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Close relationships are, at the same time, a source of risk and a resource that can mitigate risk, fear, and insecurity. Specifically, close relationships provide the potential for rejection and hurt, but a) close others can behave in ways that diminish these perceived relational risks to encourage deepening connection, and b) involvement in close relationships can mitigate risks external to relationships (i.e., risks in the physical and social environment) to facilitate personal thriving. This chapter will describe the relational risks individuals face when they form interdependent relationships as well as partner behaviors that demonstrate commitment and promote trust (e.g., sacrifice, affectionate touch) to reduce the perceived cost of interdependence. Although all people are subjected to risks when they form interdependent relationships, individuals differ in the extent to which they perceive risks and in the ways in which their partners might mitigate these risks. People with insecure attachment orientations (i.e., high levels of attachment anxiety and/or attachment avoidance) are especially concerned with relational risks, and they benefit when partners enact behaviors that are sensitive to their specific insecurities. In addition to relational risks, this chapter will also describe how partners regulate external risks that people face when they experience threats (e.g., stressors, health problems) or opportunities (e.g., goals, positive challenges). Research suggests that supportive and affectionate partner behaviors provide a sense of security to mitigate external risks and encourage exploration, which may be especially critical for individuals with insecure attachment orientations. Finally, this chapter will conclude with suggestions for future research.
This essay situates two embodied practices of palliative care, namely, the act of sitting with another in silence, and the act of gentle touch, within the broader conceptual framework of creatio ex nihilo. Centring on themes of particularity, creatureliness, and relationality, I argue that these practices, understood theologically, can be reframed as active participations in the self-giving love of God – thus setting forth a mode of loving relation with the dying person, rooted in a deep, attentive presence.
3D printing is a rapidly developing technology that has been championed as a revolutionary tool for the museums and heritage sector. Prints can provide innovative and engaging haptic experiences with objects in collections that cannot be handled, akin to craft replicas that have traditionally been employed. Large museums now regularly commission prints, yet evidence for the success of their deployment is largely anecdotal. This review considers how 3D prints have been utilized in museum contexts, with a focus on their successes and weaknesses as tools for public engagement.
This article examines the persistence of the handshake in business circles despite its implication in the spread of communicable disease in contemporary pandemic culture. An examination of business etiquette discourse suggests that even during disease outbreaks or flu season, the business handshake remains an important visual and haptic legal gesture. While it may no longer produce a binding legal contract, it stages the parties as contractable subjects, as claiming the status of autonomous individuals committed to defining their intersubjective relationship through the norms of contract. The business handshake thus operates as a cultural site for the complex interaction of bodies and law, and the production of masculine, haptic-legal subjectivity.
Visiting an overcrowded prison is a journey into the private life of each person deprived of his or her freedom, into the community of the detainees and of the staff working in such a place. Using the senses of sight, hearing, smell and touch, combined with empathy and time for observation, helps ICRC delegates to explore vulnerabilities, discover how detainees and staff cope, and grasp the intricate complexity of such a prison system. Beyond what is left of human dignity in these places of detention, when coping mechanisms become survival mechanisms, the suffering shows that overcrowding is wrong. It follows that if overcrowding is “nobody's fault”, it is the responsibility of every individual and every institution of the criminal justice system to create solutions.
Online supply-chain financing has been a relatively novel funding channel for suppliers as small- and medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”) to obtain loans in that the revolution of financial technology (“FinTech”) transforms traditional supply-chain financing, which used to be administered only by official banks, to an online model also used by electronic commerce platforms (“e-commerce platform”). Endeavours towards financial inclusion of the underserved SMEs could rationalize why we should allow for or encourage FinTech innovations exemplified by the online supply-chain financing mentioned above. What would be an adaptive regulatory regime for such innovative FinTech-enabled financial services as the online supply-chain financing? Within our conceptual framework to regulate the FinTech industry at the early stage, rather than rigorous rules traditionally placed on large financial institutions, a principles-based strategy should be adopted to strike a balance between financial stability and access to financial services advanced by disruptive innovations. As a necessary complement, regulatory sandboxes would be needed to spur a shift in institutional philosophy to a principles-based regulatory regime. In other words, the regulatory attitude of FinTech regulation should be humble and light-touch to promote innovation for improving digital financial inclusion, albeit on the premise of containing potential systemic risk and protecting consumer interest in the meantime.
Our aim was to evaluate the role of sucrose and the role of smell, taste and touch in the selection and consumption of fruit in wild spider monkeys. We recorded the feeding bouts of 14 adults for 9 mo in the Otoch Ma’ax Yetel Kooh Reserve, Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. For each of 2346 inspections on fruits of six species the consumption or rejection and the use of touch, smell and taste was recorded. Ten fruit samples (five ripe and five unripe) from each species were collected and the sucrose concentration was determined with a refractometer. As expected, sucrose concentrations were higher in ripe than unripe fruits. The difference in sucrose concentration between ripe and unripe fruits was positively associated with the proportion of inspections on ripe fruits and the proportion of consumed ripe fruits. Furthermore, the senses of touch and taste were used more often when fruits were ripe, whereas the sense of smell was used more often when fruits were unripe. The results suggest that sensory cues and sucrose concentration play important roles in fruit selection in spider monkeys.
This chapter deals with Immanuel Kant's remarks on touch and vision into the context of his pragmatic anthropology, by considering his views of the scope, aims, and methods of that fledgling discipline. Kant supports his discussion with appeals to observation and experience that form a kind of everyday phenomenology of sensory experience. The chapter considers Kant's notion of the relation between the pragmatic and the theoretical, including his remarks that a pragmatic anthropology does not present theoretical or scholastic knowledge but focuses on worldly knowledge. Kant derived the framework for his discussion of the five external senses from his lectures on metaphysics, especially those on empirical psychology. In both empirical psychology and anthropology he categorizes the senses into those that are comparatively objective and those that are comparatively subjective: the objective senses provide more cognition, and provide occasion for reflection, but the subjective senses have more sensation than reflection.
The micropylar region of endosperm (ME) is a physical barrier to radicle emergence in seeds of many different species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana. ME is thought to be weakened through cell wall-modifying proteins, and this is supported by transcriptome data showing enrichment of cell wall-associated genes in ME. Gibberellin and ethylene have been suggested to be involved in induction of these genes in ME. However, mechanisms underlying this critical event for germination still remain elusive. In addition to hormonal regulation of ME weakening, recent data from high-throughput analyses suggested that it might be important for the radicle tip to ‘touch’ ME (or mechanosensing), in terms of ME-specific gene induction. This emerging hypothesis can be integrated with previous hypotheses about hormonal regulation of ME-specific gene expression in seeds.
Methods: Participants were enrolled primary school scholars. A total number of eighty-six participants (172 ears) were included. Of these eighty-six participants, forty-four were female and forty-two were male; with the age ranging from 8 years to 10 years (mean age, 9.0 years). Each participant underwent two audiological screening evaluations; one by means of conventional audiometry and the other by means of UHear™. Otoscopy and tympanometry was performed on each participant to determine status of their outer and middle ear before each participant undergoing pure tone air conduction screening by means of conventional audiometer and UHear™. The lowest audible hearing thresholds from each participant were obtained at conventional frequencies.
Results: Using the Paired t-test, it was determined that there was a significant statistical difference between hearing screening thresholds obtained from conventional audiometry and UHear™. The screening thresholds obtained from UHear™ were significantly elevated (worse) in comparison to conventional audiometry. The difference in thresholds may be attributed to differences in transducers used, ambient noise levels and lack of calibration of UHear™.
Conclusion: The UHear™ is not as accurate as conventional audiometry in determining hearing thresholds during screening of school-aged children. Caution needs to be exercised when using such measures and research evidence needs to be established before they can be endorsed and used with the general public.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are high aspect ratio conducting nanocylinders possessing unprecedented mechanical, thermal, optical, and electronic properties. They are ideal building blocks for use in assembling a randomly oriented, highly connected nanoporous network. When this network is deposited on top of a substrate surface as a thin film with a thickness in the range of 10–100 nm, it becomes a transparent conducting film—an ubiquitous material, currently dominated by tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). This article reviews recent progress in CNT transparent conducting films and discusses fundamental properties of CNTs important for the formation of these films, methods for CNT dispersion and assembling CNTs into transparent conducting films, properties of the CNT transparent conducting films, and issues remaining to be solved in order to make these films a commercially viable alternative to ITO.
Gestures play an important role in communication. They support the listener, who is trying to understand the speaker. However, they also support the speaker by facilitating the conceptualization and verbalization of messages and reducing cognitive load. Gestures thus play an important role in collaboration and also in problem-solving tasks. In human–computer interaction, gestures are also used to facilitate communication with digital applications, because their expressive nature can enable less constraining and more intuitive digital interactions than conventional user interfaces. Although gesture research in the social sciences typically considers empty-handed gestures, digital gesture interactions often make use of hand-held objects or touch surfaces to capture gestures that would be difficult to track in free space. In most cases, the physical objects used to make these gestures serve primarily as a means of sensing or input. In contrast, tangible interaction makes use of physical objects as embodiments of digital information. The physical objects in a tangible interface thus serve as representations as well as controls for the digital information they are associated with. Building on this concept, gesture interaction has the potential to make use of the physical properties of hand-held objects to enhance or change the functionality of the gestures made. In this paper, we look at the design opportunities that arise at the intersection of gesture and tangible interaction. We believe that gesturing while holding physical artifacts opens up a new interaction design space for collaborative digital applications that is largely unexplored. We provide a survey of gesture interaction work as it relates to tangible and touch interaction. Based on this survey, we define the design space of tangible gesture interaction as the use of physical devices for facilitating, supporting, enhancing, or tracking gestures people make for digital interaction purposes, and outline the design opportunities in this space.
Symptom assessment is important in palliative care. Computerized technology (CT) is now available for use in such assessments. Barriers against implementation of CT in health care in general are well known, but less is known about how such technology is perceived by palliative health care personnel. The aim of the present study was to investigate the experience with implementation of CT among personnel in symptom assessment at a palliative care unit.
Seventeen respondents from a hospital ward unit and an outpatient clinic unit participated in an in-depth interview. A qualitative approach was used in collecting and analyzing the data.
Respondents at the hospital ward unit were better motivated than respondents at an outpatient clinic unit. It was stated that the health condition of the patient is important in their perception of the tool as useful or not. Conflicts between “high tech” and “high touch” were reported in both units.
Significance of results:
When the implementation process is conducted in such a manner that the health care personnel are involved, benefits of the tool can be realized. Thus, effective implementation and use of high tech can lead to more time released for high touch.
Management methods for invasive species vary in their restoration success in the presence or absence of herbivores. We investigated the performance of understory plants after management of the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle using two herbicide-based methods (cut/paint and basal application) in fenced and unfenced plots. The cut/paint method resulted in the removal of above-ground stems, while the basal application method resulted in the dead stems remaining in place. Light level in the cut/paint treatment was higher than in the basal application treatment, which was higher than in the control (no management) treatment. Across fencing treatments, fruit production, height, and subsequent recruitment of transplanted jewelweed were greater in the cut/paint treatment. Across management treatments, jewelweed plants were taller in the fenced treatment. Native species richness was generally higher in the cut/paint and basal application treatments than in the control treatment. There were more jewelweed recruits, more jewelweed fruits, and greater native species richness in the cut/paint treatment than in the basal application treatment in fenced plots, but these measures were similar in both management treatments in unfenced plots. Thus standing dead stems of Amur honeysuckle offered protection from damage in the presence of herbivores, offsetting the advantage of the cut/paint method seen in the fenced plots. There was a trend for more leaves of transplanted wild ginger in the basal application treatment. There were more invasive garlic mustard and more Amur honeysuckle seedlings in the cut/paint treatment than in the control treatment. Our results illustrate the complexities involved in selecting appropriate restoration management techniques given herbivore pressure, differential species response, and presence of multiple invasive species. In our study, we demonstrated that the basal application honeysuckle management method (and therefore perhaps similar methods that leave the dead stems standing) led to increased understory plant restoration success when compared to the cut/paint method.
The paper deals with an optimal control problem with
a scalar first-order state constraint and a
In presence of (nonessential) touch points,
the arc structure of the trajectory is not stable.
Under some reasonable assumptions,
we show that boundary arcs are structurally stable, and
that touch point can either remain so, vanish or be transformed into a single boundary arc. Assuming a weak second-order optimality condition (equivalent to uniform quadratic growth), stability and sensitivity results are given. The main tools are the study of a quadratic
tangent problem and the notion of strong regularity.
Those results enable us to design a new continuation algorithm,
presented at the end of the paper, that handles automatically changes in the structure of the trajectory.
Isolation and separation of the target microbe or cell from a large heterogeneous population is quite important. We propose a new touch sensor that is used for the separation of the target microbe with a pipette. This sensor is sensitive enough to protect the fragile pipette tip from abrupt collision. Using this sensor, we developed a novel separation system for screening a target microorganisms from the randomly distributed samples in the dish with the local viscosity control of the thermosensitive hydrogel. With this system, the target yeast cell was extracted successfully.