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The neoliberal restructuring of society is presented in the paper as a renewed drive to enable the further expansion of the capitalistic mode of production threatened i.a. by the ecological crisis. Precisely because the warnings of the report to the Club of Rome “Limits to Growth,” sanctioning the end of the post-war dynamic stability rooted in economic growth and represented by Atlantic Fordism was taken very seriously by the economic elite, forces joined towards a radical restructuring of societies in order to unleash new possibilities for growth and profit accumulation. Neoliberal governmentality paradoxically embraces the challenge launched by Ecological Economists to focus on life as a productive and creative process and matures as a new mode of governing life that operate with and not against life’s power. Against the neoliberal stealth revolution, degrowth embodies a radical alternative project, both with respect to the substantial goals and to the mode of operation of neoliberal governmentality. In its heterogeneity, degrowth opens spaces for radical imaginaries, practices, and experiences that challenge the neoliberal, pervasive logic of growth and self-optimization, while experimenting possibilities for alternative subjectivities and new modes of being.
Examines the relationships in the context of other cases of non-conformist, dissenting, and oppositional behaviors in the Nazi dictatorship. Argues that the women's involvement with a POW deliberately countered the dehumanization of enemies by the Nazi propaganda and in that sense was an act of resistance.
What can be done about the relative lack of doctrinal protections for privacy while in public? How can society – and the law – begin to recognize and appreciate that privacy while navigating public space is of critical importance, particularly for marginalized communities, and worthy of doctrinal protection? In this chapter, after first elaborating and deepening extant proffered justifications for a right to public privacy, I bolster these justifications by underscoring what is, perhaps, a more direct constitutional/doctrinal value served by a right to public privacy. In addition to facilitating future speech and attempts to freely associate (as rightly emphasized by many defenders of public privacy), attempts to preserve a degree of privacy or anonymity in public (often undertaken by members of marginalized groups) are frequently a form of performative and expressive opposition to an ever expanding surveillance society and, as explained in Chapter 3, may be protected as symbolic, expressive conduct under the First Amendment.
This chapter turns to the implications, or payoffs, of a theory of performative privacy. There are both doctrinal and discursive benefits to conceptualizing efforts to maintain privacy in public as acts of performative privacy.
Privacy often suffers in courts of law and as a legislative or regulatory priority. Privacy, in effect, is marginalized as a right and frequently ranked below security or law enforcement concerns. Often it is even ranked below administrative, personal, or corporate convenience. At the same time, privacy is of acute significance for members of marginalized communities – queer folk, racial and religious minorities, women, immigrants, people living with disabilities, people living in poverty, workers, and those at the intersections.
This chapter discusses the abuse of language as symbolic warfare in the realm of politics. It considers a particular use of symbolic violence to humiliate and crush one’s political opponents in public settings with the backing of institutional power. The current populist US president Donald Trump is such a case. His manipulation of language and of the television cameras are the two main elements of the symbolic warfare he wages against anyone who challenges his authority. His use of disparagement and ridicule, his conman-like manipulation of the interactional context and his use of Twitter to address his supporters directly, not only discredit the very institutions that have brought him to power but are raising fundamental questions as to the future of presidential power and democracy in the United States. They have led to a constitutional crisis that is forcing Americans to rethink the very bases of their electoral system, the separation of powers of their government, and the undemocratic values promoted by their commander-in-chief.
Susceptibility to Echinococcus multilocularis infection considerably varies among intermediate (mostly rodents) and dead-end host species (e.g. humans and pig), in particular regarding intestinal oncosphere invasion and subsequent hepatic metacestode development. Wistar rats are highly resistant to infection and subsequent diseases upon oral inoculation with E. multilocularis eggs, however, after immunosuppressive treatment with dexamethasone, rats become susceptible. To address the role of the cellular innate immunity, Wistar rats were individually or combined depleted of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages (MΦ) and granulocytes (polymorphonuclear cells, PMN) prior to E. multilocularis egg inoculation. Although NK cell and MΦ depletion did not alter the resistance status of rats, the majority of PMN-depleted animals developed liver metacestodes within 10 weeks, indicating that PMN are key players in preventing oncosphere migration and/or development in Wistar rats. In vitro studies indicated that resistance is not caused by neutrophil reactive oxygen species or NETosis. Also, light microscopical examinations of the small intestine showed that oral inoculation of E. multilocularis eggs does not elicit a mucosal neutrophil response, suggesting that the interaction of oncospheres and neutrophils may occur after the former have entered the peripheral blood. We suggest to consider granulocytes as mediators of resistance in more resistant species, such as humans.
In 1823, Bessy Chambers filed a complaint in the St. George’s slave court in Jamaica. Chambers, along with twenty-four unnamed enslaved people from the New Layton estate, charged that the overseer had forced her to work despite her pregnancy, causing her to miscarry. While her story contests notions of a benign system of slavery in its twilight years, the multidimensionality of Chambers’ gendered freedom claims also disputed the limiting vision of abolition reform for the enslaved, and for women in particular. Chambers and other enslaved women who had a long history of engaging in distinctly gendered struggles against slavery refused to accept the new subordinate roles abolitionist envisioned for them, although they could not always escape its oppressive reach. In going to court, Chambers revealed a right to self-determination as essential to her conceptualization of womanhood. Her pursuit of legal personhood must therefore be viewed as a dual fight against slavery and the restricted freedom abolitionists proposed.
Chapter 6 focuses on the republican vision set out in Algernon Sidney’s posthumously published Court Maxims, which can be read as call to arms directed at the exile community on the Continent. This short work, written in the form of a philosophical dialogue, openly condemns the Restoration monarchy in England as tyrannical and calls for rebellion against the Stuarts. What marks out Court Maxims as a work of exile is Sidney’s increasing preoccupation with the balance of power in Europe, which he now came to see from another perspective as he was lobbying foreign governments to support his cause. Yet Court Maxims is also a deeply religious and heartfelt work, whose emotive attacks on the tyranny of the Stuarts and the persecution of Protestant dissenters ally Sidney at times more closely with Ludlow and a radical Puritan agenda than with the level-headed classical constitutionalism of Neville. Court Maxims also shares many key points with Sidney’s later Discourses, including its attack on divine-right patriarchalism, absolutism and the hereditary principle. Both works also address the issue of conquest and the people’s right to rise against unjust rulers, and advocate the rule of law and religious liberty.
This essay looks at the innovations in poetry and poetry publishing from 2001 to 2018, with a particular emphasis on the emerging generation of Indigenous poets like Sherwin Bitsui, Orlando White, Natalie Diaz, and Layli Long Soldier. While paying close attention to the themes and motifs that have been of interest to Native writers, this essay foregrounds innovations in poetic form, including erasures and strikethroughs, complicated syntax, and typographical experimentation. A good deal of recent Native poetry takes on English and its rules and structures as a tool of colonization, repression, identification, and misinformation, and in so doing, seeks to remake English so that it might be viewed through an Indigenous lens.
In Canada, lack of permanent immigration status affects migrant students’ ability to seek rights in different settings, producing unsafe conditions and increasing the possibility of deportation. One example of these settings is schooling, as youth who hold precarious immigration status are regularly excluded from higher education. This access issue is widespread and invisibilised across the country. In this chapter, we draw from interviews with migrant students who participated in an Access Project at York University in Toronto to discuss the interlocking barriers precarious status migrants experience due to their immigration status. We specifically focus on one aspect of the Access Project, a bridging course that facilitated students’ entry to higher education by discussing immigration-related content and acquainting them with university procedures. We propose that the bridging course can be understood as a counterspace, where students redefine their narratives by creating counterstories within the university that challenge anti-migrant discourse and political context in their lives.
U.S. Native American literature corresponds in the first instance with the anticolonial literatures of what used to be called the Third World. As such its periodization cannot be made to fit within the periodizations of U.S. American literature, either in terms of centuries or moments (modern/post-modern). More properly, one might begin to think of this literature, if one wants to periodize it at all, in terms of pre-and post-invasion. In this paper, I look at one instance of this correspondence of resistance in Acoma poet Simon Ortiz’s Fight Back: For the Sake of the Land/ For the Sake of the People and Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish’s Journal of an Ordinary Grief. I undertake this project both to reorient our thinking about the global place of U.S. Native American Literature and to think about the way this reorientation effects the hegemony of the current periodization of U.S. American literature.
This chapter examines the myriad ways that authors subverted the post-bellum slavery narrative - employing, variously, Marxist ideas, pan-Africanism and non-racially motivated anti-imperialist rhetoric. It shows that the rhetorical processes through which slaves and slave owners had been othered were challenged and an alternative vision of anti-slavery was offered.
While the basic sequence of innovations that characterise ceramic production in southern Britain during the first centuries b.c. and a.d. is well-established, our understanding of resistance to these innovations remains in its infancy. Led by the theoretical principles of social constructionism, this paper presents a detailed technological characterisation of Silchester ware, a hand-built ceramic type common in late Iron Age and early Roman Berkshire and northern Hampshire, and a conspicuous example of technological and stylistic anachronism when compared to contemporary wheel-made pottery. Multi-period analyses using radiography, petrography and typology indicate that Silchester ware was not merely a technological ‘hangover’, but a traditional form of material culture with its own role in changing socio-economic structures. Contextualisation of the findings within the local archaeological background further suggests that Silchester ware may have been instrumental in the maintenance of local community and identity at a time when these aspects of social life were under threat. Supplementary material available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000355) comprises a characterisation of the chaînes opératoires of Silchester ware and its middle Iron Age antecedents, and a summarised version of the data, interpretations and the original radiographs.
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease is one of the most devastating biotic constraints of mungbean production in India. Dependable knowledge on the number and mode of action of genes controlling resistance to MYMV disease is one of the keys to develop resistant cultivars. The F1s of four crosses derived from four MYMV resistant genotypes × one highly susceptible genotype, their parents, F2s and F3s along with a susceptible check were screened for responses to MYMV disease following the infector-row technique under natural infection conditions. A good fit of F2 population segregation to the hypothesized ratio of 15 susceptible:1 resistant and that of F3 population segregation to the expected ratio of 55 susceptible:9 resistant at 55 days after planting confirmed the involvement of two recessive genes in imparting resistance to MYMV disease.
Chapter 5 is mainly devoted to the interaction between waves and immersed bodies. In general, an immersed body may oscillate in six different modes, three translating modes (surge, sway, heave) and three rotating modes (roll, pitch, yaw). An oscillating body radiates waves, and an incident wave may induce a corresponding excitation force for each one of the six modes. When a body oscillates, it radiates waves. Such radiated waves and excitation forces are related by so-called reciprocity relationships. Such relations are derived not only for a single oscillating body but even for a group (or 'array') of immersed bodies. Axisymmeric bodies and two-dimensional bodies are discussed in separate sections of the chapter. Although most of this chapter discusses wave-body dynamics in the frequency domain, a final section treats an immersed body in the time domain.
Chapter 3 is a general, rather short and partly descriptive introduction to general wave theory, without application of any differential equation. The emphasis is on mechanical waves, e.g., acoustic waves.
Chapter 8 concerns a group of WEC units that may be realised in a more distant future, namely groups or arrays of individual WEC units and two-dimensional WEC units, which needs to be rather big structures. Firstly, a group of WEC bodies is analysed. Next a group consisting of WEC bodies as well as OWCs is analysed. Then the previous real radiation resistance needs to be replaced by a complex radiation damping matrix which is complex, but Hermitian, which means that its eigenvalues are real.
The aim of this study was to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the prevention and control of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in intensive care units (ICUs) in areas with limited health resources. The study was conducted in 12 ICUs of four hospitals. The total cost for the prevention of MDROs and the secondary attack rate (SAR) of MDROs for each strategy were collected retrospectively from 2046 subjects from January to December 2017. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (CER), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were calculated. Hand hygiene (HH) had the lowest total cost (2149.6 RMB) and SAR of MDROs (8.8%) while single-room isolation showed the highest cost (33 700.2 RMB) and contact isolation had the highest SAR of MDROs (31.8%). The average cost per unit infection prevention was 24 427.8 RMB, with the HH strategy followed by the environment disinfection strategy (CER = 21 314.67). HH had the highest iterative cost effect under willingness to pay less than 2000 RMB. Due to the low cost for repeatability and obvious effectiveness, we conclude that HH is the optimal strategy for MDROs infections in ICUs in developing countries. The cost-effectiveness of the four prevention strategies provides some reference for developing countries but multiple strategies remain to be examined.
Panonychus citri (McGregor) is the most common pest in citrus-producing regions. Special low-toxicity acaricides, such as spirocyclic tetronic acids and mite growth inhibitors, have been used for a long time in China. However, pesticide resistance in mites is a growing problem due to the lack of new acaricide development. Wide-spectrum insecticides, such as amitraz have gained acceptance among fruit growers. An amitraz-resistant strain of P. citri was obtained by indoor screening to examine field resistance monitoring of mites to acaricides and to explore the resistant mechanism of mites against amitraz. The amitraz-resistant strain of P. citri had an LC50 value of 2361.45 mg l−1. The resistance ratio was 81.35 times higher in the resistant strain of P. citri compared with the sensitive strain. Crossing experiments between the sensitive and resistant strains of P. citri were conducted, resulting in a D value of 0.11 for F1 SS♀×RS♂ and 0.06 for F1 RS♀×SS♂. Reciprocal cross experiments showed that the dose–mortality curves for the F1 generations coincided, indicating that the resistance trait was not affected by cytoplasmic inheritance. The dose–expected response relationship was evaluated in the backcross generation and a significant difference was observed compared with the actual value. The above results indicate that the inheritance of resistance trait was incompletely dominant, governed by polygenes on the chromosome. Synergism studies demonstrated that cytochrome P450s and esterase may play important roles in the detoxification of amitraz. Based on differential gene analysis, 23 metabolism-related genes of P. citri were identified, consistent with the results of synergism studies. Real-time PCR verification implied that P450s, ABC transporters, and acetylcholinesterase might influence the detoxification of amitraz by P. citri. These results provide the genetic and molecular foundation for the management of pest mite resistance.