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Environmental risk factors for dementia are poorly understood. Aluminium and fluorine in drinking water have been linked with dementia but uncertainties remain about this relationship.
In the largest longitudinal study in this context, we set out to explore the individual effect of aluminium and fluoride in drinking water on dementia risk and, as fluorine can increase absorption of aluminium, we also examine any synergistic influence on dementia.
We used Cox models to investigate the association between mean aluminium and fluoride levels in drinking water at their residential location (collected 2005–2012 by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland) with dementia in members of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 cohort who were alive in 2005.
A total of 1972 out of 6990 individuals developed dementia by the linkage date in 2012. Dementia risk was raised with increasing mean aluminium levels in women (hazard ratio per s.d. increase 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.15, P < 0.001) and men (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.21, P = 0.004). A dose-response pattern of association was observed between mean fluoride levels and dementia in women (1.34, 95% CI 1.28–1.41, P < 0.001) and men (1.30, 95% CI 1.22–1.39, P < 0.001), with dementia risk more than doubled in the highest quartile compared with the lowest. There was no statistical interaction between aluminium and fluoride levels in relation with dementia.
Higher levels of aluminium and fluoride were related to dementia risk in a population of men and women who consumed relatively low drinking-water levels of both.
Despite the possibility that cognitive deficits associated with depression may have different patterns depending on the level of neurocognitive impairment, there remains no clear evidence of this. This study aimed to investigate the differential association between depression and cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
A cross-sectional analysis was performed of data from 1,724 patients with MCI and 1,247 patients with AD from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia in Korea. Depression was assessed using the Korean form of the Geriatric Depression Scale, and cognition was measured using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery, which includes five domains (attention, language and related function, visuospatial function, memory, and frontal/executive function).
Significant differences were found between the two groups (non-depressed vs. depressed) in visuospatial, memory, and executive function domains in the MCI group, as well as in the attention domain in the AD group. The association between depressive symptoms and cognitive function was significantly greater in patients with MCI than in those with AD. These associations were more pronounced in memory and executive function.
Our findings suggest that the association between depression and decreased cognitive function is more pronounced in MCI than AD.
Both attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a high prevalence. They are often comorbid and both exhibit abnormalities in sustained attention, yet common and distinct neural patterns of ASD and ADHD remain unidentified.
To investigate shared and distinct functional connectivity patterns in a relatively large sample of boys (7- to 15-year-olds) with ADHD, ASD and typical development matched by age, gender and IQ.
We applied machine learning techniques to investigate patterns of surface-based brain resting-state connectivity in 86 boys with ASD, 83 boys with ADHD and 125 boys with typical development.
We observed increased functional connectivity within the limbic and somatomotor networks in boys with ASD compared with boys with typical development. We also observed increased functional connectivity within the limbic, visual, default mode, somatomotor, dorsal attention, frontoparietal and ventral attention networks in boys with ADHD compared with boys with ASD. In addition, using a machine learning approach, we were able to discriminate typical development from ASD, typical development from ADHD and ASD from ADHD with accuracy rates of 76.3%, 84.1%, and 79.3%, respectively.
Our results may shed new light on the underlying mechanisms of ASD and ADHD and facilitate the development of new diagnostic methods for these disorders.
Patients with cancer may report neuropsychiatric abnormalities including cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and psychiatric disorders that potentially worsen their quality of life, reduce their treatment response, and aggravate their overall prognosis. Neuropsychiatric disturbances have a different pathophysiology, including immuno-inflammatory and neuroendocrine mechanisms, as a consequence of oncologic treatments (chemo- and radio-therapy). Among clinicians involved in the management of such patients, psychiatrists need to pay particular attention in recognizing behavioral disturbances that arise in oncologic patients, and determining those that may be effectively treated with psychotropic medications, psychotherapeutic interventions, and an integration of them. Through the contribution of different clinicians actively involved in the management of oncological patients, the present review is ultimately aimed at updating psychiatrists in relation to the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the onset of cognitive, affective, and behavioral syndromes in these patients, along with epidemiologic and clinical considerations and therapeutic perspectives.
The neuropsychological aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) have evolved over the past three decades. What was once thought to be a rare occurrence, cognitive dysfunction is now viewed as one of the most disabling symptoms of the disease, with devastating effects on patients’ quality of life. This selective review will highlight major innovations and scientific discoveries in the areas of neuropathology, neuroimaging, diagnosis, and treatment that pertain to our understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of MS. Specifically, we focus on the recent discovery that MS produces pathogical lesions of gray matter (GM) that have consequences for cognitive functions. Methods for imaging these GM lesions in MS are discussed along with multimodal imaging studies that integrate structural and functional imaging methods to provide a better understanding of the relationship between cognitive test performance and functional reserve. Innovations in the screening and comprehensive assessment of cognitive disorders are presented along with recent research that examines cognitive dysfunction in pediatric MS. Results of innovative outcome studies in cognitive rehabilitation are discussed. Finally, we highlight trends for potential future innovations over the next decade. (JINS, 2017, 23, 832–842)
Cet article présente le processus de traduction en français du Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Pediatric Scale (CMTPedS), le seul outil de mesure validé évaluant la sévérité de la maladie chez les enfants atteints de CMT. Le processus de traduction utilisé s’inspire des lignes directrices de la Food and Drug Administration (FDA). La version préliminaire francophone du CMTPedS a été testée auprès de 14 enfants atteints. Les résultats de l’application démontrent que la passation a été bien tolérée par les enfants et s’est avérée conviviale pour les cliniciens. La disponibilité de cet outil en français semble prometteuse pour le suivi des enfants atteints et la réalisation d’essais clinique.
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineation of phylogenetically old neuronal networks that are important for the generation of aggressive behavior in inconspicuous brains, this review summarizes structural and functional brain-imaging studies in violent offenders published over the last 10 years. Depending on the subtype of violence (impulsive or instrumental), deviations in structure or function were mainly found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex, as well as in temporolimbic structures (e.g., the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampus). These brain areas are essentially responsible for the control of the archaic neuronal generators of aggression located in the hypothalamus and limbic system. This regional distribution of brain alterations also shows a remarkable overlap with those brain regions that are crucial for such prosocial traits as empathy and compassion. Feelings of superiority, dominance, and satisfaction gained by performing violent and terroristic attacks suggest that a hedonistic component via an activation of brain reward systems plays an additional role. In our current debate about the causes of terrorism, aspects of brain dysfunction should receive more attention.
Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be associated with impaired social cognition. However, social cognition skills have never been explored in the different subtypes of MS. The first aim of this study was to examine whether MS subtypes differ on the course of social cognition. The second aim was to explore the relationship between social cognition performances and executive abilities and mood variables. Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS and 33 healthy matched controls performed experimental tasks assessing facial emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), and cognitive functioning, in particular executive functions. Results: Patients differed from controls on both measures of social cognition. On the ToM measures, patients with progressive MS scored significantly lower than healthy participants. Patients with primary progressive MS performed worse than both healthy participants and patients with relapsing-remitting MS on the recognition of fearful facial expressions, while patients with secondary progressive MS performed worse on the recognition of facial expressions of sadness. Patients’ social cognition difficulties were correlated with processing speed, working memory, and verbal fluency. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggested that there may be qualitative differences in social cognition difficulties among the phenotypes. Furthermore, these impairments were related to executive functions, but unrelated to patients’ disability or level of depression. These data highlight the need for research to determine the real impact of these deficits on interpersonal relationships among patients and to confirm these disorders in a larger population with progressive forms of MS. (JINS, 2017, 23, 653–664)
Renaut corpuscles are cylindrical hyaline structures that arise from the peripheral nerve perineurium and project into the endoneurium. Despite their earlier accurate description in the French and German literature, Kernohan and Woltman (1938) reported very similar structures as “nerve infarcts” in a case series of vasculitic neuropathy. Krücke (1955) deserves credit for discovering this error and further explaining how peripheral nerves react differently (from brain parenchyma) to ischemia. We tried to elucidate the reason why Kernohan and Woltman, and others, made this scientific error by describing the historical evolution of our understanding of the structure and function of Renaut corpuscles.
Although delirium shares clinical characteristics with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), there is limited information regarding the relationship between delirium and Lewy body pathology. Here, we report an 89-year-old Japanese woman with an episode of delirium who was pathologically confirmed to have limbic-type Lewy body disease (LBD). Although she exhibited transient visual hallucinations during the delirium, she had no overt dementia. She developed no core clinical features of DLB and died of pneumonia at the age of 90 years. This autopsied case suggests that delirium may be one of the clinical phenotypes of LBD prior to the onset of dementia.
Classical neurosurgical teaching suggests that corticosteroid administration reduces the diagnostic yield of stereotactic brain biopsy for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). In a single-center series spanning 6 years, we reviewed 155 consecutive biopsy patients, 135 treated with prebiopsy corticosteroids. PCNSL was correctly diagnosed on initial biopsy in 15 of 16 steroid-treated patients; in the single nondiagnostic specimen, polymerase chain reaction reanalysis by an outside institution showed evidence of lymphoproliferative disease consistent with PCNSL. Our data challenge the notion that it is necessary to withhold corticosteroid therapy for cerebral edema in patients awaiting stereotactic biopsy for suspected PCNSL.
Russian-born, Vienna-trained neurologist and neuropathologist Ilya Mark Scheinker collaborated with Josef Gerstmann and Ernst Sträussler in 1936 to describe the familial prion disorder now known as Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. Because of Nazi persecution following the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, Scheinker fled from Vienna to Paris, then after the German invasion of France, to New York. With the help of neurologist Tracy Putnam, Scheinker ended up at the University of Cincinnati, although his position was never guaranteed. He more than doubled his prior publications in America, and authored three landmark neuropathology textbooks. Despite his publications, he was denied tenure and had difficulty professionally in the Midwest because of prejudice against his European mannerisms. He moved back to New York for personal reasons in 1952, dying prematurely just 2 years later. Scheinker was twice uprooted, but persevered and eventually found some success as a refugee.
Neuropathologists constituted a small field in post-war England, perched between neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery and pathology, but recognised as a discrete field of expertise. Despite this recognition, the success of the neighbouring fields of neurosurgery, psychosurgery and neurobiology, and the consultant status granted to pathologists in the National Health Service, neuropathologists struggled to stabilise their field. A discourse of skills, acquired and acquirable, became central to their attempts to situate the field in relation to surgeons’ handicraft, physicians’ diagnostic acumen and the technologies of the biological sciences.