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The incidence of prosthetic valve implantation is increasing in the paediatric population. Prosthetic valve thrombosis leading to obstruction could potentially be a life-threatening complication. There is a debate regarding optimal management of this complication, and there is limited use of thrombolytic therapy in childhood in the setting of valve thrombosis.
We aim to share our experience of successfully using fibrinolytic therapy in terms of alteplase for paediatric prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis and to propose a management algorithm.
This retrospective analysis of the database was conducted at our hospital including patients who underwent thrombolysis (alteplase) for prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis from June, 2011 to June, 2021. A total of 10 patients with 20 attempts of alteplase infusion were found in our record.
Alteplase was successful in 19 attempts to relieve valve thrombosis. The safe and effective dose of alteplase was between 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/hour. There were no associated major bleeding complications and alteplase was administered either by central or peripheral line.
Thrombolysis by alteplase infusion was found to be successful in relief of prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis in paediatric population without major bleeding complications.
Infradiaphragmatic partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is occasionally diagnosed in adulthood. Management of infradiaphragmatic PAPVC depends on anatomy and clinical presentation.
Over a 10-year period, we observed seven adult patients (median age 29 years) with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. We classified our patients in two groups. Group I: isolated partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection from one pulmonary lobe to the inferior vena cava, three patients. Group II: partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection of the entire right lung to IVC, four patients.
The mean term follow-up was 5.4 years. Patients in Group I have been managed conservatively, as they were asymptomatic, without a significant shunt. Patients in Group II were surgically corrected using long right intra-atrial baffles. After 6 months of follow-up, the first two cases were diagnosed with complete tunnel thrombosis and loss of right lung function. Oral anticoagulation failed to recanalize the tunnel. Considering this serious complication, the other two patients were empirically and preventively treated with anticoagulation after surgery, with good outcome on long-term follow-up.
Conservative management should be considered for asymptomatic patients, without a significant shunt. Surgical treatment of infradiaphragmatic partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection of the entire right lung in inferior vena cava is challenging. Slow blood flow inside the long intra-atrial baffles inclines to thrombosis and occlusion, as we observed in two cases. Therefore, oral anticoagulation should be considered for long baffles with slow blood flow.
A 6-year-old boy, born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, underwent total cavopulmonary connection and later presented in a significantly deteriorated condition. A CT scan revealed multiple thrombi in the extracardiac conduit, although the patient was maintained on an effective anticoagulant therapy. Further examination revealed anamnestic antibodies suggesting that the patient had gone through a clinically inapparent COVID-19 infection, which we conclude most likely contributed to his hypercoagulable state and led to the formation of significant thrombi impairing the patient’s haemodynamics. The patient underwent a surgical thrombectomy; there were no post-operative thrombotic complications.
Paediatric otogenic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, heterogeneous and life-threatening condition, with possible otological, neurological and ophthalmological sequelae. Its course and outcomes can be widely variable. The publications available often consider individual aspects of paediatric otogenic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis management. The condition itself and the nature of the currently available guidance can lead to uncertainties when holistically managing patients with paediatric otogenic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.
Clear recommendations for the comprehensive assessment and management of paediatric otogenic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis are presented, along with the literature review upon which they are based. Its clinical and radiological assessment are discussed.
A multidisciplinary approach to assessment and management is recommended, inclusive of infectious diseases, ENT surgery, neurology, ophthalmology and haematology. On balance, anticoagulation is recommended for three months. Follow-up imaging is not recommended in the absence of clinical concern. Follow up by ENT surgery, neurology and ophthalmology departments is recommended.
Acute stent thrombosis may complicate neonatal arterial duct stenting for reduced pulmonary blood flow. Thrombolytic agents recanalise the clot but may cause bleeding around the vascular sheaths and other sites. Since early thrombus is platelet mediated, intravenous platelet glycoprotein inhibitor like eptifibatide is likely to be effective, but rarely utilised in neonates. Ductal stent thrombosis treated with eptifibatide is reported.
Patients with cyanotic heart disease are at an increased risk of developing thrombosis. Aspirin has been the mainstay of prophylactic anticoagulation for shunt-dependent patients with several reports of prevalent aspirin resistance, especially in neonates. We investigate the incidence of aspirin resistance and its relationship to thrombotic events and mortality in a cohort of infants with shunt-dependent physiology.
Aspirin resistance was assessed using the VerifyNow™ test on infants with single-ventricle physiology following shunt-dependent palliation operations. In-hospital thrombotic events and mortality data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of aspirin resistance on in-hospital thrombotic events and mortality risk.
Forty-nine patients were included with 41 of these patients being neonates. Six patients (12%) were aspirin resistant. A birth weight < 2500 grams was a significant factor associated with aspirin resistance (p = 0.04). Following a dose increase or additional dose administration, all patients with initial aspirin resistance had a normal aspirin response. There was no statistically significant difference between aspirin resistance and non-resistance groups with respect to thrombotic events. However, a statistically significant incidence of in-hospital mortality in the presence of thrombotic events was observed amongst aspirin-resistant patients (p = 0.04) in this study.
Low birth weight was associated with a higher incidence of aspirin resistance. Inadequate initial dosing appears to be the primary reason for aspirin resistance. The presence of both thrombotic events and aspirin resistance was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality indicating that these patients warrant closer monitoring.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is inexpensive and is established in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal adenomas. Omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have also shown benefit in preventing CVD. The combination could be an effective preventative measure in patients with such diseases. ASA and n3 PUFA reduced the risk of CVD in ASA-resistant or diabetic patients. EPA- and DHA-deficient patients also benefited the most from n3 PUFA supplementation. Synergistic effects between ASA and EPA and DHA are ‘V-shaped’ such that optimal ASA efficacy is dependent on EPA and DHA concentrations in blood. In colorectal adenomas, ASA (300 mg/d) and EPA reduced adenoma burden in a location- and subtype-specific manner. Low doses of ASA (75–100 mg/d) were used in CVD prevention; however, ultra-low doses (30 mg/d) can also reduce thrombosis. EPA-to-DHA ratio is also important with regard to efficacy. DHA is more effective in reducing blood pressure and modulating systemic inflammation; however, high-dose EPA can lower CVD events in high-risk individuals. Although current literature has yet to examine ASA and DHA in preventing CVD, such combination warrants further investigation. To increase adherence to ASA and n3 PUFA supplementation, combination dosage form may be required to improve outcomes.
Bleeding in the perioperative period of congenital heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased morbidity and mortality both from the direct effects of haemorrhage as well as the therapies deployed to restore haemostasis. Perioperative bleeding is complex and multifactorial with both patient and procedural contributions. Moreover, neonates and infants are especially at risk. The objective of this review is to summarise the evidence regarding bleeding management in paediatric surgical patients and identify strategies that might facilitate appropriate bleeding management while minimising the risk of thrombosis. We will address the use of standard and point-of-care tests, and the role of contemporary coagulation factors and other novel drugs.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in women worldwide. Clinical research indicates that BC patients are at an increased risk for thrombotic events, drastically decreasing their quality-of-life and treatment outcomes. There is ample evidence of this in the literature, but it is mainly focused on metastatic BC. Therefore, coagulopathies of nonmetastatic BC are understudied and require in-depth investigation. In this study, clot kinetics and ultrastructure were used to investigate treatment-naïve, nonmetastatic BC patients using scanning electron microscopy, Thromboelastography®, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was demonstrated that nonmetastatic BC patients exhibit minimal ultrastructural alterations of the clot components and no changes in the clot kinetics. However, BC patients presented changes to fibrinogen protein structure, compared to matched controls, using an amyloid-selective stain. Together, these findings suggest that coagulation dysfunction(s) in BC patients with early disease manifest at the microlevel, rather than the macrolevel. This study presents novel insights to a method that are more sensitive to coagulation changes in this specific patient group, emphasizing that the coagulation system may react in different forms to the disease, depending on the progression of the disease itself.
Symptomatic presentation of ductal arteriosus aneurysm is usually a consequence of associated complications, including thromboembolism, infection, and compression of adjacent structures. In this case report, we present a thrombosed ductal aneurysm that developed antenatally with further postnatal progression of the thrombus and complete occlusion of the left pulmonary artery. Urgent surgical thrombectomy was successful and the post-operative course was uneventful.
Perioperative management of hemostasis and coagulopathy is a complex, time-sensitive task for the anesthesiologist. The combination of anticoagulant medications and possible inherent bleeding disorders makes the ability to diagnose potential causes and risks of bleeding and guide therapy critically important. Point-of-care testing is an essential tool that has been used in clinical practice for decades and provides rapid results at the bedside. This chapter details recent advances in the monitoring of coagulation and hemostasis to assist the practitioner in guiding therapy, reduce the administration of unnecessary blood products, and improve patient outcomes
Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common illness with significant mortality without appropriate treatment. Its disease severity is variable, difficult to prognosticate and triage of severe PE remains a patient safety concern. Some PE may benefit from invasive and advanced medical therapy, but these decisions require complex multi-disciplinary coordinated care. We have launched a multi-disciplinary rapid response team at the Foothills Medical Center Hospital (FMC) to assist prognostication, treatment, disposition planning, and followup for high-risk PE: The Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT). Aim Statement: PERT has been implemented to improve patient-oriented outcomes however, as severe PE is infrequent, we initially target process measures. In the first year of PERT rollout, we aim for: 1) 100% of high risk PE be detected by emergency for PERT consult 2) PERT response be within 45 minutes of activation 3) PERT treatment and disposition be made within 1 hour of consult. 4) > 80% of patient dispositions match those informed by evidence-based risk stratification tools. Measures & Design: Through collaboration between emergency medicine, radiology, cardiac sciences, medical specialties and critical care, a collective evidence-based PE risk stratification/treatment pathway was developed. This has been disseminated to providers and embedding into electronic medical records (EMR) for computer assisted decision-making support. EMR data has been harmonized with standardized radiographic reporting for PE to cue reporting of high risk imaging findings. Standardized imaging and EMR prognostic factors flag high risk PE suggesting PERT activation. PERT standard operating procedures have been developed, including evidenced-based pathways for further therapy, advanced imaging, and subspecialized disposition planning. Clinical services meet quarterly, and review dashboard summary data on clinical adverse events, resource utilization, and time data of patient flow to revise PE care pathways. Evaluation/Results: PERT activations occur approximately 2 times weekly. Adherence to operating procedures is high. Feedback post implementation cites improved adherence to evidence-based practice, clearer communication, and faster patient disposition. Quantitative analysis of performance is limited by infrequency of cases. Discussion/Impact: Our project shows feasibility of a PERT service. Pre-implementation data is collected, and we are currently measuring these post. We suspect signal of improved patient-oriented outcomes will be detected with more cases.
Introduction: Diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of critical importance because of its associated morbidity and mortality. Diagnosing DVT can be challenging in the Emergency Department (ED) due to inconsistent adherence to, and utilization of the Wells rule. Both the age-adjusted and clinical probability adjusted D-dimer have been shown to decrease ultrasound (US) utilization rates. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the Wells score with D-dimer to the age-adjusted and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer in Canadian ED patients tested for DVT. Methods: This was a health records review of ED patients investigated for DVT at two EDs over a two-year period. Inclusion criteria were ED physician ordered duplex ultrasonography or D-dimer for investigation of lower limb DVT. Patients under the age of 18 were excluded. DVT was considered to be present during the ED visit if DVT was diagnosed on duplex ultrasonography and was treated for acute DVT, or if the patient was subsequently diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE) or DVT during the next 30 days. Trained researchers extracted anonymized data. The Wells D-dimer, age-adjusted D-dimer, and the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer rules were applied retrospectively. The rate of duplex ultrasonography imaging and the false negative rate was calculated for each rule. Results: Between April 1st 2013 and March 31st 2015, there were 1,198 patients tested for DVT. Of the low and moderate clinical pretest probability patients (Wells score ≤ 2), only 436 had a D-Dimer test and were eligible for our analysis. The average age of the patients was 59, 56% were female, and 4% had a malignancy. 207/436 patients (47.4%, 95%CI 42.8-52.2%) would have had US imaging for DVT if the age-adjusted D-dimer rule was used. 214/436 patients (49.1%, 95%CI 44.4-53.8%) would have had imaging for DVT if the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer was used. If the Wells rule was used with the standard D-dimer cutoff of 500, 241/436 patients (55.2%, 95%CI 50.6-59.9%) would have had imaging for DVT. The false-negative rate for the Wells rule was 1.5% (95%CI 0.5-4.4%). The false-negative rate for the age-adjusted D-dimer rule was 1.3% (95%CI 0.4-3.8%). The false-negative rate for the clinical-probability adjusted D-Dimer was 1.8% (95%CI 0.7-4.5%). Conclusion: In comparison with the approach of the Wells score and D-dimer, both the age-adjusted and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer diagnostic strategies could reduce the proportion of patients who require US imaging.
The incidence of paediatric venous thromboembolism has steadily increased in the past decade, by nearly 10% per year. Deep venous thrombosis may remain completely asymptomatic during the acute phase and symptoms may occur later, due to complications. We related the case of a 9-month-old child with increasing cyanosis. A computed tomography (CT) angiography showed a thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC) with the development of collateral flow from the systemic to the pulmonary veins. Transcatheter shunt occlusion after SVC recanalization was successfully performed. We discussed the characteristics of these cases and the consequence on our practice in term of treatment (anticoagulation, transcatheter, intervention) and screening.
To analyse the data for patients with otogenic intracranial complications during the study period and draw a comparison with internationally published literature.
A retrospective, observational study was conducted, covering a 10-year period between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2012.
The study comprised 108 patients (66 males (61.1 per cent) and 42 females (38.9 per cent)), of which 75 per cent were aged less than 20 years. Post-auricular swelling, otorrhoea and a decreased level of consciousness were the most frequently reported symptoms in patients with otogenic intracranial complications. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus did not show any different patterns in terms of presentation and outcome.
A triad of post-auricular swelling, otorrhoea and a decreased level of consciousness should make the clinician more heedful of otogenic intracranial complications. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus negative patients were equally affected and had similar presentations. Early surgical management of patients was associated with shorter hospital stays and better outcomes.
A 7-month-old infant presented with bilateral blocked cavo-pulmonary anastomosis within 2 months of surgery. Due to extreme haemodynamic instability, surgical options were abandoned and rescue intervention from left jugular line was planned. Acute thrombosis of the left-sided Glenn was noted with significant anastomotic narrowing. Successful rescue thrombolysis was done using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase) along with balloon dilatation of the attenuated segments.
A brief reprise of normal coronary artery structure is followed by a discussion of normal anatomical variants of the coronary arteries. The commoner abnormal variants, including origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and intramural course of a coronary artery, are described and illustrated, followed by a discussion of coronary fistula and atresia. A section is devoted to the variations in coronary anatomy associated with the commoner forms of congenital heart disease. Coronary arteritis is discussed, chiefly in the context of Kawasaki disease, but polyarteritis and eosinophilic arteritis are also described. Fibromuscular dysplasia is treated in some detail and idiopathic arterial calcification rounds off the chapter.
Transcatheter stent implantation has been employed to treat re-coarctation of the aorta in adolescents and young adults. The aim of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics to characterise haemodynamics associated with re-coarctation involving an aneurysmal ductal ampulla and aortic isthmus narrowing, which created minimal pressure drop, and to incorporate computational fluid dynamics’s findings into decision-making concerning catheter-directed treatment.
Computational fluid dynamics permits numerically solving the Navier–Stokes equations governing pulsatile flow in the aorta, based on patient-specific data. We determined flow-velocity fields, wall shear stresses, oscillatory shear indices, and particle stream traces, which cannot be ascertained from catheterisation data or magnetic resonance imaging.
Computational fluid dynamics showed that, as flow entered the isthmus, it separated from the aortic wall, and created vortices leading to re-circulating low-velocity flow that induced low and multidirectional wall shear stress, which could sustain platelet-mediated thrombus formation in the ampulla. In contrast, as flow exited the isthmus, it created a jet leading to high-velocity flow that induced high and unidirectional wall shear stress, which could eventually undermine the wall of the descending aorta.
We used computational fluid dynamics to study re-coarctation involving an aneurysmal ductal ampulla and aortic isthmus narrowing. Despite minimal pressure drop, computational fluid dynamics identified flow patterns that would place the patient at risk for: thromboembolic events, rupture of the ampulla, and impaired descending aortic wall integrity. Thus, catheter-directed stenting was undertaken and proved successful. Computational fluid dynamics yielded important information, not only about the case presented, but about the complementary role it can serve in the management of patients with complex aortic arch obstruction.
Cannabis smoking is considered the most popular illicit drug used worldwide. We present the case of a 26-year-old male with ST elevation myocardial infarction and heart failure subsequent to cannabis smoking abuse. We searched the literature regarding acute myocardial infarction following cannabis smoking and the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.