well as non-pollutant impacts including invasive species, wildlife collisions, noise, physical damage, and the environmental effects associated with shipwrecks and shipbreaking. The history of relevant international legislation is also covered. With chapters written by eminent international authors, this book provides a global perspective on the environmental impact of ships, making it a useful reference for advanced students and researchers of environmental science, as well as practitioners of maritime law and policy, and marine business.
The physical impacts that vessels may cause have not generally been emphasized in the past. However, they are becoming more and more apparent (Roberts, 2011), and this chapter offers a brief overview of the physical impacts that ships have on the marine environment. Numerous mechanisms are considered, together with examples of deleterious consequences. Coral reefs and seagrass communities are highlighted. The impacts of various processes, such as sediment suspension, aeration and microorganism mortality, are described.
The DPSIR (drivers, pressures, state, impact and response) framework provides a useful conceptual model for assessing and managing problems arising from the interactions between ships and the environment. The DPSIR framework comprises: drivers – the causes of environmental problem (e.g., ship operations); pressures – the effects of the activity (e.g., ship emissions); state – the environmental parameters and components that are affected (e.g., marine ecosystems); impact – the effect exerted on environmental and biological reservoirs (e.g., invasive species, habitat modification); and responses – mechanisms put into effect to prevent and/or mitigate the environmental impacts (e.g., environmental policies, international conventions). A well-established cycle of processes characterizes the continuous means of protecting the marine environment from the deleterious effects of ships. Both end-of-life events – either by shipwreck or shipbreaking – and routine operational performance of vessels exert, respectively, acute and chronic environmental impacts.
Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoonosis observed in over 60 countries, with over 500 000 new cases recorded annually. Although the diagnostic procedure of its symptomatic forms is well established, for asymptomatic patients, who represent about 85% of those infected, there is no consensus on the best method for its identification. Recent studies have presented molecular techniques as viable identification methods, with good sensitivity and specificity indices in asymptomatic individuals. Therefore, we aimed to use molecular methods to assess their effectiveness in identifying the presence of asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) individuals from endemic regions of Brazil. Screening was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and confirmed by sequencing the cytochrome B gene. Of the 127 samples [from 608 blood donors who had participated in a previous study, of which 34 were positive by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) rK39] tested by qPCR, 31 (24.4%) were positive. In the sequencing of 10 qPCR-positive samples, five were identified as L. infantum. Complimentary samples of the ELISA rK39 and conventional PCR showed only reasonable and low agreement with qPCR, respectively. The qPCR confirmed the presence of infection in five of the 10 sequenced samples, ELISA confirmed three, and the conventional PCR confirmed none.