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This chapter raises the question whether attribution of wrongful acts to the State is based on ‘objective’ causal chains or ‘subjective’ mental states. It argues that attribution of conduct to the State is not primarily causal or fault-based. First, it shows that several of the Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts cannot be understood in terms of causation or fault. Second, it argues that causal and fault-based theories of attribution are either circular or incomplete. Instead, the chapter claims, the logic of attribution is primarily functional. The rules of attribution converge around the central principle that an act of State is an act performed in the service of a State function, such as defence or detention. Functional attribution is best understood as ‘intersubjective’: it is determined not by objective causal chains or by subjective mental states, but by shared ideas about the functions of the State and what it means to perform them. The functional character of the rules of attribution allows them to adapt to economic and technological changes, such as the growth of corporations and the development of autonomous weapons.
To describe national antibiotic prescribing for acute gastroenteritis (AGE).
We included visits with diagnoses for bacterial and viral gastrointestinal infections from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS/NHAMCS; 2006–2015) and the IBM Watson 2014 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. For NAMCS/NHAMCS, we calculated annual percentage estimates and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) of visits with antibiotics prescribed; sample sizes were too small to calculate estimates by pathogen. For MarketScan, we used Poisson regression to calculate the percentage of visits with antibiotics prescribed and 95% CIs, including by pathogen.
We included 10,210 NAMCS/NHAMCS AGE visits; an estimated 13.3% (99% CI, 11.2%–15.4%) resulted in antibiotic prescriptions, most frequently fluoroquinolones (28.7%; 99% CI, 21.1%–36.3%), nitroimidazoles (20.2%; 99% CI, 14.0%–26.4%), and penicillins (18.9%; 99% CI, 11.6%–26.2%). In NAMCS/NHAMCS, antibiotic prescribing was least frequent in emergency departments (10.8%; 99% CI, 9.5%–12.1%). Among 1,868,465 MarketScan AGE visits, antibiotics were prescribed for 13.8% (95% CI, 13.7%−13.8%), most commonly for Yersinia (46.7%; 95% CI, 21.4%–71.9%), Campylobacter (44.8%; 95% CI, 41.5%–48.1%), Shigella (39.7%; 95% CI, 35.9%–43.6%), typhoid or paratyphoid fever (32.7%; (95% CI, 27.2%–38.3%), and nontyphoidal Salmonella (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.5%–33.9%). Antibiotics were prescribed for 12.3% (95% CI, 11.7%–13.0%) of visits for viral gastroenteritis.
Overall, ∼13% of AGE visits resulted in antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotics were unnecessarily prescribed for viral gastroenteritis and some bacterial infections for which antibiotics are not recommended. Antibiotic stewardship assessments and interventions for AGE are needed in ambulatory settings.
Little is known about Se intakes and status in very young New Zealand children. However, Se intakes below recommendations and lower Se status compared with international studies have been reported in New Zealand (particularly South Island) adults. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) randomised controlled trial compared a modified version of baby-led weaning (infants feed themselves rather than being spoon-fed), with traditional spoon-feeding (Control). Weighed 3-d diet records were collected and plasma Se concentration measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, 101 (BLISS n 50, Control n 51) 12-month-old toddlers provided complete data. The OR of Se intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) was no different between BLISS and Control (OR: 0·89; 95 % CI 0·39, 2·03), and there was no difference in mean plasma Se concentration between groups (0·04 μmol/l; 95 % CI −0·03, 0·11). In an adjusted model, consuming breast milk was associated with lower plasma Se concentrations (–0·12 μmol/l; 95 % CI −0·19, −0·04). Of the food groups other than infant milk (breast milk or infant formula), ‘breads and cereals’ contributed the most to Se intakes (12 % of intake). In conclusion, Se intakes and plasma Se concentrations of 12-month-old New Zealand toddlers were no different between those who had followed a baby-led approach to complementary feeding and those who followed traditional spoon-feeding. However, more than half of toddlers had Se intakes below the EAR.
How do cabinet reshuffles affect the parliamentary opposition's use of no-confidence motions in the government? Opposition parties employ no-confidence motions as electoral signals to highlight government incompetence and to position themselves as a government in waiting. We argue that cabinet reshuffles – which prime ministers use to respond to policy failures, scandals, poor ministerial performance and disloyalty – present an opportunity for the opposition to deploy no-confidence motions to this end. The incentives to deploy this strategy, however, are contingent on the nature of the party system and are greatest where party-system concentration positions a single opposition party as the alternative to the government and sole beneficiary of a no-confidence vote. We test this expectation using a multilevel modelling approach applied to data on reshuffles in 316 governments and 16 parliamentary democracies, and find support for our expectation: cabinet reshuffles raise the probability of no-confidence motions conditional on party-system concentration.
We assess the evolution of glaciological structures during the 2003–05 surge in the Paulabreen glacier system, Svalbard. Glaciological structures on the glacier surface were mapped using aerial photographs captured in the early stages of the surge (2003) and 5 years after surge termination (2011). Three-dimensional measurements of glaciological structures were collected at the tidewater front in 2013. These datasets document the physical changes during (1) the late quiescent phase; (2) the early phase of the surge as the surge front propagated down Skobreen and advanced into Paulabreen and (3) the final stages of the surge following the surge front reaching the glacier terminus. Crevasse patterns and clusters of arcuate shear planes record zones of compressive and extensional flow associated with the downglacier progression of the surge front. The transfer of surging ice from Skobreen into Paulabreen caused lateral displacement of the medial moraines to the northeast. At the ice front, this movement tilted glaciological structures in the same direction. Structures at the southwest margin record strike–slip faulting and the elevation of debris into the ice in a zone of compression and transpression. We summarise these observations in a schematic reconstruction of structural evolution during the surge.
Drinks containing added sugar and/or non-nutritive sweeteners are not recommended for children under 6 years. Yet, most young children consume these products. The current study examined factors associated with caregivers’ provision of sweetened drinks to their young child.
Caregivers reported frequency of providing sweetened fruit-flavoured drinks (fruit drinks and flavoured water) and unsweetened juices (100 % juice and juice/water blends) to their 1- to 5-year-old child in the past month and perceived importance of product attributes (healthfulness, product claims and other characteristics), other drinks provided, reading the nutrition facts panel and socio-demographic characteristics. A partial proportional odds model measured the relationship between these factors and frequency of providing sweetened fruit-flavoured drinks.
Online cross-sectional survey.
U.S. caregivers (n 1763) with a young child (ages 1–5).
The majority (74 %) of caregivers provided sweetened fruit-flavoured drinks to their child in the past month; 26 % provided them daily. Provision frequency was positively associated with some drink attributes, including perceived healthfulness, vitamin C claims and box/pouch packaging; child requests and serving other sweetened drinks and juice/water blends. Provision frequency was negatively associated with perceived importance of ‘no/less sugar’ and ‘all natural’ claims. Reading nutrition facts panels, serving water to their child and child’s age were not significant.
Misunderstanding of product healthfulness and other marketing attributes contribute to frequent provision of sweetened drinks to young children. Public health efforts to address common misperceptions, including counter marketing, may raise awareness among caregivers about the harms of providing sweetened drinks to young children.
In the early years of the Second World War, news of atrocities was often met with disbelief or strategic scepticism (British Foreign Office) due, in part, to the success of inter-war claims that atrocity stories during the First World War were propaganda. The Polish Government in Exile developed an information strategy to overcome scepticism and reticence to respond. This chapter explores how the Polish Government in Exile sought to inform the world of the outrages committed by Germany and the Soviet Union during the invasion and occupation of Poland through official government publications. It focuses on eight core publications including those of the White Book and Black Book series (published between 1940 and 1942).
The chapter discusses the founding of the Polish War Crimes Office, the ways in which the War Crime Office engaged with the UNWCC, and the Charge Files that it submitted. It is argued that the Polish War Crimes Office developed Charge Files in a strategic and organised manner. It was able to do this due to the continuous flow of intelligence from the Polish Underground State. It is also maintained that, through contributions to legal debates within the UNWCC and through submitted Charge Files, the Polish War Crimes Office helped to expand understanding of the idea of ‘war crimes’.
This chapter explores the evolution of thinking on war crimes prior to and during the Second World War. The first part of the chapter considers how ’war crimes’ were understood before the Second World War. It discusses the Hague Conventions, the post-World War I settlement, the failure to try Kaiser Wilhelm II, and the legacy of the Leipzig trials. This is followed by an examination of the deliberations on war crimes in different international fora during the war years. The chapter also explores the debate within the Polish Government in Exile that resulted in the passing of war crimes legislation. It is argued that the debates in these fora helped advance understanding of the challenges of war crimes prosecution which, in turn, provided firm foundations for legal discussion and innovation within the UNWCC.
The chapter considers how the Polish Government in Exile sought to exert influence on various civil society organisations in order to advance understanding of the situation of Poland under occupation and to encourage such organisations to support calls for retaliation and post-war justice. It examines the Polish engagement with women’s organisations, the Churches, the broad Left, and legal/political organisations. It is argued that the Polish Government in Exile attempted to shape the wider discursive environment in a manner favouring Polish policy but faced a number of challenges, including the counter-discourses promoted by different actors.
This chapter focuses on the activities of the Polish War Crimes Office from 1947 to the closure of the UNWCC in March 1948. The War Crimes Office is discussed with reference to the political situation in Poland following the rigged January 1947 election. The scale and substance of Charge File submissions are examined, and the ways in which the head of the office, Marian Muszkat, sought to influence debates within the UNWCC are explored. The chapter highlights the growing East/West tensions over the issues of extradition and alleged traitors/collaborators in the early period of the Cold War.