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Mucosal immunity of Indian Antarctic personnel was analysed during the 34th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) by ship voyage. Serum and salivary IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 levels along with salivary cortisol and TGF-β were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were collected at three different time points (T1, T2 and T3) during the expedition. Serum and salivary IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 concentrations incrementally increased towards the end of the expedition as compared to the beginning of the expedition. Salivary IgA and TGF-β levels were significantly altered during the expedition. Levels of IgA1 (P = 0.0007) and IgA2 (P = 0.0135) increased significantly at T3 as compared to T1. Additionally, significant changes in serum IgA were observed, with peak levels at T3 (P = 0.0015) and T2 (P < 0.001). However, the level of serum IgA2 was also significantly altered at T3 (P < 0.05) and T2 (P = 0.0006) in comparison with T1. The exact cause of the changes in serum and salivary IgA, IgA1, IgA2 and TGF-β levels during the summer expedition are unknown; however, the changes are evident in mucosal immunity.
Loneliness is a major risk factor for both psychological disturbance and poor health outcomes in adults. This study aimed to assess whether childhood loneliness is associated with a long-term disruption in mental health that extends into adulthood.
This study is based on the longitudinal, community-representative Great Smoky Mountains Study of 1420 participants. Participants were assessed with the structured Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview up to eight times in childhood (ages 9–16; 6674 observations; 1993–2000) for childhood loneliness, associated psychiatric comorbidities and childhood adversities. Participants were followed up four times in adulthood (ages 19, 21, 25, and 30; 4556 observations of 1334 participants; 1999–2015) with the structured Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment Interview for psychiatric anxiety, depression, and substance use outcomes.
Both self and parent-reported childhood loneliness were associated with adult self-reported anxiety and depressive outcomes. The associations remained significant when childhood adversities and psychiatric comorbidities were accounted for. There was no evidence for an association of childhood loneliness with adult substance use disorders. More associations were found between childhood loneliness and adult psychiatric symptoms than with adult diagnostic status.
Childhood loneliness is associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in young adults, suggesting that loneliness – even in childhood – might have long-term costs in terms of mental health. This study underscores the importance of intervening early to prevent loneliness and its sequelae over time.
To evaluate regional differences in factors associated with food insufficiency during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic among three major metropolitan regions in California, a state with historically low participation rates in the Supplementation Nutrition Assistance Program, the nation’s largest food assistance programme.
Analysis of cross-sectional data from phase 1 (23 April–21 July 2020) of the US Census Household Pulse Survey, a weekly national online survey.
California, and three Californian metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), including San Francisco–Oakland–Berkeley, Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim and Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario MSA.
Adults aged 18 years and older living in households.
Among the three metropolitan areas, food insufficiency rates were lowest in the San Francisco–Oakland–Berkeley MSA. Measures of disadvantage (e.g., having low-income, being unemployed, recent loss of employment income and pre-pandemic food insufficiency) were widely associated with household food insufficiency. However, disadvantaged households in the San Francisco Bay Area, the area with the lowest poverty and unemployment rates, were more likely to be food insufficient compared with those in the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim and Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario MSA.
Food insufficiency risk among disadvantaged households differed by region. To be effective, governmental response to food insufficiency must address the varied local circumstances that contribute to these disparities.
To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.
An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.
Twenty-two higher education institutions.
College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.
Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).
College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
To identify attention profiles at 7 and 13 years, and transitions in attention profiles over time in children born very preterm (VP; <30 weeks’ gestation) and full term (FT), and examine predictors of attention profiles and transitions.
Participants were 167 VP and 60 FT children, evaluated on profiles across five attention domains (selective, shifting and divided attention, processing speed, and behavioral attention) at 7 and 13 years using latent profile analyses. Transitions in profiles were assessed with contingency tables. For VP children, biological and social risk factors were tested as predictors with a multinomial logistic regression.
At 7 and 13 years, three distinct profiles of attentional functioning were identified. VP children were 2–3 times more likely to show poorer attention profiles compared with FT children. Transition patterns between 7 and 13 years were stable average, stable low, improving, and declining attention. VP children were two times less likely to have a stable average attention pattern and three times more likely to have stable low or improving attention patterns compared with FT children. Groups did not differ in declining attention patterns. For VP children, brain abnormalities on neonatal MRI and greater social risk at 7 years predicted stable low or changing attention patterns over time.
VP children show greater variability in attention profiles and transition patterns than FT children, with almost half of the VP children showing adverse attention patterns over time. Early brain pathology and social environment are markers for attentional functioning.
The commercialization of medical devices and biotechnology products is characterized by high failure rates and long development lead times particularly among start-up enterprises. To increase the success rate of these high-risk ventures, the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) and University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) partnered to create key academic support centers with programs to accelerate entrepreneurship and innovation in this industry. In 2008, UML and UMMS founded the Massachusetts Medical Device Development Center (M2D2), which is a business and technology incubator that provides business planning, product prototyping, laboratory services, access to clinical testing, and ecosystem networking to medical device and biotech start-up firms. M2D2 has three physical locations that encompass approximately 40,000 square feet. Recently, M2D2 leveraged these resources to expand into new areas such as health security, point of care technologies for heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, and rapid diagnostics to detect SARS-CoV-2. Since its inception, M2D2 has vetted approximately 260 medical device and biotech start-up companies for inclusion in its programs and provided active support to more than 80 firms. This manuscript describes how two UMass campuses leveraged institutional, state, and Federal resources to create a thriving entrepreneurial environment for medical device and biotech companies.
Caregiver mental health is linked to early childhood development, yet more robust evidence of community-based interventions to prevent maternal depression and optimize socio-emotional development of young children is needed. Objectives of this cluster-randomized controlled trial (cRCT), based in Northern Ghana, are to assess the impact of the lay counselor-delivered, group-based Integrated Mothers and Babies Course and Early Childhood Development (iMBC/ECD) program on (1) the mental health of mothers of children under age 2; and (2) the socio-emotional development of their children.
This cRCT randomized 32 women's groups – 16 received iMBC/ECD content (intervention) and 16 received general health education content (control). Surveys were administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and 8-month post-intervention. The primary outcome was maternal depression [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)], and the secondary outcome was child's socio-emotional development [Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ:SE-2)]. Qualitative interviews with 33 stakeholders were also conducted.
In total, 374 participants were enrolled at baseline while pregnant with the index child, 19% endorsing moderate/severe depression. Of these, 266 (71.1%) completed the 8-month post-intervention survey (~19 months post-baseline). There were no significant effects of iMBC/ECD on PHQ-9 and ASQ:SE-2 scores. However, results favored the intervention arm in most cases. iMBC participants were highly satisfied with the program but qualitative feedback from stakeholders indicated some implementation challenges.
This real-world evaluation had null findings; however, post-intervention depression levels were very low in both arms (3%). Future research should examine the potential impact of women's groups on postpartum mental health more broadly with varying content.
We investigated healthcare worker (HCW) behavior with regard to a voluntary methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) staff screening during a MRSA outbreak in a neonatal ward. Avoiding MRSA transmission from HCWs to patients was the most important reason for participation. Inconvenient screening time was the most frequently cited reason for nonparticipation.
We report key learning from the public health management of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 identified in the UK. The first case imported, and the second associated with probable person-to-person transmission within the UK. Contact tracing was complex and fast-moving. Potential exposures for both cases were reviewed, and 52 contacts were identified. No further confirmed COVID-19 cases have been linked epidemiologically to these two cases. As steps are made to enhance contact tracing across the UK, the lessons learned from earlier contact tracing during the country's containment phase are particularly important and timely.
Understanding socioeconomic inequality is fundamental for studies of societal development in European prehistory. This article presents dietary (δ13C and δ15N) isotope values for human and animal bone collagen from Early Neolithic Osłonki 1 in north-central Poland (c. 4600–4100 cal BC). A new series of AMS radiocarbon determinations show that, of individuals interred at the same time, those with copper artefacts exhibit significantly higher δ13C values than those without. The authors’ results suggest a link between high-status goods and intra-community differences in diet and/or preferential access to the agropastoral landscape.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown could be considered a ‘perfect storm’ for increases in emotional distress. Such increases can only be identified by studies that use data collected before and during the pandemic. Longitudinal data are also needed to examine (1) the roles of previous distress and stressors in emotional distress during the pandemic and (2) how COVID-19-related stressors and coping strategies are associated with emotional distress when pre-pandemic distress is accounted for.
Data came from a cohort study (N = 768). Emotional distress (perceived stress, internalizing symptoms, and anger), COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies were measured during the pandemic/lockdown when participants were aged 22. Previous distress and stressors were measured before COVID-19 (at age 20).
On average, participants showed increased levels of perceived stress and anger (but not internalizing symptoms) during the pandemic compared to before. Pre-COVID-19 emotional distress was the strongest predictor of during-pandemic emotional distress, followed by during-pandemic economic and psychosocial stressors (e.g. lifestyle and economic disruptions) and hopelessness, and pre-pandemic social stressors (e.g. bullying victimization and stressful life events). Most health risks to self or loved ones due to COVID-19 were not uniquely associated with emotional distress in final models. Coping strategies associated with reduced distress included keeping a daily routine, physical activity, and positive reappraisal/reframing.
In our community sample, pre-pandemic distress, secondary consequences of the pandemic (e.g. lifestyle and economic disruptions), and pre-pandemic social stressors were more consistently associated with young adults' emotional distress than COVID-19-related health risk exposures.
Origen of Alexandria's works contain a seeming contradiction concerning Mary's virginity. He affirms multiple times that Mary remained a virgin after Christ's birth and throughout life, yet one of his homilies on the Gospel of Luke declares that Christ “opened the womb” of his mother—an action many readers equate with destruction of virginity. How can Origen claim that Mary remained virginal if her hymen tissue was no longer intact? Scholars commonly solve the problem by characterizing his thought as self-contradictory or by concluding that he prioritizes Mary's lack of sexual experience over her loss of physical intactness. This essay resolves the contradiction more fully through attention to divergent models for female genital anatomy that circulated in antiquity. Origen, like most thinkers during and before his time, probably did not believe that female virgins have hymens. For him, the terminology of “closed” and “opened” wombs refers not to virginity but to fertility. Scholarly readers have been misled by certain other authors’ uses of this vocabulary and by Jerome's Latin translation of the homily, which draws on a different anatomical model. For Origen, Mary is a virginal mother not in spite of a broken hymen, but without possessing a hymen in the first place.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Regardless of their career choices, today’s biomedical researchers need to blend great science with core skills ininnovation and entrepreneurship (I&E). The objective of this NIH-funded education program was to develop and test a pragmatic training program to teach relevant I&E skills. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a modified Delphi approach to identify 15 relevant competencies for I&E and the essential topics to include in the program. Learner interviews identified preferences for online training programs (short, high-quality audio-visual content, ability to self-navigate, peer and instructor interactions). The inaugural program included 7 short, online courses that addressed how to identify and validate opportunities for innovation, sell your innovation to diverse audiences, assess its ethical consequences, work in teams, and develop resilience as an innovator. It also included mentor support, a team-based capstone project, and an optional in-person boot camp. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 51 students enrolled and 41 participants from 9 institutions completed the program, including pre- and post-doctoral students and junior faculty. They organized into 10 teams to complete the capstone project, with 6 teams pitching their innovation to fellow students and mentors at the boot camp. Students rated satisfaction with courses highly overall, with 79% stating they would be disappointed if the program was no longer available. Preliminary results suggest participants increased their knowledge about and ability to perform tasks taught throughout the program. Suggestions for improvement included providing more practical advice and real-world examples to complement educational videos. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The inaugural E4B program was well received and effective in increasing I&E skills. Improvements will include increased opportunity for mentor interactions and for advanced entrepreneurial training. The program is open for biomedical research trainees from all institutions with a CTSA award.
Although I spent much of my pre-school and school years wandering around derelict industrial sites in Scotland’s central belt, I was also exposed to rural life on a regular basis during the school holidays, when I attended Lanark Auction market with my father. I had developed an interest in geography at school and decided to study it at the University of Strathclyde’s Geography Department. It was there that my interest in soils grew and was nurtured by Donald Davidson but it was a visit to the department by John Bibby, one of the senior soil surveyors in the Soil Survey of Scotland, that finally opened my eyes to the possibility of combining geography and soil science by joining the Soil Survey. Being able to wander the Scottish countryside, far from the industrial wasteland, and map soils seemed like the ideal job. Indeed, Bob Glentworth, Head of the Soil Survey of Scotland, often told his field staff that they were lucky to be getting paid to enjoy themselves digging holes and mapping soils. So, in 1980, armed with a degree in geography and biology and with some knowledge of hydrology, geomorphology, pedology, biogeography and plant science, I applied for and was accepted as a junior soil surveyor in the Soil Survey Department of the Macaulay Institute for Soil Research. Thus, my training in how to survey soils began.
Resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors was first observed in waterhemp in 2001 and was conferred by the deletion of a glycine residue at the 210th position (ΔGly-210) of the PPO enzyme. PPO-inhibitor resistance in Palmer amaranth was first observed in 2011, 10 years later. The objectives of this study were to directly compare PPO inhibitor responses in plants of both species with or without the ΔGly-210 mutation. Using greenhouse experiments, early (EPOST) and late (LPOST) postemergence dose responses using lactofen and fomesafen, and preemergence (PRE) dose responses using fomesafen and flumioxazin, were obtained for a sensitive and resistant population each of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth. An additional spray study confirmed each sensitive population used in the dose responses was representative of its respective species, with regards to PPO-inhibitor sensitivity. When treated at either POST timing, Palmer amaranth was more tolerant than waterhemp, and the ΔGly-210 mutation provided greater resistance in Palmer amaranth (48-fold to >3,440-fold, depending on timing and herbicide) than in waterhemp (31-fold to 123-fold). The level of tolerance in Palmer amaranth was striking; the sensitive Palmer amaranth population treated LPOST survived as well or better than the resistant waterhemp population treated EPOST. With PRE applications, response differences both between species and between resistant and sensitive populations generally were less pronounced, relative to POST applications. Collectively, this research indicates Palmer amaranth tolerance to POST-applied PPO inhibitors could have initially slowed (relative to waterhemp) evolution of resistance to these herbicides, and resistant and sensitive populations of both species are more likely to be effectively controlled with PRE rather than POST applications.
The reported associations between birth weight and childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the relationship between birth weight and CVD risk factors at 11 years of age. This study used longitudinally linked data from three cross-sectional datasets (N = 22,136) in West Virginia; analysis was restricted to children born full-term (N = 19,583). The outcome variables included resting blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)]. Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusting for child’s body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and lifestyle characteristics. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant association between birth weight and SBP, DBP, HDL, and TG. When adjusted for the child’s BMI, the association between birth weight and HDL [b = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.18) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] and between birth weight and TG [b = –0.007 (–0.008, –0.005) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] remained statistically significant. In the fully adjusted model, low birth weight was associated with higher LDL, non-HDL, and TGs, and lower HDL levels. The child’s current BMI at 11 years of age partially (for HDL, non-HDL, and TG) and fully mediated (for SBP and DBP) the relationship between birth weight and select CVD risk factors. While effects were modest, these risk factors may persist and amplify with age, leading to potentially unfavorable consequences in later adulthood.