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Chapter 3 turns to the culture of the early reform period to examine three films – Youth (Qingchun, 1977) and Venus (Qimingxing, 1991), directed by Xie Jin (1923–2008), as well as Mother (Mama, 1991) directed by Zhang Yuan (b. 1963). Youth marked the first major reappearance of disability in mainstream culture and provides the starting point for an examination of the return of disability to the screen. While the chapter demonstrates that these new representations continued to reflect notions of difference, and that even children were expected to ‘overcome’ their impairments to make a contribution to ‘mainstream’ society, it also reveals the significance of personal motives (for example, those of Xie Jin, himself the father of two children with learning impairments) in bringing disability back into the public eye. We see the difficulties of moving beyond the ‘personal tragedy’ narrative even when disabled people and their families have the opportunity to represent their understandings of what it means to be disabled. The particular vulnerability of children as shown in these films, equally, works to reassure the able-bodied gaze that ideologies of normalcy remain intact and unchallenged.
Infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit greater heterogeneity in behavioral presentation and outcomes relative to infants at low familial risk (LR), yet there is limited understanding of the diverse developmental profiles that characterize these infants. We applied a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis approach to parse developmental heterogeneity in 420 toddlers with heightened (HR) and low (LR) familial risk for ASD using measures of four dimensions of development: language, social, play, and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB). Results revealed a two-cluster solution. Comparisons of clusters revealed significantly lower language, social, and play performance, and higher levels of restricted and repetitive behaviors in Cluster 1 relative to Cluster 2. In Cluster 1, 25% of children were later diagnosed with ASD compared to 8% in Cluster 2. Comparisons within Cluster 1 between subgroups of toddlers having ASD+ versus ASD− 36-month outcomes revealed significantly lower functioning in the ASD+ subgroup across cognitive, motor, social, language, symbolic, and speech dimensions. Findings suggest profiles of early development associated with resiliency and vulnerability to later ASD diagnosis, with multidimensional developmental lags signaling vulnerability to ASD diagnosis.
An introduction and overview to the subject of biological diversity (biodiversity) is provided, and more specifically the systematic conservation and sustainable utilization of plant genetic diversity. The copious wealth of plant diversity provides the primary production to feed us all and among which we live is threatened by human mismanagement; plant diversity at the habitat, species and genetic levels is threatened to a degree never seen previously in our planet’s history. This chapter illustrates the range of plant diversity at the habitat, species and genetic levels, where plants are found and reviews the threats it currently faces. Also, the importance of genetic diversity is emphasized, why we need it and how it can be used to provide food security and other ecosystem services. The strategies and techniques used to conserve plant diversity are defined and the concept of complementary conservation is introduced. The chapter also provides an overview of the ways humankind exploits and utilizes plant diversity.
The legacy of apartheid that legalized racial separation and discrimination continues to haunt South African society as evidenced in the growing number of verbal and violent racist attacks. Socially disadvantaged children and youth in South Africa lack social support and access to healthcare. The high incidence of head trauma in South Africa is related to the increasing rate of mental illness. In particular, mild traumatic brain injuries pose serious threats to the mental and physical health of children and adolescents. This chapter highlights the vulnerability to further trauma facing children with mild traumatic head injury when confronting security challenges and argues for the evolution of mental education to law enforcement and legal structures to provide appropriate protective care to child and adolescent victims of mild traumatic head injuries.
Children and young people in Mexico face problematic situations such as poverty, child labor, marginalization, lack of education, and violence. Their vulnerability is a matter of social justice and it has been an important concern for civil society, nongovernmental organizations, and public institutions. These issues have been addressed throughout the ratification of international conventions and protocols. At the national level, laws have been enacted; groups and institutions have committed to protect young population and guarantee their development, considering their rights, needs, and opinions. Although much has been done, it has not been enough. Facts such as corruption, abuse of power, insecurity due to organized crime, discrimination, stigmatization, labor exploitation, human trafficking, and ethnic, spatial, socioeconomic, and gender inequality are barriers to solutions. In general terms, vulnerability increases in indigenous and rural populations and among those who face extreme poverty.
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, with its associated restrictions on daily life, is like a perfect storm for poor mental health and wellbeing. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health and wellbeing during the ongoing pandemic in Sweden.
Standardized measures of depression, anxiety, and insomnia as well as measures of risk and vulnerability factors known to be associated with poor mental health outcomes were administered through a national, online, cross-sectional survey (n = 1,212; mean age 36.1 years; 73% women).
Our findings show significant levels of depression, anxiety, and insomnia in Sweden, at rates of 30%, 24.2%, and 38%, respectively. The strongest predictors of these outcomes included poor self-rated overall health and a history of mental health problems. The presence of COVID-19 symptoms and specific health and financial worries related to the pandemic also appeared important.
The impacts of COVID-19 on mental health in Sweden are comparable to impacts shown in previous studies in Italy and China. Importantly, the pandemic seems to impose most on the mental health of those already burdened with the impacts of mental health problems. These results provide a basis for providing more support for vulnerable groups, and for developing psychological interventions suited to the ongoing pandemic and for similar events in the future.
To evaluate the association between Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) and complementary feeding in children under 2 years old assisted by the Conditional Cash Transfer programme, Bolsa Família (BFP).
Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through a standardised form, questionnaire to assess the eating habits of children under 2 years of age, capillary Hb (HemoCue®) and the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale. Associations were calculated using hierarchical Poisson regression, adjusted at the last level by socio-economic, demographic and environmental variables from previous hierarchical levels.
Six municipalities from the State of Alagoas, Brazil.
Children aged 6–24 months assisted by BFP.
A total of 1604 children were evaluated, among whom 58·1 % had anaemia. A higher number of food groups consumed (prevalence ratio (PR) = 0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·99; P = 0·009), the consumption of dairy (PR = 0·86; 95 % CI 0·79, 0·84; P = 0·001) and meat (PR = 0·90; 95 % CI 0·83, 0·99; P = 0·030) in addition to bottle feeding (PR = 0·88; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·96; P = 0·004) were associated with a lower prevalence of IDA.
IDA is still a serious public health problem in children under 2 years old assisted by BFP in Alagoas. We highlight the importance of promoting complementary feeding based on a diversified dietary intake, as well strengthening prophylactic supplementation programmes to increase children’s adherence in conjunction with the implementation of food and nutrition education to help reduce the prevalence of this condition.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest in, or ability to experience pleasure from, common rewarding stimuli – is implicated in addictive behaviors. Integrative reviews of extant research on the role of anhedonia in understanding addictive behaviors are dated and overlook nonsubstance addictions. This chapter reviews the anhedonia construct, describes theoretical models of mechanisms linking anhedonia to addiction, summarizes and synthesizes the empirical evidence on anhedonia in addictive behaviors in humans, and proposes future research directions. From the literature review and integration, it is concluded that: (1) anhedonia may be a risk factor and consequence of addictive behaviors, (2) anhedonia may increase motivation to engage in addictive behaviors to offset deficient pleasure, and (3) anhedonia is generally correlated with onset, escalation, persistence, and relapse to a variety of addictive behaviors in prior research. Addictive agents, intervention applications, and other topics overlooked in the study of anhedonia in addictive behaviors warrant further inquiry to advance addiction science and practice.
This article investigates the implications of recent research findings that establish that older victims of crime are less likely to obtain procedural justice than other age groups. It explores original empirical data from the United Kingdom that finds evidence of a systemic failure amongst agencies to identify vulnerability in the older population and to put in place appropriate support mechanisms to allow older victims to participate fully in the justice system. The article discusses how the legally defined gateways to additional support, which are currently relied upon by many common law jurisdictions, disadvantage older victims and require reimagining. It argues that international protocols, especially the current European Union Directive on victims’ rights, are valuable guides in this process of re-conceptualisation. To reduce further the inequitable treatment of older victims, the article advocates for jurisdictions to introduce a presumption in favour of special assistance for older people participating in the justice system.
The health belief model and protection motivation theory are two of the earliest formulated expectancy-value accounts of behavior change. Across nearly six decades, the importance of these accounts has persisted. Both models advocate that behavior change is a consequence of two important processes: threat appraisal comprising the extent to which an individual perceives personal susceptibility to a consequence, combined with the severity of that consequence, and coping appraisal comprising evaluations of the likely efficacy of a recommended action to reduce threat, expectations that taking that action will involve difficulties and psychological costs, and personal efficacy to achieve behavior change. Multiple studies support the predictive validity of the models and many interventions have been developed based on the theoretical principles provided. Behavior change based on these models requires careful consideration of behavior-specific cognitions and careful targeting of these cognitions. Moreover, behavior change interventions should target threat appraisal enhancement only in combination with detailed and extensive training or communication that targets efficacy to enact behavior change.
In this article, we seek to develop a framework of childcare vulnerabilities experienced by children, parents and providers engaged in the formal, unregulated childcare market. Informed by vulnerability theorists who examine care work within the context of dependency and power relations, we explore the extent to which notions of vulnerability have been considered in childcare research. Five types of vulnerability from the literature – physical, emotional, economic, legal and racial – are mapped onto the experiences of children, parents and providers. We conceptualise an understanding of vulnerability as it relates to unregulated childcare, showing how vulnerability in this sector is compound, interrelated and structural, creating specific challenges.
This study examined factors that were associated with the effectiveness of pre-existing household emergency plans during the 2011 EF5 Joplin and EF4 Tuscaloosa tornadoes. We focused on whether discussing with family members helped increase the plan’s effectiveness.
A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with 1006 respondents in both cities. Each city experienced huge losses, injuries, and casualties. The working sample included 494 respondents who had a household emergency plan in place before these tornadoes.
Multinomial logistic regression showed that discussing with family members increased the helpfulness of the plan in Joplin, where people had not experienced tornadoes frequently and were less prepared for tornadoes relative to residents in Tuscaloosa.
This study provides empirical evidence on the importance of encouraging family involvement when making household emergency plans, especially in places that are less prepared for disasters than those that are better prepared.
In research and clinical practice, familial risk for depression and anxiety is often constructed as a simple Yes/No dichotomous family history (FH) indicator. However, this measure may not fully capture the liability to these conditions. This study investigated whether a continuous familial loading score (FLS), incorporating family- and disorder-specific characteristics (e.g. family size, prevalence of depression/anxiety), (i) is associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for major depression and with clinical/psychosocial vulnerabilities and (ii) still captures variation in clinical/psychosocial vulnerabilities after information on FH has been taken into account.
Data came from 1425 participants with lifetime depression and/or anxiety from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The Family Tree Inventory was used to determine FLS/FH indicators for depression and/or anxiety.
Persons with higher FLS had higher PRS for major depression, more severe depression and anxiety symptoms, higher disease burden, younger age of onset, and more neuroticism, rumination, and childhood trauma. Among these variables, FH was not associated with PRS, severity of symptoms, and neuroticism. After regression out the effect of FH from the FLS, the resulting residualized measure of FLS was still associated with severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety, rumination, and childhood trauma.
Familial risk for depression and anxiety deserves clinical attention due to its associated genetic vulnerability and more unfavorable disease profile, and seems to be better captured by a continuous score that incorporates family- and disorder-specific characteristics than by a dichotomous FH measure.
Spatially and temporally unpredictable rainfall patterns presented food production challenges to small-scale agricultural communities, requiring multiple risk-mitigating strategies to increase food security. Although site-based investigations of the relationship between climate and agricultural production offer insights into how individual communities may have created long-term adaptations to manage risk, the inherent spatial variability of climate-driven risk makes a landscape-scale perspective valuable. In this article, we model risk by evaluating how the spatial structure of ancient climate conditions may have affected the reliability of three major strategies used to reduce risk: drawing upon social networks in time of need, hunting and gathering of wild resources, and storing surplus food. We then explore how climate-driven changes to this reliability may relate to archaeologically observed social transformations. We demonstrate the utility of this methodology by comparing the Salinas and Cibola regions in the prehispanic U.S. Southwest to understand the complex relationship among climate-driven threats to food security, risk-mitigation strategies, and social transformations. Our results suggest key differences in how communities buffered against risk in the Cibola and Salinas study regions, with the structure of precipitation influencing the range of strategies to which communities had access through time.
In this chapter, you will develop your understanding of: skills in organisation and time management, dealing with vulnerability and pressure, strategies for self-care and caring for others while studying, and managing expectations and study.
The COVID-19 global crisis is reshaping Canadian society in unexpected and profound ways. The significantly higher morbidity and mortality risks by age suggest that this is largely a “gero-pandemic,” which has thrust the field of aging onto center stage. This editorial emphasizes that vulnerable older adults are also those most affected by COVID-19 in terms of infection risk, negative health effects, and the potential deleterious outcomes on a range of social, psychological, and economic contexts – from ageism to social isolation. We also contend that the pathogenic analysis of this pandemic needs to be balanced with a salutogenic approach that examines the positive adaptation of people, systems and society, termed COVID-19 resilience. This begs the question: how and why do some older adults and communities adapt and thrive better than others? This examination will lead to the identification and response to research and data gaps, challenges, and innovative opportunities as we plan for a future in which COVID-19 has become another endemic infection in the growing list of emerging and re-emerging pathogens.
Over the last decades, various groups seeking international legal recognition of new human rights claims have succeeded in their endeavors. Some movements have crafted such convincing demands that their participation has even become an implicit condition of the legitimacy of the resulting human rights documents. But what are the bases of claims for new human rights, and how do they help to confront the argument that human rights’ expansion also entails their dilution? This Article explores narratives based on two different concepts, namely the political-science concept of affectedness and the legal-ethical concept of vulnerability. It does so by drawing on the process for the recognition of peasant human rights at the United Nations. The Article explores what it understands as the peasant critique of existing human rights by looking at the differences and interrelations between affectedness and vulnerability-based argumentation. It argues that an approach premised purely on affectedness, and thus focused on participation, is less empowering than one that includes a regard for vulnerability, which serves as a heuristic device for identifying and challenging inequalities, demands substantive outcomes, and can serve to craft a convincing theoretical account of human rights protections.
Acute cannabis administration can produce transient psychotic-like effects in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs and which factors predict vulnerability remain unclear. We investigate whether cannabis inhalation leads to psychotic-like symptoms and speech illusion; and whether cannabidiol (CBD) blunts such effects (study 1) and adolescence heightens such effects (study 2).
Two double-blind placebo-controlled studies, assessing speech illusion in a white noise task, and psychotic-like symptoms on the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Study 1 compared effects of Cann-CBD (cannabis containing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and negligible levels of CBD) with Cann+CBD (cannabis containing THC and CBD) in 17 adults. Study 2 compared effects of Cann-CBD in 20 adolescents and 20 adults. All participants were healthy individuals who currently used cannabis.
In study 1, relative to placebo, both Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD increased PSI scores but not speech illusion. No differences between Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD emerged. In study 2, relative to placebo, Cann-CBD increased PSI scores and incidence of speech illusion, with the odds of experiencing speech illusion 3.1 (95% CIs 1.3–7.2) times higher after Cann-CBD. No age group differences were found for speech illusion, but adults showed heightened effects on the PSI.
Inhalation of cannabis reliably increases psychotic-like symptoms in healthy cannabis users and may increase the incidence of speech illusion. CBD did not influence psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Adolescents may be less vulnerable to acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis than adults.
The World Health Organization estimates about 1.5 million deaths by suicide per year worldwide by 2020. We will discuss how social adversity and psychological/social pain interact in this model and help to better understand suicidal process at individual level.
Émile Durkheim  viewed suicide as a social fact. According to his theory the variations in suicidal rate on a macro-level could also be explained by society-scale phenomena rather than individual's feelings and motivations. In the 21st century, three major points have to be highlighted to underline a possible relationship between economic crisis and suicide:
– suicide rate of employees is becoming more similar to the suicide rate of workers while working conditions are getting worse;
– increase of suicide rate for young working men was observed since 1970, i.e. the beginning of oil crisis;
– suicides in workplace occur, sometimes serial suicides in (inter)national companies. Nowadays, suicidal acts may be best understood within a stress-vulnerability model, where it is assumed that only vulnerable patients, when submitted to environmental stressors, will kill themselves.
At the individual level, the transition to the suicidal act is usually precipitated by psychosocial stress. Nearly all suicide victims have experienced at least one or more adverse life event within 1 year of death (concentrated in last few months). Interpersonal conflict was at the greatest risk of suicidal act . Being excluded or rejected signals a threat for which reflexive detection in the form of pain and distress is adaptive for survival . Thus, we assume that social pain should be considered as a subtype of psychological pain emerging from the threat of affiliation. Unbearable pain, particularly psychological pain, is a frequent theme of suicide notes. Thus, suicidal acts should be considered as the expression of an attempt to escape from this psychological suffering.