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Written in 1981-82 and published in 1984, Monsieur Pain shares Antwerp’s interest in forms that might combine the prose poem’s characteristic brevity and intensity with the significantly more expansive, still relatively condensed narrative possibilities of the novella. While Antwerp is arguably best understood less as a “novel” than as a parodic assemblage of prose poems, Monsieur Pain marks a pivotal transition toward the former. At the heart of the narrative’s complex of interrelated concerns is César Vallejo’s status as a pivotal figure in the history of twentieth-century poetry. Situating the narrative’s fictive world in the specific context of Vallejo’s last days in “PARIS, 1938,” Monsieur Pain presents the reader, in its own segmented, prose-poetic fashion, with an intricate form of figuration and representation inseparable from its conceptual, affective, psychoanalytic, philosophical, social, historical, political, economic, narratological stakes and implications. Through its comical yet serious, labyrinthine imagining of Vallejo’s absurd passing, dying of “hiccups” yet “anchored in the real world,” Monsieur Pain affirms the continuing capacity of poetry, if not to cure, then at least to engage the urgent issues and questions of its time, of Vallejo’s, of Bolaño’s, of our own.
Questions of genre, of the commodification of genres and of genres as commodities, of their specialization and marketability, questions central to the institutionalization of creative writing in the academy over the past several decades, preoccupied Bolaño early on when the idea of making a living from writing appeared beyond reach. Written in 1980 but only published in 2002 (its English translation not appearing until 2010), Amberes/Antwerp has aptly been called the “Big Bang of the Bolaño universe.” Recalling Mikhail Bakhtin’s distinction between the novel’s characteristically dialogical, heteroglossic investments and poetry’s more monological tendencies, Antwerp pursues a consistently dialogic, heteroglossic self-questioning. Oscillating between minimalist narrative and meta-lingual, meta-fictional, meta-textual gestures, it continually stages its own suspension and recommencing. Torn between the pleasure and urgency of a “tax-free” poetic discourse and the commercial viability of the detective novel, the Bolaño of Antwerp aspires to write not “novels that are copies of other novels” but a genreless text in which he can affirm, without reserve, that “‘the only beautiful thing here is the language.’” Positioned roughly halfway between Baudelaire’s Le Spleen de Paris and Rimbaud’s Illuminations, Antwerp remains Bolaño’s most disjunctively Rimbaldian performance.
Total vegetation control (TVC) is an essential management practice to eliminate all vegetation for the purpose of protecting infrastructure, people, or natural resources on sites where vegetation poses major fire, visibility, and infrastructure risks. TVC is implemented on sites such as railroads, power substations, airports, roadsides, and oil and gas facilities. Current research has identified that tank-mixing two effective mechanisms of action is a superior resistance management strategy compared to rotating mechanisms of action; however, effective tank-mixes for TVC have not been thoroughly evaluated. A field experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2014 at five sites in Colorado to compare 32 treatment combinations to two industry standards for TVC. Research objectives were to identify 1) herbicide tank-mix combinations for TVC with multiple effective mechanisms of action for resistance management, 2) lower use rate alternatives to minimize non-target impacts, 3) efficacy of fall versus spring application timings. Seven treatments were identified as top-ranking treatments, averaging 96% bare-ground (BG) across five sites and two application timings. Four out of the seven top ranked treatments included aminocyclopyrachlor, chlorsulfuron, and indaziflam. The industry standard diuron plus imazapyr was in the top ranking, while the other industry standard bromacil plus diuron performed inconsistently across sites. Probability modeling was used to predict the probability of achieving 97% or 100% BG with various treatment combinations. The combination of aminocyclopyrachlor, chlorsulfuron, indaziflam, and imazapyr had the highest predicted BG probability, with 88% predicted probability of achieving 100% BG, compared to 67% and 52% predicted probabilities for the industry standards diuron plus imazapyr and bromacil plus diuron, respectively. In three of the five sites, fall applications outperformed the same treatments applied in the spring. Several top-ranking treatments represent newer, lower use rate herbicide combinations that provide multiple mechanisms of action to manage herbicide-resistant weeds and minimize non-target impacts.
Civil disobedience is a conscientious, unlawful, and broadly nonviolent form of protest, which most political philosophers and many non-philosophers are inclined to treat as potentially defensible in democratic societies. In recent years, philosophers have become more receptive to long-standing complaints from activists that civil disobedience is an unduly restrictive framework for considering the ethics of dissent. Candice Delmas and Jason Brennan have written important books that illustrate and strengthen this trend, both defending forms of “uncivil” resistance that go beyond the narrow confines of civil disobedience. Their books offer contrasting but complementary philosophical defences of incivility as a tactic of resistance, but it is nonetheless a mistake to conclude that the rich tradition associated with civil disobedience no longer has any relevance for resistance in national, transnational, and global contexts.
Bearded sprangletop is a problematic weed in California rice production. The objective of this research was to determine the response of two bearded sprangletop biotypes (clomazone-susceptible [S] and -resistant [R]) to flooding depth. A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the California Rice Experiment Station in Biggs, CA, to evaluate the flooding tolerance of the two biotypes against 5-, 10-, and 20-cm continuous flooding depths. Plant emergence, plant height, panicles per plant, seed per panicle, 100-seed weight, and seed per plant data were collected. At the 5-cm flood depth, neither biotype was controlled, and the R biotype had 260% more emergence, produced 475% more panicles per plant, and 455% more seed per plant than the S biotype. With a 10-cm flood, only the R biotype survived flooding and produced more panicles per plant and seed per plant than any other flood depth–biotype combination evaluated. There was no emergence of either bearded sprangletop biotype at the 20-cm flood depth. Continuous flooding can still be used as a management tool to control bearded sprangletop; however, the depth of flooding appears to limit emergence of S biotypes at 5 cm and R biotypes at 10 cm, and completely inhibits growth of both biotypes at 20 cm. The results of this study indicate that clomazone-resistant bearded sprangletop is more likely to spread throughout the Sacramento Valley because this biotype can survive clomazone applications and can tolerate a standard 10-cm flood.
Improving robustness of farm animals is one of the goals in breeding programmes. However, robustness is a complex trait and not measurable directly. The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize (elements of) robustness in growing pigs. Robustness can be analysed by examining the animal’s response to perturbations. Although the origin of perturbations may not be known, their effect on animal performance can be observed, for example, through changes in voluntary feed intake. A generic model and data analysis procedure was developed (1) to estimate the target trajectory of feed intake, which is the amount of feed that a pig desires to eat when it is not facing any perturbations; (2) to detect potential perturbations, which are deviations of feed intake from the estimated target trajectory; and (3) to characterize and quantify the response of the growing pigs to the perturbations using voluntary feed intake as response criterion. The response of a pig to a perturbation is characterized by four parameters. The start and end times of the perturbation are ‘imposed’ by the perturbing factor, while two other parameters describe the resistance and resilience potential of the pig. One of these describes the immediate reduction in daily feed intake at the start of the perturbation (i.e., a ‘resistance’ trait) while another parameter describes the capacity of the pig to adapt to the perturbation through compensatory feed intake to rejoin the target trajectory of feed intake (i.e., a ‘resilience’ trait). The procedure has been employed successfully to identify the target trajectory of feed intake in growing pigs and to quantify the pig’s response to a perturbation.
Rhetorical silences are not created equal. To determine the import of the unsaid, the power differential of gender (as conceptualized by gender theory) is methodologically indispensable. “Masculinity” and “femininity,” concepts related to presumptions of domination and subordination, affect the rhetorical function of the unsaid. Permitted-to-speak bodies are often already empowered; for them, the unsaid denotes and maintains their masculinist power. Subordinate bodies, from whom silence is expected, perform simply another iteration of a regulatory, disciplinary norm that considers them feminine or weak. Nevertheless, the gendering of dominant and subordinate roles does not erase the subversive possibilities of the unsaid. The masculine unsaid may be stripped of its power if an alternative hierarchy is introduced to challenge tacit assumptions of dominance. Meanwhile, the feminine unsaid may become a tool that defies hegemonic power structures by using the unsaid as a tactic for conveying forbidden ideas, stubbornly communicating the unsayable. Categories of the “masculine” unsaid, the subordinate unsaid, and the resistant unsaid offer valuable classifications for developing a comprehensive methodology of the unsaid. Yet these categories are not comprehensive within themselves or neatly discrete from one another. Rather, they are permeable, in constant engagement and renegotiation with one another.
Chapter 4 focuses on Stevens’ conception of autonomy with the purpose of reassessing his poetry’s relation to philosophy. Stevens not only thematizes this relation in his poetry, but also identifies the processes that decouple the reflective operations of poetic thinking from that of philosophy. The chapter explores this aspect of Stevens’ work from the 1930s and 1940s in dialogue with Badiou’s “inaesthetics,” which allows for a consideration of poetry as a site for thinking without the support or guidance of philosophical discourse. The notion of inaesthetics becomes the enabling occasion for a focus on the divergences, rather than the affinities, between Stevens and philosophy, and for a move to a historically contextualized understanding of his poetry’s resistance to the philosophical school of logical positivism. Stevens’ skepticism toward logical positivism must be added to the historical factors behind his increased emphasis on poetic autonomy from philosophy in his writing of this period.
Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is one of the most destructive biotic production constraints in mungbean. Development and introduction of resistant cultivars are considered as the most economical and eco-friendly option to manage YMD, for which availability of stable sources of resistance is a pre-requisite. A set of 14 mungbean genotypes including a susceptible check were evaluated for responses to YMD under natural infection across three seasons and under challenged inoculation in glasshouse for one season. None of the genotypes were immune to YMD and produced different degrees of response to MYMV in terms of yellow mosaic symptoms (YMS). Based on the delayed appearance of initial YMS, and lower estimates of per cent disease index and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) in response to natural infection and challenged inoculation, five genotypes namely AVMU 1698, AVMU 1699, AVMU 16100, AVMU 16101 and KPS 2 were identified as resistant to YMD. Failure of detection of MYMV through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using MYMV coat protein gene-specific primer and successful detection of the same through rolling circle amplification-PCR suggested latent infection of MYMV in resistant genotypes. The resistance response of the five genotypes could be attributed to enhanced activities of enzymes such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase and increased concentration of total phenols. These results are discussed in relation to strategies to breed mungbean for resistance to YMD.
This article explores state/NGO/funder relations in Africa through an ethnographic case study of Malawi’s Readmission Policy. The Policy, which banned the permanent expulsion of pregnant girls from school in 1993, underwent a formal, government-led review in 2016. By focusing attention on the daily work of “middle figures”—the mid-level civil servants, NGO representatives, and consultants who participated in the policy reform process—this article shows how state disempowerment in Malawi was not wholesale, even as aid funding for development policymaking bypassed government. Rather, government actors deployed key strategies, including time (mis)management, to reclaim moral authority over Malawian schools.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been considered prevalent pathogens in foot infections. However, whether empiric therapy directed against these organisms is necessary, and in whom to consider treatment, is rather unclear. The aim of this study was to develop predictive algorithms for forecasting the probability of isolating these organisms in the infected wounds of patients in a population where the prevalence of resistant pathogens is low. This was a retrospective study of regression model-based risk factor analysis that included 140 patients who presented with infected, culture positive foot ulcers to two urban hospitals. A total of 307 bacteria were identified, most frequently MRSA (11.1%). P. aeruginosa prevalence was 6.5%. In the multivariable analysis, amputation (odds ratio (OR) 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–27.63), renal disease (OR 5.46, 95% CI 1.43–25.16) and gangrene (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.82–9.59) were identified as risk factors associated with higher while diabetes (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.34) and Infectious Diseases Society of America infection severity >3 (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.03–0.65) were associated with lower odds of P. aeruginosa isolation (C statistic 0.81). Similar analysis for MRSA showed that amputation was associated with significantly lower (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.79) risk, while history of MRSA infection (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.56–20.63) and osteomyelitis (OR 2.523, 95% CI 1.00–6.79) was associated with higher odds of isolation (C statistic 0.69). We developed two predictive nomograms with reasonable to strong ability to discriminate between patients who were likely of being infected with P. aeruginosa or MRSA and those who were not. These analyses confirm the association of some, but also question the significance of other frequently described risk factors in predicting the isolation of these organisms.
En una excavación arqueológica llevada a cabo por el Ministerio de Cultura del Cuzco en el sitio de Espíritu Pampa, el último refugio Inca de Vilcabamba (Perú), se encontraron 55 fragmentos de una vasija extraordinaria. La pieza presenta una decoración pictórica con una escena muy compleja, llena de simbolismos y metáforas visuales sobre el enfrentamiento entre españoles e indígenas. La escena incluye 39 seres humanos y 57 animales, los cuales fueron estudiados cuidadosamente. El análisis iconográfico considera los diferentes detalles representados, tales como las armas y las prendas, además de otros elementos más simbólicos y metáforas visuales representadas por medio de los animales y el motivo del arcoíris. Al reunir los diferentes componentes de la iconografía, concluimos que la escena no es la representación de un evento bélico concreto, sino una visión incaica del futuro, en la que los indígenas, unidos bajo el mandato inca, vencerán a los españoles.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-tolerant weeds cause considerable yield losses and represent a growing threat to soybean production systems. Despite the relevance of this topic, few studies have evaluated the dispersal of these species in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersal and frequency of known GR and glyphosate-tolerant weeds in soybean-producing microregions. A total of 2,481 interviews were conducted in different regions of Brazil. The interviews were stratified among 20 edaphoclimatic microregions (ECRs) to cover all of the country’s soybean-producing regions. A minimum number of interviews was estimated to generate a margin of error of ≤10% within the ECRs and ≤5% in the country. The values of the farmers’ responses were extrapolated to the total soybean production area of each ECR and the country as a whole, and the absolute values of each response were normalized as percentage values. The dispersal and management data demonstrate a loss of efficiency of glyphosate-resistance technology. Species that are naturally tolerant to glyphosate such as goosegrass, Commelina spp., and Ipomoea spp. had a greater presence in the ECRs, as did the resistant biotypes, particularly Conyza spp. and sourgrass, due to the large area cultivated with GR soybean, where glyphosate has been used with high frequency.
There is a need to improve research and extension documentation to assist farmers in making better use of the available resistant cowpea genotypes to insects attack during storage. A study was conducted to determine the resistance of ten cowpea genotypes [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] to Callosobruchus maculatus F. attack in the Sudano-Guinean and Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zones (SS) of Cameroon. Thereafter, seeds were analyzed for physical properties and chemical composition to determine the main parameters of their resistance against C. maculatus. The SS was more suitable for insect infestation. Genotypes were classified into resistant to highly susceptible. Results showed that the physical characteristics of seeds were less important than the chemical components for conferring resistance to C. maculatus. Two genotypes, Samira and Lade, consistently demonstrated high tolerance to infestation by C. maculatus, and therefore may be recommended for use in breeding programs as a source of resistance and then to minimize the dependence on insecticides for the control of insect pests under subsistence farming conditions in Cameroon.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is one of the most troublesome weeds throughout the North American Great Plains. Herbicides such as glyphosate and dicamba have been used widely to control B. scoparia for decades. However, many B. scoparia populations have evolved resistance to these herbicides due to selection. Especially, dicamba-resistant B. scoparia populations are often also found to be glyphosate-resistant. The objective of this research was to determine whether these two herbicide resistances are linked in B. scoparia. Reciprocal crosses were performed between glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant (GDR) and glyphosate- and dicamba-susceptible (GDS) B. scoparia to produce F1 and F2 progeny. Two F1 and seven F2 progeny families were screened with various doses of dicamba or glyphosate. All the F1 progeny survived both dicamba and glyphosate treatments. Chi-square analyses of F2 progeny suggest (1) glyphosate and dicamba resistances in B. scoparia are inherited via single, dominant nuclear genes; and (2) glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant genes are not linked. Thus, the dicamba and glyphosate resistances appear to have evolved independently due to intense selection but do not seem to spread together.
Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.) is a problematic dicot weed that occurs in major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields in China. Tribenuron-methyl has been widely used to control broadleaf weeds since 1988 in China. However, overuse has led to the resistance evolution of G. aparine to tribenuron-methyl. In this study, 20 G. aparine populations collected from Shandong and Henan provinces were used to determine tribenuron-methyl resistance and target-site resistance mechanisms. In dose–response experiments, 12 G. aparine populations showed different resistance levels (2.92 to 842.41-fold) to tribenuron-methyl compared with the susceptible population. Five different acetolactate synthase (ALS) mutations (Pro-197-Leu, Pro-197-Ser, Pro-197-His, Asp-376-Glu, and Trp-574-Leu) were detected in different resistant populations. Individuals heterozygous for Pro-197-Ser and Trp-574-Leu mutations were also observed in a resistant population (HN6). In addition, pHB4 (Pro-197-Ser), pHB7 (Pro-197-His), pHB8 (Pro-197-Leu), pHB5 (Asp-376-Glu), and pHB3 (Trp-574-Leu) subpopulations individually homozygous for specific ALS mutations were generated to evaluate the cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The pHB4, pHB7, pHB8, pHB5, and pHB3 subpopulations all were resistant to sulfonylurea, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, triazolopyrimidine, flumetsulam, sulfonylamino-carbonyl-triazolinone, flucarbazone-sodium, pyrimidinyl thiobenzoate, pyribenzoxim, and the imidazolinone imazethapyr. These results indicated the diversity of the resistance-conferring ALS mutations in G. aparine, and all these mutations resulted in broad cross-resistance to five kinds of ALS-inhibiting herbicides.
In dairy cattle, resistance, tolerance and resilience refer to the adaptation ability to a broad range of environmental conditions, implying stable performances (e.g. production level, fertility status) independent from disease or infection pressure. All three mechanisms resistance, tolerance and resilience contribute to overall robustness, implying the evaluation of phenotyping and breeding strategies for improved robustness in dairy cattle populations. Classically, breeding approaches on improved robustness rely on simple production traits, in combination with detailed environmental descriptors and enhanced statistical modelling to infer possible genotype by environment interactions. In this regard, innovative environmental descriptors were heat stress indicators, and statistical modelling focussed on random regression or reaction norm methodology. A robust animal has high breeding values over a broad spectra of environmental levels. During the last years, direct health traits were included into selection indices, implying advances in genetic evaluations for traits being linked to resistance or tolerance against infectious and non-infectious diseases. Up to now, genetic evaluation for health traits is primarily based on subjectively measured producer-recorded data, with disease trait heritabilities in a low-to-moderate range. Thus, it is imperative to identify objectively measurable phenotypes as suitable biomarkers. New technologies (e.g. mid-infrared spectrometry) offer possibilities to determine potential biomarkers via laboratory analyses. Novel biomarkers include measurable physiological traits (e.g. serum metabolites, hormone levels) as indicators for a current infection, or the host’s reaction to environmental stressors. The rumen microbiome composition is proposed as a biomarker to detect interactions between host genotype and environmental effects. The understanding of host genetic variation in disease resistance and individual expression of robustness encourages analyses on the underlying immune response (IR) system. Recent advances have been made in order to infer the genetic background of IR traits and cows immunological competence in relation to functional and production traits. Thus, a last aspect of this review addresses the genetic background and current state of genetic control for resistance to economically relevant infectious and non-infectious dairy cattle diseases by considering immune-related factors.
‘Outlaw’ is not a common category of archaeological thought but it is perhaps more useful than meets the eye. ‘Outlaws’ are typically viewed as contingent on legal and capitalist systems; they are, I suggest, also material, affective phenomena that draw our attention to how transgression, dissent and disorder are conceived through archaeological thinking. Here, I outline some ways in which ‘outlaw’ figures are ‘good to think with’, particularly for historical and colonial contexts but also for broader, more global frontier situations. Through three sketches of archetypal ‘outlaws’ in southern Africa's recent past, I consider where these disruptive figures draw attention to how mobility, violence, rebellion and state imagination (and the limits thereof) have been imagined through material misbehaviours.