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This chapter addresses the use of technological media in contemporary adaptations of Greek tragedies that have used the form, narratives, and cultural cachet of Greek tragedy to create work that engages spectators in examinations of human culture and behavior which have deep historical and emotional resonance, even when the productions themselves are destabilising and sometimes undermining the cultural position of their ancient Greek referents. The approaches span a large gamut from the use of video as scenography to the immersion of the audience in theatrical landscapes fragmented through media. Central to the discussion are artists such the Wooster Group, Jay Scheib, John Jesurun, and Jan Fabre, who use technology to create intermedial effects that express and interrogate the relationship of media to contemporary culture and representation. These works manage to encapsulate the rapidly changing modes of discourse, both live and mediated, and the ever-increasing problematics of representation in a media-saturated world.
This book, concerned with the regulation of human embryos in vitro, and their use for reproduction and research, has explored the ways in which law does, and can regulate processually. As we have seen, the 1990 Act is static and unchanging with respect to the moral status of ‘the embryo’, yet our societal understandings and perceptions of embryos are not. The 1990 Act is, as we have seen, permanently liminal. A ‘gothic’ framing of embryos and the use of a liminal lens have each revealed a key facet of embryo regulation. All of the practices that law currently allows are regulating for: uncertainty, process, and change. Here, the truism coined by Thomassen that ‘liminality is’ has been explored and unpacked with reference what this means for embryos that are subject to our legal architecture. The reality of liminality still has much to say about the way we regulate in vitro embryos. This book has provided the reader with ways to think about the ways we navigate law, and processes governed by law into, through and out of liminality in ways that bring greater insights into the sensitive enterprise of regulating for uncertainty, when our focus of attention is an entity as fluid and remarkable as the human embryo.
Mali's first nonstate radio went on air during the authoritarian rule of Moussa Traoré in 1988, challenging the common narrative that ties political and media liberalization together. Negotiations were conducted by Italian NGOs at a time when such organizations had become key political actors in Sahelian countries. The implementation of Radio Rurale de Kayes was part of a wider infrastructural project that notably included a road. This historical account follows the metaphorical and literal association between the radio and the road in order to reflect on mobility and its constraints. Tracing the radio's trajectory from space-making to community-building, it shows how the station managed to sustain itself thanks to its position within an emerging network of associations led by return migrants and because of how it fitted into local infrastructures of mobility, thus calling for a stronger attention to the relation between radio, the audiences it convenes, and space.
Virtual reality (VR) is a promising tool with the potential to enhance care of cognitive and affective disorders in the aging population. VR has been implemented in clinical settings with adolescents and children; however, it has been less studied in the geriatric population.
The objective of this study is to determine the existing levels of evidence for VR use in clinical settings and identify areas where more evidence may guide translation of existing VR interventions for older adults.
Design and measurements:
We conducted a systematic review in PubMed and Web of Science in November 2019 for peer-reviewed journal articles on VR technology and its applications in older adults. We reviewed article content and extracted the number of study participants, study population, goal of the investigation, the level of evidence, and categorized articles based on the indication of the VR technology and the study population.
The database search yielded 1554 total results, and 55 articles were included in the final synthesis. The most represented study design was cross-sectional, and the most common study population was subjects with cognitive impairment. Articles fell into three categories for VR Indication: Testing, Training, and Screening. There was a wide variety of VR environments used across studies.
Existing evidence offers support for VR as a screening and training tool for cognitive impairment in older adults. VR-based tasks demonstrated validity comparable to some paper-based assessments of cognition, though more work is needed to refine diagnostic specificity. The variety of VR environments used shows a need for standardization before comparisons can be made across VR simulations. Future studies should address key issues such as usability, data privacy, and confidentiality. Since most literature was generated from high-income countries (HICs), it remains unclear how this may be translated to other parts of the world.
There is growing evidence that people with mild dementia can benefit from using tablets and apps. Due to their cognitive decline, people with dementia need support in learning how to use these devices. The objective of this review was to identify which training interventions work best to help people with mild dementia (re)learn how to use technologies, including handheld touchscreen devices. Because the uptake of these devices in people with dementia is quite new, training interventions for the use of other technologies were also included, such as technologies assisting people in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL).
An electronic search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, APA PsycInfo (EBSCO), and CINAHL (EBSCO). Themes discussed include the learning effects; training method (e.g. errorful (EF) and errorless (EL) learning); training intensity and setting; technology task type; dementia type and severity; and study design and outcome measures.
In total, 16 studies were included. All studies reported positive learning effects and improved task performance in people with dementia, regardless of dementia severity, training intensity, setting, and the method used. Although the EL training method was successful more often than the EF training method, it would be inappropriate to conclude that the EL method is more effective, because the majority of studies only investigated EL training interventions with (multiple) single-case study designs.
Future research should consider using more robust study designs, such as RCTs, to evaluate the effectiveness of training interventions for (re)learning technology-orientated tasks, including operating handheld touchscreen devices.
Technology has proven itself to be invaluable across many disciplines, including psychology. With the rise in technological advancements, services are now can be provided through technological media. This chapter describes tele-mental health (TMH) services, which refer to the supports (e.g., therapy, consultation, intervention, coaching) that are provided in ‘real time’ by practitioners to clients through telephones, cellphones, computers, tablets and any other device that can facilitate communication with the aid of technology. This chapter in particular focuses on TMH services that are facilitated through video-chat interfaces. The origins and evidence base for TMH are included, along with recommendations for ethical and legal considerations, as well as rapport building. Though practitioners may be hesitant to deliver TMH services, the purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with enough information to help prepare them for the field and ease any reservations they may harbor
When the ticker tape was first invented in the 1860s, it promised a revolution in financial markets. Pricing information was now no longer solely the domain of the trading floor but was relayed continuously and simultaneously to ticker tapes long distances away from the stock exchange. Both nineteenth-century financiers, and the modern scholars who study them, have been enamored with the ticker tape and how it changed the way financial markets were perceived and experienced. However, a focus on how nineteenth-century financiers read and responded to the ticker tape has missed the real reordering of power that the ticker helped usher in. This article argues that between the 1860s and 1890s the London Stock Exchange and the Exchange Telegraph Company powerfully centralized their control over the distribution and transmission of financial information through the mundane infrastructures that underpinned the ticker tape system. Seeming technicalities, like the placement of batteries, the construction of electrical circuits, and the laying of wires and cables, were leveraged by these institutions to create a ticker tape system that distributed financial information unequally to financiers and investors throughout Britain. By the end of the nineteenth century, social and political questions about who should have access to financial information and markets, and on what terms, became helplessly intertwined with the mundane technicalities of the material infrastructures of modern finance.
This chapter traces the history of election organization in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda. It identifies a common pattern of technical and institutional elaboration, driven by a desire to produce procedurally perfect elections through the combination of new technologies and more professional personnel. The chapter argues that this elaboration has come at a significant financial cost, but that it has had some effect in shaping the subjectivities of those involved as electoral officials and of voters. Yet this determined attempt to promote civic virtue through electoral performance – which has attracted much support from donors - has always been challenged by forms of patrimonial claims-making that persistently intrude into the imagined order of the electoral process. Intimidation and bribery, as well as pursuit of particular interest, drive malpractice; logistical failures and errors encourage the suspicion that others may not follow the rules. Ghana, Kenya and Uganda may seem to offer different stories: Ghana’s Electoral Commission attracts international praise, while Uganda’s has been heavily criticised. Yet that difference may be overstated: there is widespread suspicion of the electoral management bodies in all three countries. The production of citizens and state through electoral performance may be powerful, but it is very far from unquestioned.
This essay uses the concept of risk and its various instruments to organize some through-lines in the new modernist studies. The first of its three sections examines risk and futurity through the work of Sarah Cole, Enda Duffy, and Paul Saint-Amour. The second section focuses on economic risk through practices of speculation, ranging from Zora Neale Hurston’s efforts to speculate on folk culture to modernist literature’s imbrication in the welfare state and in speculative markets alike, as studied by Michael Szalay, Laura Meixner, and others. The final section moves to an emergent area in modernist scholarship: studies of speculative fiction – and within that field, futuristic science fiction by minority writers. It looks to George Schuyler’s controversial Black No More as a text that ties together the modes of risk-taking, future-projection, and speculative economics that this essay posits as avenues for continued scholarly engagement.
Military assistance is a perennial feature of international relations. Such programmes typically aim to improve the effectiveness of local partners, exporting the donor's way of war through the provision of training and equipment. By remaking indigenous armies in their own image, donors likewise hope to mitigate the profound agency costs associated with the transfer of military capability. But, while technical and organisational transformations can provide notable battlefield advantages, the philosophies underlying such innovations are not so easily propagated. Instead, new tactics, structures, and technologies typically intersect with pre-existing local schemata of war, producing novel if sometimes dysfunctional hybrid praxes. According to principal-agent theory, the application of greater conditionality in the provision of military assistance should improve the fidelity of military diffusion, aligning agents’ divergent interests with their principals’ goals. In practice, however, principal-agent exchanges rarely exist in isolation. Examining the modernisation of nineteenth-century Japan as a case study in military diffusion, this article argues that competition between rival patrons allows recipient states to play would-be principals off against each other, bypassing conditionality by replicating a marketplace for military assistance. In so doing, however, agents trade functionality for sovereignty in their military diffusion.
Research is needed on how technology can facilitate cow−calf contact (CCC). This research communication describes the behaviour of dairy cow−calf pairs in two cow-driven CCC-systems differing in cows' access to the calves through computer-controlled access gates (smart gates, SG). Specifically, cow traffic through SG when visiting their calves, allogrooming, suckling and cross-suckling, cows' eating and resting behaviour and finally vocal response to separation were assessed. After 3 d in an individual calving pen, pairs (n = 8) were moved to the CCC compartment with a cow area, a calf creep and a meeting area. During the next 31 d calves could suckle the cows whenever they visited the meeting area (suckling phase). Cows had free (group 1, n = 4 pairs) or restricted access to the calves based on previous activity in the automatic milking system (group 2, n = 4 pairs). SG's controlled cow traffic between the meeting area and the cow area, in which the cows could access resources such as feed, cubicles, and the automatic milking system. Following the suckling phase cow access into the meeting area was gradually decreased over 9 d (separation phase). During the suckling phase, cows paid frequent and short visits to their calves. Pairs spent in total approximately one h/d suckling and allogrooming. However, the duration and frequencies of these events varied among pairs and groups, as did the vocal response to separation. Restricted access − cows performed more (unrewarded) attempts to visit the calves who cross-suckled more. Collectively, free access to the calves may have been more intuitive and welfare friendly. Although a low sample size limits interpretation beyond description and enabling hypothesis formulation for future research, the results indicate that the cow is motivated to visit her calf, albeit through a SG, thus facilitating particular behaviours for which cow-calf pairs are highly motivated.
STEM Education in the Primary School introduces pre-service teachers to the theory, skills and practice of teaching STEM through a project-based learning approach. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are presented as professions, mindsets and practices, and each element of STEM is integrated with the Australian Curriculum through a school garden project case study. Popular STEM topic areas, such as health, shelter and space, are explored using tested and age-appropriate project examples that illustrate the translation of STEM ideas to classroom practice. This textbook connects current research in STEM education to teaching practice through detailed discussion of topics including assessment, learning spaces, community and STEM futures. Encouraging readers to consolidate their knowledge, the text is supported by short-answer and reflection questions, information boxes and real-world scenarios. Suggested activities and downloadable templates in the VitalSource enhanced eBook provide guidance for readers when implementing projects and practices in their classroom.
In this chapter, we first introduce reades to the book and recommend how it could be used. The ‘reverse’ sequencing of content and activities throughout the book – early introduction of classroom-ready activities rather than theory and other considerations – is unlike most textbooks in the STEM education genre and is a deliberate strategy designed to provide you with the most useful sections that are hands-on and engaging before we explain the literature behind these ideas. Second, we discuss the importance of STEM education in today’s primary classrroms and how the approach we present in this book will help you to implement engaging learning experiences for students. Third, we provide some information about project-based learning and why we feel this is the most useful approach to adopt when planning integrated STEM learning and teaching experiences. Finally, we present a Garden Challenge as an example of an integrated STEM project.
Divergent thinking is the first of three essential steps in completing the non-linear DOC Process. Like all DOC Process steps, divergent thinking applies to both the problem and solution spaces. It simply requires different techniques when seeking to identify a root-cause problem versus attempting to come up with a new impactful problem-solving approach.
Identifying root cause issues begins with broadening our purview to ensure we are not overlooking the disease by focusing too closely on its symptoms. Divergence occurs as we zoom in from this broad purview; identifying factors or causes of the identified zoomed-out General Problem, then factors of the identified factors, then causes of the sub-factors, and so on, until the root-cause level is reached.
Divergent thinking for solutions occurs on several perspective levels: feature, function and system. In addition to ideating new and improved features of existing solutions, substitute solutions should be considered. Potential substitutes perform the same function as current solutions, but do so in a very different way. New technology is often the enabler of substitute products. System level thinking diverges solution ideas by strengthening or streamlining system connections or linkages at the broadest purview.
Drawing from the work of Miller and Seller, this chapter traces the roots and flowering of the transformative movement and its relationship to the educational philosophies of transmission and transaction, essentially but not exclusively predecessors to the educational philosophy of transformation. The shaping of the ways in which teachers and students have gone about the language acquisition process for centuries is examined within a paradigmatic history of foreign language teaching methods. The influence of Vygotsky, Rogers, and Mezirow has been markedly noticeable in classroom methodologies heading toward such transformative aspects as learner-centered learning (zone of proximal development, understanding the whole student, adapting for learner differences, assisting learners in self-identification and learning adaptation), student-directed instruction, student contracts, open architecture curricular design, reframing in the development of biculturalism, interactive immersion, diagnostically oriented instruction, and formative assessment.
Dr. Fischer traces the process of transformation from the neurochemistry of motivation and John Schumann's derivative stimulus appraisal theory, where need comes from relevance, the potential for self and social status, novelty, pleasantness, and, above all, the ability to cope. Technology tools – learning management systems, video and audio recording, use of films and videos for culture study, and relevant applications (apps) – are discussed as means to develop coping with the language and culture, thereby increasing the probability of learner transformation to intrinsically motivated persons able to appreciate and learn from others and continue that process throughout their adult lives.
Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education relates to what humans do to shape the world around them. The four disciplines and ways of thinking associated with STEM, especially when combined, help children appreciate that imagining, inventing and adapting are part of everyday life. This chapter draws on current education research and talks about the relevance of STEM for early childhood education. Digital learning and integrating the Arts are emphasised in the context of technologies.
When the plaintiff has made a case of copyright infringement under US law, the defendant can still avoid liability by showing fair use. The defense comprises four factors, arguably the most important of which is the fourth, namely “the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.” The word “potential” connotes a focus on the future, a need for courts to evaluate how events could unfold in days to come and what effect will thereby arise in that future world.
New technologies with unprecedented agentic capabilities (i.e., action selection, protocol development) are now introduced in organizations such as Big Data, 3D printing or artificial intelligence. Because they are endowed with novel capabilities that might compete with human agency, they might disrupt the way employees work. Based on the work design model, this study aims to examine their introduction in the daily work activities and the consequent perceptions of the work characteristics. Building on Murray’s et al. (2020) proposal, we offer a classification of the digital technologies to conceptualize their relationship with the work characteristics. To explore the changes induced by two digital technologies (i.e., drones, robotic automation process), we interviewed 3 types of employees (i.e., experts, managers, users) from an organization which has started a digitalization process and we conducted a thematic analysis. Our analysis revealed three main themes that are discussed: A technological theme (arresting, assisting), a work characteristic theme and a theme about the human-technology relationship (agentic, non-agentic). Results showed that employee autonomy has not been reduced when digital technologies executed repetitive and unmotivated tasks and that jobs in the digital work context may be marked by a high level of knowledge characteristics. Moreover, technologies with agentic capabilities may be perceived as a non-human agent. Theoretical contributions for the work design model are then examined.
In an era of corporate surveillance, artificial intelligence, deep fakes, genetic modification, automation, and more, law often seems to take a back seat to rampant technological change. To listen to Silicon Valley barons, there's nothing any of us can do about it. In this riveting work, Joshua A. T. Fairfield calls their bluff. He provides a fresh look at law, at what it actually is, how it works, and how we can create the kind of laws that help humans thrive in the face of technological change. He shows that law can keep up with technology because law is a kind of technology - a social technology built by humans out of cooperative fictions like firms, nations, and money. However, to secure the benefits of changing technology for all of us, we need a new kind of law, one that reflects our evolving understanding of how humans use language to cooperate.