To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Chinese government has acknowledged that in order to turn Chinese universities into world class institutions, it will have to grant them a greater degree of autonomy. However, the reforms that have been introduced to achieve this goal run counter to a long tradition of central government oversight. The question now presenting itself is how much actual control government has devolved to universities. The qualitative evidence presented in this paper, obtained through interviews with university presidents and Party secretaries, not only confirms that, as one might expect, Chinese universities continue to operate “in the shadow of hierarchy,” but also and more importantly that formal efforts to devolve authority are being rendered ineffective by informal pressures and control mechanisms. Discussion reflects on the state of play in Chinese public administration studies, and urges public policy researchers examining devolution in China to account for both formal reforms and everyday “lived experiences.”
Matter’s real essence is a ground for certain features of phenomena. Things in themselves are likewise a ground for certain features of phenomena. How do these claims relate? The former is a causal essentialism about physics, Stang argues; and the features so grounded are phenomenally nomically necessary. The latter involves a distinctive ontology of things in themselves, I argue; but the features so grounded are not noumenally nomically necessary. Stang’s version of Kant’s modal metaphysics is admirable, but does not go far enough. Kant’s causal essentialism involves the essences of fundamental properties, as well as of matter. And things in themselves are grounds, because they are substances, the ‘substrate’ of phenomena.
This Review describes the objectives and methodology of the DairyWater project as it aims to aid the Irish dairy processing industry in achieving sustainability as it expands. With the abolition of European milk quotas in March 2015, the Republic of Ireland saw a surge in milk production. The DairyWater project was established in anticipation of this expansion of the Irish dairy sector in order to develop innovative solutions for the efficient management of water consumption, wastewater treatment and the resulting energy use within the country's dairy processing industry. Therefore, the project can be divided into three main thematic areas: dairy wastewater treatment technologies and microbial analysis, water re-use and rainwater harvesting and environmental assessment. In order to ensure the project remains as relevant as possible to the industry, a project advisory board containing key industry stakeholders has been established. To date, a number of large scale studies, using data obtained directly from the Irish dairy industry, have been performed. Additionally, pilot-scale wastewater treatment (intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor) and tertiary treatment (flow-through pulsed ultraviolet system) technologies have been demonstrated within the project. Further details on selected aspects of the project are discussed in greater detail in the subsequent cluster of research communications.
Fuscopannaria leucosticta is a rare and understudied cyanolichen with an interesting and unusual distribution in tertiary relict hotspots worldwide. There is a relatively large population in eastern North America, where it occurs mostly throughout the Appalachian Mountains and reaches its northernmost extent in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The ability to detect this species, and thus determine its habitat requirements, is critical for understanding how it might be affected by human-induced environmental degradation. Maximum entropy modelling with MaxEnt was used to predict the distribution of suitable habitat for this species in Nova Scotia using 62 presence locations, 1405 pseudo-absence locations and four environmental covariates: depth to water table (a proxy for relative soil moisture), distance to the coast and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Our predictive maps identify important habitat features and areas of high suitability in Nova Scotia with an area under the curve value of 0·85. The predicted distribution of this lichen was most affected by temperature. This study elucidates locations as well as species-habitat relationships for F. leucosticta, providing land managers with baseline data that can aid in the discovery of additional populations and provide a better understanding of its ecological requirements which will support the development of sound conservation strategies for this rare lichen.
This paper provides a description of a postgraduate clinical psychology training programme's journey towards becoming more biculturally responsive and how the learnings from this have been applied to the wider Department of Psychology at the University of Canterbury (UC), Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). The paper includes a discussion of cultural competency, and frameworks which have been proposed as a way to blend Western and Māori knowledge and clinical and cultural practices. The reasons for introducing the changes, the process of change and the actual changes are described, together with a discussion of the outcomes of the changes. Key principles in undertaking the changes were that it was considered important that the process that was seen as an ongoing journey. Further guiding principles were that a graded, integrated approach was required, undertaken in partnership with Māori, and with a commitment to biculturalism before multiculturalism.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common nasal disorder in children that is prone to recurrence. This study investigated the prevention of chronic rhinosinusitis recurrence with bacteria lysate in children.
Bacteria lysate was administered 10 days per month for 3 months to children with chronic rhinosinusitis, who had just entered a remission phase. Visual analogue score, nasal symptoms scores, rhinitis attack frequency and antibiotic use were assessed at three months and one year.
At one year of follow up, the visual analogue score, nasal discharge and obstruction scores, number of days with rhinitis attacks per month and number of days with antibiotic use per month were significantly decreased in the prevention group versus the control group (p < 0.05).
Bacterial lysate used in the remission period of rhinosinusitis in children was shown to provide long-term prophylaxis. Bacterial lysate can effectively reduce the frequency of rhinosinusitis attacks and ameliorate attack symptoms.
Four species of Ophisaurus, O. fejfari, O. spinari, O. robustus and O. holeci, are recognized on the basis of parietals from the Early Miocene of the Czech Republic and Germany. The fifth species, O. acuminatus, is described from the Late Miocene of Germany, but its parietal is not preserved. This paper describes new O. fejfari, O. spinari, O. robustus and O. holeci specimens from the Early and Middle Miocene of the Czech Republic and Germany. The O. fejfari and O. holeci parietals from Germany are the first records of these species outside the Czech Republic. This paper provides a significant contribution to the understanding of both interspecific and intraspecific Ophisaurus variability in the Cenozoic of Europe. A well-preserved parietal of Anguis rarus sp. nov. is described from the Early Miocene of Germany. This is the first record of the parietal of Anguis in the Cenozoic. A new parietal from the Middle Miocene of Germany is described as Pseudopus sp. It differs from the contemporaneous P. laurillardi only in the absence of the large and distinctly laterally projecting anterolateral processes of the parietal. In the Miocene, Ophisaurus and Pseudopus exhibit a higher diversity than that of the preceding geological periods of the Cenozoic. Besides, Ophisaurus emigrates from Europe to (1) Asia and via the Bering Strait to North America, and (2) North Africa during the Oligocene and Miocene. By contrast, Anguis and Pseudopus are limited to Eurasia. The palaeobiogeography of members of Anguinae is discussed.
Since the beginning of the development of the North German Basin in Stephanien to Early Rotliegend times, rifting played a major role. Nearly all structures in NW-Germany and the German North Sea - (more than 800) - salt diapirs, grabens, inverted grabens and inversion structures - are genetically related to rifting. Today, the rifting periods are well dated. We find signs of dilatation at all times except from the Late Aptian to the end of the Turonian. To the contrary, the period of the Coniacian and Santonian, lasting only five million years was a time of compression, transpression, crustal shortening and inversion. Rifting activities decreased notably after inversion in Late Cretaceous times. Tertiary movements concentrated on a limited number of major, long existing lineaments. Seismically today NW-Germany and the German North Sea sector is one of the quietest regions in Central Europe.
The Broad Fourteens Basin is a NW-SE trending Mesozoic structural element that was affected by inversion movements during the Late Cretaceous (Subhercynian Phase) and Early Tertiary (Laramide Phase). Since the overlying Tertiary section of this area is relatively little studied, a multi-disciplinary investigation was initiated using both seismic and well data. The present study is the first phase of that project and deals exclusively with the stratigraphical framework and sedimentary development based on well logs from approximately forty wells.
The Tertiary sedimentary section in this area (maximum thickness up to approximately 800 m) consists of siliciclastic rocks that generally correlate well with the established lithostratigraphical framework of the Netherlands. However, the highly variable thickness of these lithological units, illustrated by isopach maps for all units, reflect the intricate pattern of sea level movements, differential vertical movements and the ensuing erosion, that took place in this tectonically active area.
Well P06-02, one of the most complete sections in the center of the area, was selected for detailed biostratigraphical analysis to support further stratigraphical subdivision and correlation. This yielded information on both the distribution pattern of various lithological units and the influence of large, partly global, events during basin development. It is concluded that application of detailed sequence stratigraphy in the study area is very problematic and only 2nd and some 3rd order cycles could be recognized.
Within the Cenozoic sedimentary section of the Roer Valley Graben ten seismostratigraphic units have been identified. They are closely related to the lithological framework which makes it possible to recognize diem also on well logs in this region. The Lower Tertiary seismic units, representing mainly marine sediments, have a uniform development mat can be correlated over large distances into the German part of the Roer Valley Graben. The marine to continental Upper Tertiary and Quaternary seismic units display a more complex development due to lateral facies changes (including prograding delta systems) and rift tectonics.
The River Rhine and its tributaries represent one of the largest drainage systems in Europe. Its prominence among other fluvial systems is due to the location of its headwaters within the central Swiss Alps, which were repeatedly glaciated during the Quaternary, and the concurrence of major parts of the River Rhine course with the European Cenozoic Rift System. Sediments of the Rhine have thus recorded both changes in climate and tectonic activity as well as sea level change in the lower part of the river course.
The River Rhine is composed of different subdivisions characterised by distinct geographical and geological settings. Vorder-and Hinterrhein in the headwaters are inner-alpine rivers frequently influenced in their course by tectonic lines and the blockage of valley floors by the deposits of mass movements. The Alpenrhein is located in a main Alpine valley that drains into a large foreland basin, the Bodensee (Lake Constance). The Hochrhein flows out of the lake following the Jura Mountains in a western direction. All these areas display a series of geological features such as moraine ridges and outwash plains, which directly reflect Quaternary glaciations of the Alps. The Oberrhein (Upper Rhine) Valley, as a graben structure, is part of the rifting system that started to develop during the middle Tertiary. The northern end of the graben is represented by the triple junction of the Mainz Basin, which is mainly characterised by the remains of marine transgressions that occurred during the initial rifting phase. The Rhine continues following the western branch of the tectonic system by passing through the Rhenish Massif. Uplift in this so-called Mittelrhein (Middle Rhine) area is well documented by a flight of late Tertiary to Quaternary river terraces. This region is also characterised by young volcanic activity as found, for example, in the Eifel volcanic field. The Niederheinische Bucht (Lower Rhine Embayment), especially the Roer Valley Rift System, represents the northern continuation of the rifting system. This area is characterised by differential uplift in the southern and subsidence in the northern part of the basin, which continues into the Netherlands. Here, the main stream of the River Rhine is separated into different branches developing an active delta at the coast of the North Sea. When the North Sea Basin was covered by ice during the Elsterian, Saalian and probably also the Weichselian glaciation and global sea level was low, the Rhine continued its course through the English Channel and flowed into the North Atlantic off Brittany.
A high-resolution reflection seismic survey was carried out in 1999 over the Feldbiss fault system, the southern border of the Roer Valley graben, in Belgium. Six profile-lines with total length of 13982 m provided information on the 40-600 m depth range, covering Lower Pleistocene to Miocene strata with special emphasis on the Plio-Pleistocene Kieseloolite formation. Data quality depends on near-surface conditions and on degree of deformation in some fault zones, with better results for seismic detonator sources compared to vibroseis sources. The new data confirm the segmented character of the fault system with occurrence of fault bends, relay ramps and branching of overlapping fault sequences, testifying of the strong tectonic activity during the lower Pleistocene. Antiform structures along the Bichterweerd scarp, relaying the Feldbiss to the Geleen fault in the Meuse valley, are presented as a model for the Tertiary evolution of the Bree Uplift.
Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their ‘healthiness’. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe’s testing, χ2 tests, Kruskal–Wallis H test and the Mann–Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed.
Children, with their specific vulnerabilities and needs, make up to more than 20% of society, so they are at risk of getting involved in disasters. Are the specialists treating them for medical problems in daily life also capable to deal with them in disaster situations?
The goals of this study were to evaluate perceived knowledge and capability of tertiary pediatricians to deal with disasters, to identify promoting factors, and to evaluate education need and willingness to work.
A survey looking for demographics, hospital disaster planning, estimated risk and capability for disasters, training, and willingness to work, and a set of six content assessment questions to evaluate knowledge, were presented to emergency pediatricians and pediatric emergency physicians in specialized tertiary centers.
The response rate was 51%. Thirty-five percent had disaster training and 53% felt that disaster education should be obligatory in their curriculum. Risk for disasters was estimated from 2.4/10 for nuclear incidents to 7.6/10 for major trauma. Self-estimated capability for these situations ranged from 1.8/10 in nuclear incidents to 7.6/10 in major trauma. Unconditional willingness to work ranged from 37% in nuclear situations to 68% in pandemics. Mean score on the questions was 2.06/6. Training, knowledge of antidote and personal protective equipment (PPE) use, self-estimated capability, and exposure were significant predictors for higher scores. Willingness to work correlated significantly with age, self-estimated capability, and risk estimation. In case of chemical and nuclear incidents, there was correlation with knowledge on the use of decontamination, PPE, and radio-detection devices.
Despite a clear perception of the risks and a high willingness to work, preparedness is limited. The major conclusion is that basics of disaster management should be included in pediatric training.
MortelmansLJM, MaebeS, DieltiensG, AnseeuwK, SabbeMB, Van de VoordeP. Are Tertiary Care Paediatricians Prepared for Disaster Situations?Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(2):126–131.
We consider the rigid monoidal category of character sheaves on a smooth commutative group scheme
over a finite field
, and expand the scope of the function-sheaf dictionary from connected commutative algebraic groups to this setting. We find the group of isomorphism classes of character sheaves on
, and show that it is an extension of the group of characters of
by a cohomology group determined by the component group scheme of
. We also classify all morphisms in the category character sheaves on
. As an application, we study character sheaves on Greenberg transforms of locally finite type Néron models of algebraic tori over local fields. This provides a geometrization of quasicharacters of
Radiometric ages for undated parts of the volcanic succession and intrusions in West Greenland were obtained by the 40Ar–39Ar incremental heating method. Acceptable crystallization ages were obtained for 27 samples. Combined with published results the new data provide a volcanic stratigraphy correlatable throughout the Nuussuaq Basin. The thick onshore volcanic pile consists of four widespread formations: 62.5–61 Ma picrites (Vaigat Formation), 61–60 Ma depleted basalts (Maligât Formation and the Hellefisk-1 well), 60–58 Ma less-depleted basalts (Svartenhuk Formation) and 56–54 Ma enriched basalts (Naqerloq Formation). Two local successions comprise 53.5 Ma alkali basalts (Erqua Formation) and 38.7 Ma transitional basalts (Talerua Member). A central volcano developed on Ubekendt Ejland, leading to the Sarqâta qáqâ gabbro-granophyre intrusion at 57–55 Ma. Pre-break-up volcanism took place further south as early as 64–63 Ma. The offshore volcanic succession most probably comprises the known onshore succession plus some younger lavas. The change in spreading direction near the Paleocene–Eocene boundary took place west of the Nuussuaq Basin c. 56.2 Ma. Some tectonomagmatic events are correlatable across the entire North Atlantic Igneous Province. A quiescent 58–56 Ma period correlates with similar periods in East Greenland and the Faroes, and the Naqerloq Formation is coeval with the Eocene basalts in East Greenland. The Paleocene and Eocene tholeiitic basalts are distinguishable chemically; in early Eocene time, mantle typical of the Iceland plume seems to have extended beneath the whole West Greenland margin as well as the central East Greenland margin.
This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O’Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. O’Sullivan emphasises the strengths of the Network and difficulties the Network participants have had in defining ‘Indigenous Studies’. She also discusses the important work for the Network to do into the future, to continue to strengthen relationships between educators and improve teaching and learning of Indigenous Studies at tertiary level.
This study compared the molecular characteristics of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates recovered from 20 non-tertiary-care hospitals (36 isolates) and three tertiary-care hospitals (26 isolates) in diverse geographical areas of Korea from October 2010 to April 2011. All isolates carried the vanA gene only, but 42% and 73% of non-tertiary and tertiary-care isolates expressed the VanB phenotype (teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentration ⩽16 μg/ml). All isolates harboured insertion sequences, IS1542 and IS1216V, within Tn1546. The isolates from tertiary-care hospitals tended to have reduced Tn1546 lengths by deletion of sequences adjacent to IS elements. Multilocus sequence typing revealed eight sequence types within clonal complex 17 (CC17), but DNA fingerprinting by rep-PCR did not show clonal relatedness between the intra- and inter-hospital isolates. These results suggest that vanA, which has prevailed in tertiary-care hospitals of Korea since the 1990s, had been transferred horizontally to non-tertiary-care hospitals while the genetic rearrangement driven by evolutionary adaptation to adverse environments may have occurred in tertiary-care hospitals.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the timing of neonatal cardiac intervention in babies with antenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease and the impact on obstetric management. Methods: A retrospective review of all deliveries between January, 2008 and December, 2009 was conducted in a tertiary centre with foetal and paediatric cardiology, maternal–foetal medicine, and obstetric units. All live births with antenatally detected congenital heart disease were included. Data were collected from foetal, paediatric cardiology, and maternity databases and records. Induction, delivery mode, and timing of the first cardiac intervention in the neonate were studied. Results: 205 deliveries were included. Induction and elective Caesarean section rates were 51.2% (105/205) and 14.1% (29/205), respectively. The vaginal delivery rate was 56% (115/205). There was a non-significant trend towards a higher rate of vaginal delivery after spontaneous labour than after induction (75% versus 66%; p = 0.234). The rate of neonatal cardiac intervention during the initial stay was 59.5% (122/205); it was 18.5% (38/205) within 48 hours and 25.8% (53/205) within 72 hours. The median time to first intervention was 4 days (interquartile range 2–8). Babies with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (median 3, interquartile range 2–6), transposition of the great arteries (median 1, interquartile range 0–4.5), and arrhythmia (median 0.5, interquartile range 0–1) had a significantly earlier time to first intervention compared with those with other conditions (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Vaginal delivery can be achieved in women delivering babies with major congenital heart disease at a tertiary centre. Delivery in or near a tertiary centre is recommended for patients requiring early intervention, of which many can be identified in advance.
The Chicxulub impact is commonly believed to have caused the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary mass extinction and a thin impact spherule layer in the North Atlantic and Caribbean is frequently cited as proof. We evaluated this claim in the seven best North Atlantic and Caribbean Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary sequences based on high-resolution biostratigraphy, quantitative faunal analyses and stable isotopes. Results reveal a major Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary unconformity spanning most of Danian subzone P1a(1) and Maastrichtian zones CF1–CF2 (~400 ka) in the NW Atlantic Bass River core, ODP Sites 1049A, 1049C and 1050C. In the Caribbean ODP Sites 999B and 1001B the unconformity spans from the early Danian zone P1a(1) through to zones CF1–CF4 (~3 Ma). Only in the Demerara Rise ODP Site 1259B is erosion relatively minor and restricted to the earliest Danian zone P0 and most of subzone P1a(1) (~150 ka). In all sites examined, Chicxulub impact spherules are reworked into the early Danian subzone P1a(1) about 150–200 ka after the mass extinction. A similar pattern of erosion and redeposition of impact spherules in Danian sediments has previously been documented from Cuba, Haiti, Belize, Guatemala, south and central Mexico. This pattern can be explained by intensified Gulf stream circulation at times of climate cooling and sea level changes. The age of the Chicxulub impact cannot be determined from these reworked impact spherule layers, but can be evaluated based on the stratigraphically oldest spherule layer in NE Mexico and Texas, which indicates that this impact predates the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary by about 130–150 ka.