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This research communications addresses the hypothesis that a part of iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 in milk fat could come from endogenous extraruminal tissue synthesis. In order to confirm this a linear regression model was applied to calculate the proportions of iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 in milk fat that could come from elongation of their putative precursors iso 15:0 and anteiso 15:0, respectively. Sixteen dairy goats were allocated to two simultaneous experiments, in a crossover design with four animals per treatment and two experimental periods of 25 d. In both experiments, alfalfa hay was the sole forage and the forage to concentrate ratio (33 : 67) remained constant. Experimental diets differed on the concentrate composition, either rich in starch or neutral detergent fibre, and they were administered alone or in combination with 30 g/d of linseed oil. Iso 15:0, anteiso 15:0, iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0, the most abundant branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat, were determined by gas chromatography using two different capillary columns. The regression model resolved that 49% of iso 17:0 and 60% of anteiso 17:0 in milk fat was formed extraruminally from iso 15:0 and anteiso 15:0 elongation.
Although bariatric surgery is approved for a woman of child-bearing age with an interest in subsequent pregnancy, reports of in utero growth issues during pregnancy have garnered a closer look at the impact of maternal surgical weight loss on the pre- and postpartum periods. Offspring of dams having received vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are born small-for-gestational age and have increased risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. Here, we aimed to determine whether the postnatal catch-up growth trajectory of bariatric offspring may be affected by milk composition. Milk samples were collected at postnatal day 15/16 from dams having received VSG surgery and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (H-VSG), Sham surgery and fed chow (C-Sham), or Sham surgery and fed HFD (H-Sham). Milk obtained from H-VSG dams had elevated glucose (P < 0.05) and significantly reduced triglyceride content (P < 0.01). Milk from H-Sham dams had the lowest amount of milk protein (P < 0.05). Fatty acid composition measured by fractionation was largely not affected by surgery but rather maternal diet. No difference was observed in milk leptin levels; however, insulin, adiponectin, and growth hormone levels were significantly increased in milk from H-VSG animals. H-Sham had the lowest level of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, whereas IgG was significantly reduced in H-VSG. Taken together, the quality of milk from H-VSG dams suggests that milk composition could be a factor in reducing the rate of growth during the lactation period.
Evidence from randomised controlled trials supports beneficial effects of total dairy products on body weight, fat and lean mass, but evidence on associations of dairy types with distributions of body fat and lean mass is limited. We aimed to investigate associations of total and different types of dairy products with markers of adiposity, and body fat and lean mass distribution. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12 065 adults aged 30–65 years recruited to the Fenland Study between 2005 and 2015 in Cambridgeshire, UK. Diet was assessed with an FFQ. We estimated regression coefficients (or percentage differences) and their 95 % CI using multiple linear regression models. The medians of milk, yogurt and cheese consumption were 293 (interquartile range (IQR) 146–439), 35·3 (IQR 8·8–71·8) and 14·6 (IQR 4·8–26·9) g/d, respectively. Low-fat dairy consumption was inversely associated with visceral:subcutaneous fat ratio estimated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (–2·58 % (95 % CI –3·91, –1·23 %) per serving/d). Habitual consumption per serving/d (200 g) of milk was associated with 0·33 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·46) kg higher lean mass. Other associations were not significant after false discovery correction. Our findings suggest that the influence of milk consumption on lean mass and of low-fat dairy consumption on fat mass distribution may be potential pathways for the link between dairy consumption and metabolic risk. Our cross-sectional findings warrant further research in prospective and experimental studies in diverse populations.
The effect of weight gain during mid- and late gestation in dairy heifers on performance at the start of first lactation was studied. In this experiment, 47 Holstein heifers with first calving at 36 months of age were used. The plane of nutrition aimed to have a high (900 g/d, H; n = 23) and low (500, L; n = 24) average daily gain (ADG) from the 4th month of gestation until 3 weeks before the expected day of calving, achieved by ad libitum intake of high quality pasture (H) or controlled intake of a total mixed ration (L). Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), milking, and reproductive performances were recorded. Concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and urea were characterised at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of lactation. Milk fatty acid composition was determined at weeks 3 and 6. A total of 39 heifers successfully calved and completed first lactation. During feeding treatment the required ADG were achieved. BW and BCS were higher in H heifers at calving compared to L heifers: 707 vs. 640 kg, and 3.91 vs. 3.01 respectively. H heifers lost more weight, BCS and had lower feed intake during the beginning of first lactation (−0.8 kg DM/d/heifer over the first 4 weeks of lactation). Per day of lactation, H heifers produced significantly more milk (29.2 vs. 26.2 kg), fat (1.27 vs. 1.07 kg) and protein (0.84 vs. 0.477 kg) from 0 to 8 weeks of lactation. Concentrations of NEFA, glucose and BHBA were higher in H heifers compared to L heifers, but urea concentration was not affected. Concentration of preformed fatty acids in the milk (C16 and more) was higher. As a result, the calculated daily net energy balance during the first 8 weeks of lactation was −1.53 and −5.95 MJ for L and H heifers, respectively.
Water scarcity prevailing in the drylands is threatening the sustainability of livestock production systems. The water footprint (WF) indicator was proposed as a metric of water use. This study aimed to determine the WF and the economic water productivity (EWP) of 1 kg of fat and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in eight dairy farms (n = 8; animals = 117 ± 62; area = 198 ± 127; 95% confidence level) in northern Tunisia. Then, to assess the effects of three simulation scenarios targeting the reduction of the WF of milk production (scenario A: using triticale silage to replace, on DM basis, the silage of maize, sorghum or ray-grass; scenario B: reducing by 56% the wastage of water devoted to milking, cooling, cleaning and servicing; scenario C: using concentrate feeds imported from Brazil and Argentina instead of that imported from France). A year-round monitoring of on-farm practices was performed using water-meters and recording equipment installed in key locations in the target dairy farms: (i) water used for feed production, (ii) cow watering, (iii) servicing water, (v) crop and forage production and (iv) economic and production performance were controlled by water source (green and blue). Over the eight farms evaluated, milk production consumed on average 1.36 ± 0.41 m3/kg FPCM, of which 0.93 ± 0.40 m3/kg FPCM was green water and 0.42 ± 0.30 m3/kg FPCM was blue water. However, virtual water of 1 kg FPCM averaged 43% ± 14.3%. Water used for feed production for lactating cows represents approximately 87% ± 6% of the total WF of milk production. However, drinking and servicing water contributed by 3.75% ± 2% and 9% ± 5% to the total WF of milk, respectively. The EWP assessment revealed that the selected dairy farms had a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water averaging US$ 0.05 ± 0.04. The variation in WF of milk was mainly associated with diets’ ingredients, which affected milk productivity and water consumption. Scenario analysis indicated that using feed with less water requirements or importing feeds from countries where its water consumption is low could reduce consumptive water use for milk production by up to 16%. The efficient use of servicing water could reduce blue WF of milk by up to 4%. The implementation of these measures would lead to potential total water savings in the Tunisian dairy sector of 646 million m3 per year (30%).
The use of a proteomic approach to investigate changes in the milk proteome is growing and has parralleled the increasing technological developments in proteomics moving from early investigation using a gel-based two-dimensional separation approach to more quantitative method of current focus applying chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteomic approaches to investigate lactational performance have made substantial findings especially in the alterations in lactation during mastitis. An experimental model of Streptococcus uberis infection of the mammary gland has been used as a means to determine change not only in the milk proteome, but also in the peptidome and in the metabolome caused by the infection. Examination of the peptidome, that is the peptides of less than 25 kDa in molecular weight, demonstrated an increase in small peptides most of which were casein degradation products but also included small bioactive peptides such as mammary-associated serum amyloid A3 (MSAA3). The peptidome has also been shown to differ depending on the causative bacteria of naturally occuring mastitis. The use of a non-gel-based relative quantitative proteomic methodology has revealed major changes in the protein component of milk in mastitis. The S. uberis infection lead to increases in the concentrations of proteins such as cathelicidins, haptoglobin, MSAA3 and decreases milk content of proteins such as xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin and β-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Analysis of all protein change data identified the acute phase, coagulation and complement pathways as well as proteins related to bile acid metabolism as being most modified. Examination of the small molecular weight organic molecules of milk using a metabolomic approach identified an increase in the content in milk during mastitis of bile acids such as taurochenodeoxycholic acid. Notable changes were also found in metabolites responding to infection of the mammary gland. Carbohydrate and nucleic acid metabolites were reduced, whereas lipid and nitrogen containing metabolites were increased. The latter included increases in amino acids along with di and tri peptides, likely to be the result of casein degradation. The use of proteomics and other omic technology is in its infancy in investigation of lactational parameters, but can already provide additional insight into the changes involved in disease and will have further value in physiological and nutritional investigation of lactation.
The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.
Consumption of cow’s milk, which is associated with diet and health benefits, has decreased in the USA. The simultaneous increase in demand for more costly organic milk suggests consumer concern about exposure to production-related contaminants may be contributing to this decline. We sought to determine if contaminant levels differ by the production method used.
Half-gallon containers of organic and conventional milk (four each) were collected by volunteers in each of nine US regions and shipped on ice for analysis. Pesticide, antibiotic and hormone (bovine growth hormone (bGH), bGH-associated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)) residues were measured using liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass or tandem mass spectrometry. Levels were compared against established federal limits and by production method.
Laboratory analysis of retail milk samples.
Current-use pesticides (5/15 tested) and antibiotics (5/13 tested) were detected in several conventional (26–60 %; n 35) but not in organic (n 34) samples. Among the conventional samples, residue levels exceeded federal limits for amoxicillin in one sample (3 %) and in multiple samples for sulfamethazine (37 %) and sulfathiazole (26 %). Median bGH and IGF-1 concentrations in conventional milk were 9·8 and 3·5 ng/ml, respectively, twenty and three times that in organic samples (P < 0·0001).
Current-use antibiotics and pesticides were undetectable in organic but prevalent in conventionally produced milk samples, with multiple samples exceeding federal limits. Higher bGH and IGF-1 levels in conventional milk suggest the presence of synthetic growth hormone. Further research is needed to understand the impact of these differences, if any, on consumers.
The research reported in this Research Communication evaluates the effect of milk acidification on the physicochemical and sensory properties of Licor de Oro (or Gold Liqueur; LO), a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Chiloé island, Chile, which is made by mixing milk acidified with lemon juice and alcohol at a ratio of 1.0:1.0, along with sugar and other spices. The mixture is stored for a couple of weeks and then filtered to obtain a product with a yellowish-transparent appearance, sweetness and acidic taste, milky and alcoholic notes. The lack of information regarding LO processing, mainly in the amount of acid added to the mixture, leads to products of highly variable quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk acidification on the physicochemical and sensory properties of LO. Raw milk was acidified using citric acid to six different pH values: 6.7 (control), 6.0, 5.3, 4.6, 3.9 and 3.2. These milk treatments were then used to make LO. A decrease of milk pH led to LO with higher levels of sensorial and titratable acidity. LO obtained at pH 6.7 and 6.0 had higher levels of total protein than other treatments, leading to excessive turbidity. In contrast, treatments made at pH ≤5.3 had a typical transparent appearance of LO. These results suggest that a minimum level of milk acidification is required to obtain LO with desired appearance and composition.
Milk is an important protein source in human diets, providing around 32 g protein/l (for bovine milk, which constitutes some 85% of global consumption). The most abundant milk proteins are α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, αs-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. Besides their nutritional value, milk proteins play a crucial role in the processing properties of milk, such as solubility, water bonding, heat stability, renneting and foaming, among others. In addition, and most importantly for this review, these proteins are the main source of bioactive components in milk. Due to the wide range of proposed beneficial effects on human health, milk proteins are considered as potential ingredients for the production of health-promoting functional foods. However, most of the evidence for bioactive effects comes from in vitro studies, and there is a need for further research to fully evaluate the true potential of milk-derived bioactive factors. Animal genetics and animal nutrition play an important role in the relative proportions of milk proteins and could be used to manipulate the concentration of specific bioactive peptides in milk from ruminants. Unfortunately, only a few studies in the literature have focused on changes in milk bioactive peptides associated to animal genetics and animal nutrition. The knowledge described in the present review may set the basis for further research and for the development of new dairy products with healthy and beneficial properties for humans.
Analysis of milk BHB concentration by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry more frequently than regular milk testing could help dairy producers in decision making, particularly if it would be possible to use small hand-stripped samples (hereinafter simply called samples) taken between dairy herd improvement (DHI) test-samples analysed using DHI algorithms. The aim of this Research Communication was to evaluate milk BHB concentration and the prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration analysed by FTIR spectrometry compared with flow-injection analysis (SKALAR) from samples taken at different times relative to the milking. A total of 293 early-lactation cows in 44 commercial dairy herds were involved in the study. Herds were visited once during the morning milking when a routine DHI test-sample was obtained using in-line milk samplers. Additional milk samples were taken by hand stripping as follows: (1) Just before connecting the milking machine; (2) immediately after removing the milking machine; (3) 3 h after milking and (4) 6 h after milking. Milk samples were analysed for BHB concentration by FTIR and SKALAR, the latter being the reference method. Milk BHB concentration from samples taken before milking was different between FTIR and SKALAR whereas no difference was noted for other sampling times, although milk BHB concentration rose as time after milking increased. Except for DHI test-samples for which prevalence was not different between analysis methods, prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration (≥0.15 mmol/l) was greater for FTIR analysis. However, no difference in prevalence was observed between SKALAR and FTIR when using a threshold of ≥0.20 mmol/l. In summary, hand-stripped milk samples taken any time after removing the milking machine until 6 h after the milking can be recommended for FTIR analysis of elevated milk BHB concentration prevalence provided a threshold of 0.20 mmol/l is used.
This Research Communication describes the efficacy of etamsylate to reduce haemolactia in dairy cows. A dairy cow with haemolactia produces milk that is reddish or pinkish due to the presence of blood. Haemolactia causes economic loss because bloody milk is rejected by the industry and the consumers. A total of 58 dairy cows with haemolactia were included in the study and randomly divided into treated (n = 31) and control (n = 27) groups. Treatment consisted of three consecutive daily doses of etamsylate at 15 mg/kg, delivered intramuscularly. Milk production was recorded daily for 7 d, whether or not blood was detected in milk. The mean number of days with the presence of blood in milk in the treatment group was significantly lower (3·4 d) than in the control group (4·9 d). Treatment with etamsylate did not significantly affect milk yield. In conclusion, treatment with etamsylate reduces the number of days blood is observed in milk and it does not have any negative effect on milk production.
The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate the use of whey contaminated with antibiotics such as cephalosporins, quinolones and tetracyclines as a nutrient medium for the growth of Kluyveromyces marxianus with particular attention to the effect of thermal treatment used to overcome the inhibitory effects of antibiotic concentrations close to the Maximum Residue Limits. The heat treatments at 120 °C for 40 min, 120 °C for 83 min, and 120 °C for 91 min caused total inactivation of cephalosporins, tetracyclines and quinolone residues in whey respectively.
Milk provides energy and nutrients considered protective for bone. Meta-analyses of cohort studies have found no clear association between milk drinking and risk of hip fracture, and results of recent studies are contradictory. We studied the association between milk drinking and hip fracture in Norway, which has a population characterised by high fracture incidence and a high Ca intake. Baseline data from two population-based cohorts were used: the third wave of the Norwegian Counties Study (1985–1988) and the Five Counties Study (2000–2002). Diet and lifestyle variables were self-reported through questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. Hip fractures were identified by linkage to hospital data with follow-up through 2013. Of the 35 114 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study, 1865 suffered a hip fracture during 613 018 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression, hazard ratios (HR) per daily glass of milk were 0·97 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·03) in men and 1·02 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·07) in women. Of 23 259 participants in the Five Counties Study, 1466 suffered a hip fracture during 252 996 person-years of follow-up. HR for hip fractures per daily glass of milk in multivariable Cox regression was 0·99 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·07) in men and 1·02 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·08) in women. In conclusion, there was no overall association between milk intake and risk of hip fracture in Norwegian men and women.
The aim of this Research Communication was to contribute to the knowledge of milk sialic acid concentration of bovines with specific focus on India. Sialic acids (SA) are important constituents of mammalian milks. Buffaloes are the main milk producing species in India, therefore, our research focused on both cow and buffalo. Two Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breeds (Sahiwal, Tharparkar), one cross bred cattle – Karan Fries (Tharparkar × Holstein Friesian) and a buffalo breed (Murrah) were selected. Systematic comparisons of the total, free and bound form of SA and also its distribution over the course of lactation- colostrums and mature milk (120–140 d) was generated. Animal management, sample collection and methodology of SA estimation were identical for the different groups. Colostrum had the highest concentration of SA, which declined with the progress of lactation in all the groups. Majority of the SA existed in bound form. No significant (P < 0.05) difference was recorded in the total, bound or free SA across all the groups. However, differences were obvious in the total and bound SA level in the mature milk. Indian cattle, Sahiwal and Tharparkar were equivalent, but had higher concentration of total and bound SA than crossbred cattle. Milk of buffalo had SA equivalent to that of crossbred cattle. The mean (se) levels of total SA was 23.4 (0.8), 25.8 (2.4), 20.3 (0.6) and 20.2 (1.2) in Sahiwal, Tharparkar, cross bred and Murrah buffalo, respectively. The findings suggested that milk of indigenous cattle may be a potential source of SA, a bioactive compound with beneficial effect on human health and a potential functional ingredient in foods. Results add value to the currently declining indigenous cattle of India.
Existing reviews suggest that milk and other dairy products do not play a role in the development of obesity in childhood, but they do make an important contribution to children’s nutrient intake. It is thus curious that public health advice on the consumption of dairy products for children is often perceived as unclear. The present review aimed to provide an overview of the totality of the evidence on the association between milk and other dairy products, and obesity and indicators of adiposity, in children. Our search identified forty-three cross-sectional studies, thirty-one longitudinal cohort studies and twenty randomised controlled trials. We found that milk and other dairy products are consistently found to be not associated, or inversely associated, with obesity and indicators of adiposity in children. Adjustment for energy intake tended to change inverse associations to neutral. Also, we found little evidence to suggest that the relationship varied by type of milk or dairy product, or age of the children, although there was a dearth of evidence for young children. Only nine of the ninety-four studies found a positive association between milk and other dairy products and body fatness. There may be some plausible mechanisms underlying the effect of milk and other dairy products on adiposity that influence energy and fat balance, possibly through fat absorption, appetite or metabolic activity of gut microbiota. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support a concern to limit the consumption of milk and other dairy products for children on the grounds that they may promote obesity.
Vitamin B12 is synthesised in the rumen from cobalt (Co) and has a major role in metabolism in the peri-paturient period, although few studies have evaluated the effect of the dietary inclusion of Co, vitamin B12 or injecting vitamin B12 on the metabolism, health and performance of high yielding dairy cows. A total of 56 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four treatments from 8 weeks before calving to 8 weeks post-calving: C, no added Co; DC, additional 0.2 mg Co/kg dry matter (DM); DB, additional 0.68 mg vitamin B12/kg DM; IB, intra-muscular injection of vitamin B12 to supply 0.71 mg/cow per day prepartum and 1.42 mg/cow per day post-partum. The basal and lactation rations both contained 0.21 mg Co/kg DM. Cows were weighed and condition scored at drying off, 4 weeks before calving, within 24 h of calving and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-calving, with blood samples collected at drying off, 2 weeks pre-calving, calving and 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-calving. Liver biopsy samples were collected from all animals at drying off and 4 weeks post-calving. Live weight changed with time, but there was no effect of treatment (P>0.05), whereas cows receiving IB had the lowest mean body condition score and DB the highest (P<0.05). There was no effect of treatment on post-partum DM intake, milk yield or milk fat concentration (P>0.05) with mean values of 21.6 kg/day, 39.6 kg/day and 40.4 g/kg, respectively. Cows receiving IB had a higher plasma vitamin B12 concentration than those receiving any of the other treatments (P<0.001), but there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on homocysteine or succinate concentrations, although mean plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations were lower (P=0.019) for cows receiving IB than for Control cows. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased sharply at calving followed by a decline, but there was no effect of treatment. Similarly, there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on plasma non-esterified fatty acids or glucose. Whole tract digestibility of DM and fibre measured at week 7 of lactation were similar between treatments, and there was little effect of treatment on the milk fatty acid profile except for C15:0, which was lower in cows receiving DC than IB (P<0.05). It is concluded that a basal dietary concentration of 0.21 mg Co/kg DM is sufficient to meet the requirements of high yielding dairy cows during the transition period, and there is little benefit from additional Co or vitamin B12.
The farm-gate price of raw milk in Iran is determined annually in negotiations among representatives of dairy processors, milk producers, and government officials. This study estimates the average bargaining power of dairy farmers and processors, through applying the generalized axiomatic Nash approach in a bilateral bargaining model. We employ annual data from 1990 to 2013 to estimate econometric representation of a bilateral bargaining model using a Monte Carlo expectation maximization algorithm. Results imply a higher bargaining power of 0.69 for processors, compared with 0.31 for farmers. This asymmetry of bargaining power causes unequal allocation of gains in the milk market.
The research reported here seeks to evaluate the allergenicity and antigenicity of different mammalian and plant-based milks/milk substitutes in healthy subjects. We used ELISA to measure IgE and IgG antibodies against cow, goat, sheep, camel, human milks, and soy, almond, and coconut plant-based milk substitutes, as well as IgA antibodies against all these apart from human milk, in 500 individuals in order to find the percentage of antibody elevation. IgG and IgE positivity showed that human milk was the least antigenic and allergenic, followed by camel milk. Cow's milk showed the highest percentage of elevation or reactivity. Among plant-based milk substitutes, the almond-based substitute was the most allergenic with the highest IgE reactivity, while the coconut milk substitute was lowest. For IgG and IgA immuno-reactivity, soy was first, with coconut again the lowest. We found IgE and IgG immune reactivity against coconut, almond and soymilks in some individuals who were non-reactive to mammalian milk, therefore, we should not assume that consumption of these milks is automatically without risk of allergenic response. We selected 24 samples out of the original 500 for the measurement of IgE antibodies against five different types of cow's milk, from non-organic to organic, A1 and A2. Statistical variance analysis detected no significant difference in IgE, IgG and IgA immune reactivities of the five different cow milks. Our results showed that if an individual is immuno-reactive to cow's milk, organic or not, the probability of reacting to goat and sheep milk is very high. Overall, the results presented here showed that for individuals allergic to cow's milk, the least allergenic alternatives in descending order are human, camel, sheep, and goat milks. Before choosing an alternative for cow's milk, one must go through accurate and quantitative blood testing for determination of IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies against different mammalian and plant-based milks/milk substitutes.
This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that the type of dulce de leche formula affects formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during production and storage. Milk and sweetened condensed milk are products in which the Maillard reaction (MR) defines important characteristics such as colour and taste. There are few studies on the effects of pH, time, concentration, and sugar type on the formation of HMF or other MR markers in DL. Four formulas (varying in the addition of sodium bicarbonate and the type of sugar) were analysed for moisture, lipid, protein, ash, carbohydrate, water activity (Aw), and soluble solids. We found low variability in physicochemical and compositional attributes, but an elevation of HMF indices throughout the manufacturing. We determined that the addition of glucose and the use of relatively high concentrations of sodium bicarbonate caused these HMF indicator increases. These results inform DL research and production by the dairy industries and the scientific community, and highlight the importance of control in manufacturing.