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It is our ethical duty to consider the possible consequences of our work and mitigate any risks, such that we avoid harm to the welfare and interests of our study animals, human participants, the environment, and the people we work with and alongside. We must also consider the effects of our research on our discipline and wider society. Reflecting on ethical dilemmas and weighing the positive and negative impacts of a project are essential to make informed decisions when planning a project and throughout a study. This can include the decision not to conduct a particular study, or to terminate it earlier than planned. In this chapter, I cover legal requirements and permits, then address the ethics of working with primates in captivity and the wild, specimen collection and working human participants. I then outline our ethical responsibilities to the natural environment, the people we work with, and the people we work alongside. I then highlight the importance of reflecting on our use of social media and the power of images, and end with our obligations to report and disseminate our findings.
Chapter 1 provides a history of the EITC, explaining how the concept dates back to Milton Friedman’s idea for a negative income tax, Richard Nixon’s Family Assistance Plan proposal, and Russell Long’s work bonus plan. This chapter traces how, over four decades, a modest work incentive evolved into one of the most important antipoverty programs in the United States. It highlights studies correlating the EITC with positive outcomes for recipient families. The chapter also introduces the Code’s other refundable tax credit for working families – the Child Tax Credit – and distinguishes the two tax credits.
While entrepreneurs are increasingly recognized as important participants in the medieval economy, their philanthropic activities have received less attention than those of the gentry and nobility. This article identifies the contribution that the study of medieval entrepreneurs can make to broader business history debates surrounding the identity of philanthropists and their beneficiaries, the types of causes they supported, and their impact on wider society. Philanthropic entrepreneurs used the profits of commerce to provide infrastructure, health care, and education to their local communities. Their patterns of philanthropy differed from those of gentry, lawyers, and administrators. Support for municipal infrastructure emerges as a distinctive feature of entrepreneurial philanthropy, reflecting a belief in the importance of trade networks and civic reputation.
This chapter argues that federalism-based controversies in the social welfare field over legal structures, legal rules, and the location of governance are best understood as arguments about both deservingness and control played out through controversies about administrative structure. In short, programs are called “welfare,” or are urged by some to be more like “welfare,” when what is really meant is that we wish to use the administrative mechanisms of federalism to control, stigmatize, punish, and deter recipients. In contrast, when we perceive recipients as entitled, these mechanisms fall away to be replaced by purely federally controlled, far less visible, and far more inviting administrative structures. To make this process visible, the chapter describes the administrative tools of benefit programs across the economic spectrum, as well as the corresponding cultural assumptions tied to programs across this spectrum, and then contextualizes a debate like the one over Medicaid work rules in this context.
This chapter focuses on traditional cash welfare. It provides background on federal cash assistance to poor families, explains current TANF policy, and proposes that antipoverty scholars turn their attention to a fundamental precondition of democratic experimentalism: the presence of meaningful and well-functioning democracy that includes the poor. A democratic structure that operates nondemocratically by weakening the political voices of poor people is an insufficient environment for a just approach to welfare. Instead of laboratories of democracy, states in this domain often function as laboratories of suffering –political entities that experiment upon poor people without robust informed consent. While some democratic deficits are likely inevitable in any system, in welfare, we see a governance structure in which the sole direct beneficiaries of the regime are largely shut out of the democratic processes that structure that regime.
Holes in the Safety Net: Federalism and Poverty explores the relationship between antipoverty programs and federalism. The introduction provides a foundation for the rest of the book through an overview of the extent and nature of poverty in the United States as well as a brief history of how welfare programs have changed over time. We are at a moment in which the basic structure of the safety net is uncertain and up for grabs. Proposals to replace existing programs with block grants or to allow states to impose tougher restrictions on welfare recipients abound, often justified using the language of federalism. This chapter introduces these challenges and then provides a roadmap of the rest of the book.
The effects of high stocking density during the dry period on dairy cow physiology, behaviour and welfare were investigated. Holstein Friesian cows (n = 48, calving over a seven month period) were dried-off 60 ± 4 d before their expected calving date, and allocated to either high (H) or low (L) stocking density groups. Cows were housed in cubicles from dry-off to 21 d before calving and then moved to straw yards until calving. In cubicle pens, H and L cows had 0.5 vs. 1.0 feed yokes/cow and 1.0 vs. 1.5 cubicles/cow, respectively, and in straw yards, 0.3 m vs. 0.6 m linear feed-face space and 6 m2vs. 12 m2 lying space, respectively. Video observations of feeding behaviour during the 3 h after feed delivery (3 d/week) and agonistic interactions at the feed-face during peak feeding (2 d/week) were made. Daily lying proportion was measured using an accelerometer device throughout the dry period. Concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM) at dry-off, d7 and d35 after dry-off and d21 and d7 before calving and the change in energy metabolites (glucose, NEFA, BHB) from dry-off to d7 before calving were measured. H cows were less likely to start feeding within 5 min of feed delivery and spent less time feeding compared to L cows, but they engaged in displacements more frequently and spent more time standing in the feed alley. Irrespective of the treatment groups, FGCM concentrations significantly increased from dry-off to d7 after dry-off and remained higher during the dry period. Stocking density did not affect daily lying proportion, energy metabolites during the dry period and milk yield during subsequent lactation. This study found that whilst high stocking density during the dry period increased competition at the feed-face and altered feeding behaviour, it did not affect stress responses, energy metabolism or subsequent milk yield.
We investigate the sectoral and the distributional effects of a food subsidy program, where food consumption in the economy is subsidized by taxing the manufacturing good producers. In a two-agent model comprising of farmer and industrialist households, agents consume food to accumulate health. Simulations indicate that while the subsidy program increases food output and agents’ health both in the short run and the long run, manufacturing output and aggregate real GDP appear to fall in the short run and increase only in the long run. The program does not make both agents better off and exhibits social welfare gains for a limited range of subsidies.
Is public support for social welfare programs’ contingent on an individual’s exposure to risk? Prior work has examined whether tough economic times lead people to “reach out” (i.e. become more accepting of government expansion of social welfare programs) or “pull back” (i.e. become less supportive of welfare). However, these studies do not account for the conditional relationship between an individual’s exposure to risk and his or her risk orientation. Using new survey data, we find that an individual’s risk orientation moderates the relationship between risk exposure and public support for welfare spending. When individuals perceive exposure to economic risk, those who are risk averse are highly supportive of welfare expansion; those who are risk acceptant become less supportive. Broadly, these findings suggest that public support for welfare spending is contingent on whether an individual perceives exposure to risk and, if so, the individual’s propensity to tolerate that risk.
Drawing on participatory research with people living in poverty, this article details the possibilities inherent in this research tradition and its particular applicability and as yet often unrealised potential for poverty and social security research. The dominant framing of ‘welfare’ and poverty foregrounds elite political and politicised accounts, which place emphasis on individual and behavioural drivers of poverty, and imply that the receipt of ‘welfare’ is necessarily and inevitably problematic. A large body of academic evidence counters this framing, illustrating the extent to which popular characterisations are out of step with lived realities. What is often missing, however, are the voices and expertise of those directly affected by poverty and welfare reform. This article argues that placing experts by experience on poverty at the centre of research efforts is best understood as constituting a direct challenge to the marginalising and silencing of the voices and perspectives of people living in poverty. While this hints at participatory research’s great potential, it is vital also to recognise the inherent challenges of taking a participatory approach. Significantly, though, participatory research can undermine popular characterisations of poverty and welfare and provide opportunities for alternative narratives to emerge, narratives which could contribute to the building of a pro-welfare imaginary over time.
Intensive fattening of late-maturing breeds on concrete or rubberized slatted floors is the prevalent beef production system in mainland Europe. The rationale behind this study is that specific beef breeds with different slaughter weights might have a diverse response to different flooring systems. The study aimed at assessing whether growth performance, health, behaviour and claw condition of two beef breeds, Charolais (CH) and Limousine (LIM), would be affected by their housing on concrete (CS) or rubber-covered (RCS) fully slatted floor. A total of 228 CH (116 on CS; 112 on RCS) and 115 LIM (57 on CS; 58 on RCS) were housed in four and two commercial farms, respectively, in groups of 9.0 ± 2.1 animals/pen with an average space allowance of 3.1 ± 0.2 m2. Draining gaps of CS and RCS pens were 16.9 ± 1.7% and 11.6 ± 1.2% of the total surface, respectively. Bulls of both breeds had similar initial body weight (429.4 ± 31.5 kg for CH; 369.6 ± 31.7 kg for LIM), and they were slaughtered when they reached suitable finishing. Charolais had a higher final body weight (BW) than LIM (750.8 ± 8.6 v. 613.7 ± 10.9 kg; P < 0.01), and bulls of both breeds on RCS had higher average daily gain than on CS (1.47 ± 0.02 v. 1.39 ± 0.02 kg/day; P < 0.05). The percentage of bulls early culled or treated for locomotor disorders were reduced by RCS only for LIM, while RCS tended to prevent the occurrence of bursitis for both breeds. During two 8-h behavioural observations, bulls on RCS performed more head butt/displacements and chases than on CS, and they reduced the frequency of abnormal lying down events. The use of RCS increased mounts’ frequency only in LIM, while its reduced drainage capacity impaired only the cleanliness of CH. Postmortem hoof inspection showed longer claw dorsal wall and diagonal lengths, and sharper toe angles for CH on RCS than LIM on both floors. Results of this study point out that fully slatted floors, regardless of being rubberized or not, are not suitable for bulls finished at a final BW above 700 kg due to their detrimental effects on health and welfare. The use of RCS could be recommended as an alternative to CS only if bulls are slaughtered at a lower final BW (around 600 kg), like in the case of LIM breed.
After Mexican sugar producers gained unlimited, tariff-free access to the U.S. market in 2008, U.S. and Mexican governments bilaterally agreed to constrain Mexico’s sugar exports to the United States because of dumping allegations by U.S. producers in December 2014. This analysis employs a dynamic partial equilibrium model to estimate the price and welfare impacts of the U.S.-Mexico agreement by simulating the reimplementation of North American Free Trade Agreement sugar policies. Estimates suggest liberalizing the market would decrease U.S. sugar prices, translating to an average annual decrease in producer surplus of approximately $660 million and increase in consumer surplus of $1.67 billion across the simulation.
Neoliberalism as economic orthodoxy has facilitated the onset of social and public policy that is required to ‘fit’ with the common sense of our times. This article critiques the growth of government-supported financial capability programs in Australia. We explore the experiences of a sample of rural South Australians who have accessed microcredit. We found that microcredit provides an avenue for poverty survival by reducing the stresses associated with financial shocks through consumption smoothing, yet that the extent to which microcredit contributes to addressing poverty and inequality is questionable. We critique how the discourse of financial resilience aims to produce deserving neoliberal citizens who are moving toward self-reliance. We conclude that effort should be directed at developing a structural, proportionate universal approach that does not rely on financially vulnerable individuals navigating a regulatory environment that rewards and punishes in accordance to a market logic.
Force-feeding was considered as a traditional high-efficiency approach to improve growth performance and accelerate fat deposition of Pekin ducks. However, force-feeding is a serious violation of international advocacy on animal welfare, because it can induce serious injuries to animals, such as damages to the digestive tract, effects on immunity and even severe oxidative stress. Therefore, it is urgent to stop force-feeding. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of force feeding on immune function, digestive function and oxidative stress in the mucosa of duodenum and jejunum of Pekin ducks. A total of 500 ducks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was allowed to feed freely on a basal diet. The experimental group was force-fed by inserting a plastic feeding tube 8 to 10 inches long down the esophagus for 6 days. Compared with the control group, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum diamine oxidase, d-lactic acid, endotoxin and corticosterone levels in the force-feeding group. The crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups and the intestinal villus epithelium cell was severely damaged in force-feeding group. Similarly, the activities of digestive enzymes as well as the levels of immune function in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa in the force-feeding group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). However, there was a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels with a marked increase in malondialdehyde level in duodenal and jejunal mucosa (P<0.05). In summary, at the end of the fattening period with force-feeding for 6 days, Pekin ducks experienced an adverse effect on the integrity of their duodenal and jejunal mucosa epithelium cell as well as their immune function and antioxidant capacity of Pekin ducks but also had improvement in digestive enzyme activities.
Flystrike costs the Australian industry $173 to 280 M per annum and 70% to 80% of Merino lambs are currently mulesed to reduce the risk of flystrike. To alleviate welfare concerns there has been widespread adoption of analgesics to mitigate the pain associated with mulesing. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (Metacam® 20) at reducing pain-related behavioural responses to mulesing in Merino lambs. One hundred and forty Merino lambs were allocated to one of seven treatment groups: (1) non-mulesed (Control); (2) mulesed with no pain relief; (3) subcutaneous (s.c.) meloxicam administered 15 min before mulesing; (4) Tri-Solfen® administered at time of mulesing; (5) Tri-Solfen® and saline injection (s.c.) 15 min before mulesing; (6) Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (s.c.) 15 min before mulesing; and (7) meloxicam (s.c.) at time the of mulesing. Behavioural responses such as standing, walking and lying were measured every 15 min for 6 h on the day of marking and for up to 2 h for 4 days thereafter. Standing (hunched v. normal) and walking (stiff v. normal) behaviours were then categorised into pain- and normal-related behaviours while lying remained in its own category. Mulesed lambs with no pain relief displayed significantly more pain-related behaviours than Control lambs during the 6 h post-mulesing (1.22 v. 0.22 out of a total score of 3; RSD=1.15). Lambs that received a combination of pain relief displayed significantly less pain-related behaviour than mulesed lambs with no pain relief on the day of mulesing (0.85 v. 1.22 out of a total score of 3; RSD=1.15). Administration of meloxicam or Tri-Solfen® on their own had minimal if any significant effect on pain-related behaviours on the day of mulesing. The results of this experiment support the use of pain-related behaviours to measure the efficacy of analgesics and the use of multimodal analgesia during mulesing of lambs.
The aim of this study was to explore lameness and the associations between lameness and health/production measures of animal welfare in commercial broiler production, using the Welfare Quality® protocol for broilers. A total of 50 flocks were included in the sample and farm visits were conducted for lameness scoring at a mean age of 28.9 days. The percentage of animals (n=7500) in the six different gait score (GS) categories were GS0: 2.53%, GS1: 44.19%, GS2: 33.84%, GS3: 16.32%, GS4: 2.36% and GS5: 0.53%. Production and other welfare data were collected for each flock after slaughter. Higher gait scores were associated with increased hock burn score (P<0.02), increased footpad dermatitis score (P<0.01), reduced bird cleanliness score (P<0.01) and peat litter (P<0.01). Although not statistically significant, there was a tendency for increased flock gait score being associated with wet litter (P=0.07). In addition, condemnations at postmortem inspection were associated with increasing gait scores (P<0.05), indicating that at least a portion of the lameness cases display pathological changes on the carcasses. In conclusion, 19%of the birds showed moderate-to-severe lameness, which was associated with several production or health and welfare observations including feather cleanliness and condemnations as unfit for human consumption at slaughter. Although stocking density and growth rate are already known key factors for lameness, associations of lameness with hock burns, footpad dermatitis and cleanliness of the birds suggest that a suboptimal physical environment (e.g. litter- and air quality) may be detrimental to leg health. Further studies are needed to explore these associations in more detail.
Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Keel bone damage included fractures and/or deviations, and was recorded, alongside with other animal based measures, by palpation and visual inspection of at least 50 randomly collected hens per flock between 52 and 73 weeks of age. Management and housing data were obtained by interviews, inspection and by feed analysis. Keel bone damage flock prevalences ranged from 3% to 88%. Compiled on the basis of literature and practical experience, 26 potential associative factors of KBD went into an univariable selection by Spearman correlation analysis or Mann–Whitney U test (with P<0.1 level). The resulting nine factors were presented to stepwise forward linear regression modelling. Aviary v. floor systems, absence of natural daylight in the hen house, a higher proportion of underweight birds, as well as a higher laying performance were found to be significantly associated with a higher percentage of hens with KBD. The final model explained 32% of the variation in KBD between farms. The moderate explanatory value of the model underlines the multifactorial nature of KBD. Based on the results increased attention should be paid to an adequate housing design and lighting that allows the birds easy orientation and safe manoeuvring in the system. Furthermore, feeding management should aim at sufficient bird live weights that fulfil breeder weight standards. In order to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between laying performance, feed management and KBD further investigations are needed.
In a system in which cows are grouped and given differential access to feeding bins with different rations, and where these groups change over time, it is important to find out how a change in the ration (and hence feeding bin) affects the cow's feeding behaviour. Monitoring the locomotion of cows can be used to predict oestrus and improve health (lameness diagnosis), but activity monitors can also be used to estimate both activity and numbers of feeding visits by cows. Ice tag activity monitors were attached to the right hind legs of ten cows. Walking, standing, lying data and health records were used to record changes before and after a change in each cow's feeding bin. Results comparing activity before and after feeding bin change revealed significant increases in motion index, number of steps taken per minute and number of lying bouts per minute (all P < 0.001). Comparing the behaviours of cows subsequently followed during the dry period showed significant differences in motion indices and number of steps taken per minute (P < 0.001) in the dry period. The results indicate that cows are affected by feeding bin change and group change, which can lead to an increase in behaviour associated with the stress response, especially in heifers.
This research communication addresses the goal of validating an algorithm to monitor natural occurrence of feeding behaviours in dairy Mediterranean buffalo based on the output of a noseband pressure sensor (RumiWatch®, halter). Several characteristics of the feeding behaviour were detected with a very high (ruminating boluses), high (chews per bolus) and moderate degree of correlation (chews per minute) with video analyses (gold standard). All of them were associated with a low mean difference with the gold standard, and the mean relative measurement error ranged between low (ruminating boluses) and moderate (chews per bolus and chews per minute). The proportion of correctly detected events for the variables rumination and eating time was 98 and 99%, respectively. The collection of data and subsequent evaluation of the parameters investigated may provide objective information on Mediterranean Buffalo behaviours allowing for reliable studies of the animal welfare in this ruminant in the future.