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The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, including defence against insect herbivores, in plants is widely reported. Si defence against insect herbivores is overwhelmingly studied in grasses (especially the cereals), many of which are hyper-accumulators of Si. Despite being neglected, legumes such as soybean (Glycine max) have the capacity to control Si accumulation and benefit from increased Si supply. We tested how Si supplementation via potassium, sodium or calcium silicate affected a soybean pest, the native budworm Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Herbivory reduced leaf biomass similarly in Si-supplemented (+Si) and non-supplemented (–Si) plants (c. 29 and 23%, respectively) relative to herbivore-free plants. Both Si supplementation and herbivory increased leaf Si concentrations. In relative terms, herbivores induced Si uptake by c. 19% in both +Si and –Si plants. All Si treatments reduced H. punctigera relative growth rates (RGR) to a similar extent for potassium (−41%), sodium (−49%) and calcium (−48%) silicate. Moreover, there was a strong negative correlation between Si accumulation in leaves and herbivore RGR. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of Si-based herbivore defence in soybean; the rapid increase in leaf Si following herbivory being indicative of an induced defence. Taken together with the other benefits of Si supplementation of legumes, Si could prove an effective herbivore defence in legumes as well as grasses.
Prior data on long-term association between legume consumption and hypertension risk are sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total legume and subtype intakes prospectively associate with hypertension incidence among 8758 participants (≥30 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004–2011. Diet was assessed by interviews combining 3-d 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing at each survey round. Incident hypertension was identified by self-reports or blood pressure measurements. We applied multivariable Cox regressions to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95 % CI for hypertension across increasing categories of cumulatively averaged legume intakes. For 35 990 person-years (median 6·0 years apiece), we documented 944 hypertension cases. After covariate adjustment, higher total legume intakes were significantly associated with lower hypertension risks, with HR comparing extreme categories being 0·56 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·71; Ptrend < 0·001). Then we found that intakes of dried legumes (HR 0·53 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·65); Ptrend < 0·001) and fresh legumes (HR 0·67 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·81); Ptrend < 0·001) were both related to decreased hypertension hazards. However, further dried legume classification revealed that negative association with hypertension substantially held for soyabean (HR 0·51 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·62); Ptrend < 0·001) but not non-soyabean intakes. In stratified analyses, the association of interest remained similar within strata by sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking and drinking status; rather, significant heterogeneity showed across age strata (Pinteraction = 0·02). Total legume consumption among the over-65s was related to a more markedly reduced hypertension risk (HR 0·47 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·73); Ptrend < 0·001). Our findings suggest an inverse association of all kinds of legume (except non-soyabean) intakes with hypertension risks.
Currently, consumers are increasingly interested in obtaining high-quality and healthy lamb meat. Compared to grain-based diets, dietary forage legumes such as alfalfa and condensed tannin (CT)-rich sainfoin increase the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are beneficial for health in lamb meat thanks to their high content in PUFA and/or their impact on ruminal biohydrogenation. However, they can therefore adversely affect its oxidative stability. Thus, the impact of dietary forage legumes on lamb longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle FA composition and their stability to peroxidation was studied in 36 Romane lambs grazing alfalfa (AF; n = 12) or alfalfa plus daily supplementation with CT-rich sainfoin pellets (AS; n = 12; 15 g DM/kg BW, 42 g CT/kg DM) or stall-fed concentrate and grass hay indoors (SI; n = 12). Lambs were slaughtered at a mean age of 162 ± 8.0 days after an average experimental period of 101 ± 8.1 days. Forage legumes-grazing lambs outperformed SI lambs in LT nutritional quality, with more conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 PUFAs, especially 18:3n-3, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (P < 0.001), and thus lower n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA and 18:2 n-6/18:3 n-3 ratios (P < 0.001). Peroxidizability index was higher (P < 0.001) in LT muscle of forage legumes-grazing lambs. Concurrently, two endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, were, respectively, similar and lower (P < 0.001) for forage legumes-grazing compared with SI lambs. A lower vitamin E level in SI lambs compared with forage legumes-grazing lambs (1.0 v. 3.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) could explain that malondialdehyde content, a marker of lipid oxidation intensity, was 0.63 µg/g in SI after 8 days in aerobic packaging conditions, whereas it remaining steady at 0.16 µg/g in forage legumes-grazing lambs. Dietary forage alfalfa thus improved FA composition of lamb LT muscle and their stability to oxidation when compared to SI lambs. However, supplementation of alfalfa-grazing lambs with CT-rich sainfoin pellets did not affect the nutritional quality of LT muscle FAs.
Lupine seeds have the potential to be an alternative to imported dietary proteins. In rabbits, it has been indicated that White lupine seed (WLS) is a suitable protein source. Other lupine species, for example, narrow-leaved lupine seed (NLS), have not yet been tested in rabbit diets. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of NLS on growth performance, sanitary risk index (SRI), coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) and nitrogen output in fattening rabbits. Narrow-leaved lupine was compared with WLS as a main protein source. For Experiment I, a total of 198 Hyplus rabbits (37 days of age) were allocated into two groups (99 rabbits per group), fed the WLS I diet (120 g/kg of WLS cv. Amiga) or the NLS I diet (150 g/kg of NLS cv. Probor), and used for performance and carcass trait evaluations. In addition, the CTTAD of the diets and the nitrogen output were determined in 10 Hyplus rabbits per treatment (37 days of age). For Experiment II, a total of 180 Hyplus rabbits (32 days of age) were allocated into two groups (90 rabbits per group), fed the WLS II diet (120 g/kg of WLS cv. Amiga) or the NLS II diet (130 g/kg of NLS cv. Primadona), and used for performance and carcass trait evaluations. In addition, the CTTAD of the diets was determined in 10 Hyplus rabbits per treatment (32 days of age). Regardless of the treatment, the dietary inclusion of NLS had a negative effect on growth of the rabbits. The nitrogen excretion and coefficients of nitrogen retention of rabbits were not affected by the treatments. In Experiment I, SRI (37 to 80 days of age) was higher in rabbits fed the NLS I diet than in those fed the WLS I diet (38.4% v. 23.2%, respectively; P = 0.031). Similarly, in Experiment II (32 to 74 days of age), SRI was higher in rabbits fed the NLS II diet than in rabbits fed the WLS II diet (37.8% v. 23.3%, respectively; P = 0.052). In conclusion, regardless of the variety, the dietary inclusion of NLS had no negative effect on the nitrogen output or dressing-out percentage of rabbits when compared to those of rabbits fed the WLS diets. With respect to the SRI and performance, however, NLS did not provide a satisfactory outcome.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cowpea green manure and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizers on yields of winter wheat and soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The comparisons included cowpea grown solely as green manure where all biomass was terminated at maturity by tillage, summer fallow treatments with 90 kg N ha−1 as urea (90-N), and no fertilization (control) at planting of winter wheat. Fluxes of N2O were measured by closed chamber methods after soil incorporation of cowpea in autumn (October–November) and harvesting of winter wheat in summer (June–August). Growth and yields of winter wheat and N concentrations in grain and straw were also measured. Cowpea produced 9.5 Mg ha−1 shoot biomass with 253 kg N ha−1 at termination. Although soil moisture was favorable for denitrification after soil incorporation of cowpea biomass, low concentrations of soil mineral N restricted emissions of N2O from cowpea treatment. However, increased concentrations of soil mineral N and large rainfall-induced emissions were recorded from the cowpea treatment during summer. Growth of winter wheat, yield, and grain N concentrations were lowest in response to cowpea treatment and highest in 90-N treatment. In conclusion, late terminated cowpea may reduce yield of winter wheat and increase emissions of N2O outside of wheat growing seasons due to poor synchronization of N mineralization from cowpea biomass with N-demand of winter wheat.
On low-input smallholder farms of Kenyan upland landscapes, erosion of nutrient-rich topsoil strongly affects crop yields. Where maize (Zea mays) is intercropped on erosion-prone slopes, intercropping can potentially reduce soil erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of crops and crop mixtures of different growth habits to erosion control and their influence on above-ground biomass and earthworm abundance as indicators of soil function in smallholder farming systems under a bimodal rainfall pattern in Western Kenya. The experiment involved five treatments, namely maize (Z. mays)/common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercrop (maize intercrop), maize/common bean intercrop plus Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) hedgerows and Calliandra mulch (Calliandra), sole Lablab (Lablab purpureus), sole Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) intercropped with maize (during the short rains). The experiment was conducted over three consecutive cropping seasons and the cropping system had significant effects on soil loss, runoff, water infiltration, earthworm abundance and above-ground biomass and crop grain yield. The Calliandra treatment had the lowest runoff (11.6–17.2 mm ha−1) and soil erosion (31–446 kg ha−1 per season) in all the seasons, followed by the Mucuna treatment. Lablab was affected by disease and showed the highest soil erosion in the last two seasons. Infiltration was highest in Calliandra treatment, and earthworm abundance was higher under Mucuna and Calliandra treatments (229 and 165 earthworms per square metre, respectively) than under other crops. Our results suggest that including sole crops of herbaceous species such as Mucuna, or tree hedgerows with mixtures of maize and grain legumes has the potential to reduce runoff and soil erosion in smallholder farming. Additionally, these species provide a suitable habitat for earthworms which stabilise soil structure and macropores and thus potentially increase infiltration, further reducing soil erosion.
Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a major weed of mungbean crops in Australia. Resistance in this weed to several herbicide groups is a challenging issue for its management. Hence, cultural weed management strategies, such as increasing the crop competitive ability through increased stand density, should be considered to reduce reliance on herbicides. It was hypothesized that a competitive crop stand may reduce the growth and seed production of S. oleraceus. Two pot studies were conducted, and each study was repeated once. The first study evaluated the effect of different mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] densities (0, 82, 164, 246, and 328 plants m−2) on S. oleraceus growth and seed production, while the second study focused on glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes of this weed in competition with densities of 0, 82, and 164 mungbean plants m−2. Although increasing mungbean density from 0 to 82 and 164 plants m−2 reduced S. oleraceus seed production by 55% and 78%, respectively, a large number of seeds were produced, even at the mungbean density of 328 plants m−2 (1,185 seeds plant−1). Both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes of S. oleraceus responded similarly to the increase in mungbean density. The results of the second study showed that height, leaves, number of inflorescence, and seed production per plant of both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes were reduced but not suppressed adequately. The glyphosate-resistant biotype produced fewer leaves and less biomass and, consequently, its seed production was 24% less compared with the glyphosate-susceptible biotype in the no-competition treatment. Both biotypes of S. oleraceus produced about 4,000 seeds plant−1 in competition with 164 mungbean plants m−2. The results suggest that crop competition alone cannot provide satisfactory control of S. oleraceus; therefore, for effective and adequate weed management, other practices such as PRE herbicides should be integrated with increased crop density.
A number of clinical trials have examined the effect of l-arginine on lipid profile in recent years; however, the results remain equivocal. Therefore, the present study aims to summarise and quantitatively examine the available evidence on the effectiveness l-arginine supplementation on lipid parameters using a systematic review and meta-analytic approach. Online databases including PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2019 for randomised controlled trials that examined the effect of l-arginine supplementation on lipid profile in adults. Treatment effects were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and the corresponding standard error in concentrations of serum lipids. To estimate the overall effect of l-arginine supplementation, we used the random-effects model. In total, twelve studies were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis revealed that l-arginine supplementation did not significantly change the concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: –5·03 mg/dl; 95 % CI –10·78, 0·73; P = 0·08; inconsistency index (I2) = 39·0 %), LDL (WMD: –0·47 mg/dl; 95 % CI –3·61, 2·66; P = 0·76; I2 = 0·0 %), or HDL (WMD: 0·57 mg/dl; 95 % CI –1·28, 2·43; P = 0·54; I2 = 68·4 %). A significant reduction was observed only in serum TAG levels (WMD: –7·04 mg/dl; 95 % CI –11·42, –2·67; P < 0·001; I2 = 0·0 %). This meta-analysis concludes that l-arginine supplementation can significantly reduce blood TAG levels; however, there is insufficient evidence to support its hypocholesterolaemic effects. To draw straightforward conclusions regarding generalised recommendations for l-arginine supplementation for improving lipid profile, there is a need for more well-controlled trials targeting exclusively patients with dyslipidaemia.
Providing forage to feed-restricted pregnant sows may improve their welfare by reducing their high feeding motivation. The aim of this study was to determine sows’ preferences for four forage mixtures cultivated in Canada. Forage mixtures were compared when offered either fresh or dry. The four forage mixtures were composed of different proportions and species of legumes (alfalfa (Alf) or red clover (Clo)) and grasses (tall fescue (F) and/or timothy (T)): (1) Alf-F, (2) Alf-F-T, (3) Clo-T and (4) Clo-F-T. Voluntary intake was measured, and preference tests were carried out for two experiments: one in spring for fresh forages ( n = 8) and the other in autumn for hays ( n = 8) with different sows housed in individual pens and fed a concentrated diet meeting their nutritional requirements for maintenance and foetal growth. Voluntary intake was measured by offering each forage mixture separately (one forage mixture/day) during 90 min according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design replicated four times. During preference tests, all six combinations of two forage mixtures were offered once (one combination/day) for 45 min to each sow. Individual forage intake was measured, and feeding behaviour was observed. Forages were analysed for botanical and chemical composition. Difference in voluntary intake among the four forage mixtures was determined using a variance analysis followed by Tukey tests for post hoc comparisons. In preference tests, differences between the two forage mixtures offered were determined using a paired Student’s t test, and the most ingested forage mixture was considered the preferred one. Results from both experiments revealed clear preferences for some forage mixtures when offered either fresh or dry. Forage mixtures with a greater proportion of legumes (AlfT and CloT) were preferred over forage mixtures with a higher proportion of grasses (AlfFT and CloFT). The AlfFT and CloFT forage mixtures contained at least 30% of fescue; therefore, the greater preference for the AlfT and CloT forage mixtures could also be due to the absence of fescue. Sows preferred forages with low DM and NDF concentrations and high CP and non-structural carbohydrates concentrations. Based on results from previous studies, the preferences seen in the present study are most likely due to the greater proportion of legumes, although an effect of tall fescue in preference cannot be excluded. Therefore, offering forages with a high proportion of legumes would be a good strategy to maximise both fresh and dry forage intake in pregnant sows.
The majority of New Zealand dairy goat farmers utilise cultivated green-fed fodder dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.), but evidence from other ruminant species suggests that milk production may be improved when using a more diverse array of species within the green fodder. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether feeding lactating dairy goats a mixed-species green fodder (MF, consisting of perennial ryegrass, timothy (Phleum pratense L.), prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth), white clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) improves dietary intake, milk yield and composition compared with a standard ryegrass and white clover green fodder (SF). Thirty-six mid-lactation goats were housed indoors in pairs and split into two groups (A and B). The trial was split into three periods – firstly a uniformity period of 6 days, in which all goats were fed a combination of both green fodder types, followed by two treatment periods (P1 and P2) of 12 days, respectively. For P1, group A was fed MF and group B was fed SF, and then the group diets were switched for P2. Goats fed MF had 13% greater dry matter intake and 7% greater milk yield than goats fed SF. In addition, the milk protein and fat concentration of goats fed MF were 4% greater than for those fed SF, whereas there was no effect on milk lactose concentration. There was no treatment effect on the levels of protein, glucose, urea or non-esterified fatty acids in the blood of the goats. An effect of green fodder type on milk fat profile was demonstrated, with proportions of pentadecylic acid (C15:0), cis-vaccenic acid (C18:1 c11), linoleic acid (C18:2 n6) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3) being increased in response to MF consumption. In contrast, iso-C15 and iso-C17 proportions were lesser. In summary, this study demonstrated that goats fed MF increased green fodder intake and milk production compared with goats fed SF. The green fodder type affected the fatty acid profile of goat’s milk, with MF increasing the levels of beneficial polyunsaturated omega fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acids).
Globally, there is an increased demand for sustainable protein sources for animal feed. Grass and forage legumes have the yield potential to become such alternatives, but the protein needs to be separated from the fibres. Red clover, white clover, lucerne and perennial ryegrass were fractionated into a green juice and a fibrous pulp in a screw-press and protein was subsequently precipitated. The nitrogen (N) and amino acid composition of the produced fractions was analysed and the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and N was evaluated using a rat digestibility trial. The aim was to determine the effect of fractionation on composition and digestibility in order to evaluate the four plants as potential protein sources for monogastrics. Protein concentrates with CP concentrations of 240 to 388 g/kg DM and fibrous pulps with CP concentrations of 111 to 216 g/kg DM were produced. The sum of all analysed amino acids was highest in the protein concentrates corresponding to a low concentration of non-protein nitrogen ranging from 4.9% to 10.4%. Only small variations were seen in the amino acid compositions of the different plants and fractions. The concentration of the essential lysine and methionine in the protein concentrate ranged from 6.27 to 6.67 g/16 g N and 1.54 to 2.09 g/16 g N for lysine and methionine, respectively. For all plants species, total tract digestibility of DM and standardised N digestibility was significantly higher in the protein concentrates (60.8% to 76.5% and 75.4% to 85.0% for DM and N, respectively) compared to pulp (21.2% to 43.4% and 52.1% to 72.5% for DM and N, respectively). Digestibility of lucerne protein concentrate (76.5% and 85.0% for DM and N, respectively) was higher than of the unprocessed plant (39.6% and 74.9% for DM and N, respectively), whereas for red and white clover no difference was found. The amino acids methionine and cysteine were limiting for pigs and broilers in all fractions regardless of plant origin, and low scores were also found for lysine. The study demonstrated great potential of using green plants as a protein source for monogastrics because of high protein content, balanced amino acid composition and high digestibility of DM and N. The effects of processing and protein precipitation were pronounced in lucerne where significantly improved digestibility was observed in the protein concentrate. The results from the study provide valuable and enhanced knowledge to the production of alternative and sustainable protein sources for monogastric feed.
Soybean meal in broiler chicken diets can partly be replaced by faba bean seeds. Unfortunately, high levels of antinutritional factors and resistant starch found in these seeds can have a detrimental impact on both broiler chickens’ performance and nutrient digestibility. It is, however, possible to increase the usefulness of faba bean for broiler nutrition by a technological process known as extrusion. In this study, the authors made and attempt to investigate the effect of different forms of faba bean seeds (raw or extruded) on broiler chicken performance, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values (AMEN), nutrient utilization and meat quality, as well as on the excretion of total and free sialic acids. In the trial, the total of 160 1-day-old male broiler chicks of the Ross 308 strain were used. Experimental birds were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, each containing 10 replication (floor pens); one replication included nine birds. The first group contained 300 g/kg diet of raw faba bean seeds, whereas the second group – 300 g/kg diet of extruded faba bean seeds. The applied extrusion process was found to exert a positive impact and led to a decrease in phytic phosphorus, H, NDF, ADF and resistant starch content in studied faba bean seeds. Experimental birds fed diets containing extruded faba bean seeds were characterized by a lower feed intake (2299 g) and feed conversion ratios (FCRs) (1.52 g/g) in comparison with the other group (feed intake 2466 g; FCR 1.61 g/g). Extrusion of faba bean seeds improved dry matter retention, dietary AMEN value, apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter and starch, as well as most amino acids. In addition, the above-mentioned process resulted in a decrease in the excretion of total and free sialic acids. Extruded faba bean seeds failed to have a significant impact on broiler meat quality. It was concluded that application of extrusion can increase the use of faba bean seeds in broiler chicken nutrition.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in red clover (RC) has been shown to reduce both lipolysis and proteolysis in silo and implicated (in vitro) in the rumen. However, all in vivo comparisons have compared RC with other forages, typically with lower levels of PPO, which brings in other confounding factors as to the cause for the greater protection of dietary nitrogen (N) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on RC silage. This study compared two RC silages which when ensiled had contrasting PPO activities (RC+ and RC−) against a control of perennial ryegrass silage (PRG) to ascertain the effect of PPO activity on dietary N digestibility and PUFA biohydrogenation. Two studies were performed the first to investigate rumen and duodenal flow with six Hereford×Friesian steers, prepared with rumen and duodenal cannulae, and the second investigating whole tract N balance using six Holstein-Friesian non-lactating dairy cows. All diets were offered at a restricted level based on animal live weight with each experiment consisting of two 3×3 Latin squares using big bale silages ensiled in 2010 and 2011, respectively. For the first experiment digesta flow at the duodenum was estimated using a dual-phase marker system with ytterbium acetate and chromium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as particulate and liquid phase markers, respectively. Total N intake was higher on the RC silages in both experiments and higher on RC− than RC+. Rumen ammonia-N reflected intake with ammonia-N per unit of N intake lower on RC+ than RC−. Microbial N duodenal flow was comparable across all silage diets with non-microbial N higher on RC than the PRG with no difference between RC+ and RC−, even when reported on a N intake basis. C18 PUFA biohydrogenation was lower on RC silage diets than PRG but with no difference between RC+ and RC−. The N balance trial showed a greater retention of N on RC+ over RC−; however, this response is likely related to the difference in N intake over any PPO driven protection. The lack of difference between RC silages, despite contrasting levels of PPO, may reflect a similar level of protein-bound-phenol complexing determined in each RC silage. Previously this complexing has been associated with PPOs protection mechanism; however, this study has shown that protection is not related to total PPO activity.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the variability in in situ CP degradation characteristics of 15 batches lupin grains from nine genotypes in a standardised approach. This study also investigated whether differences in CP degradation can be described by protein fractionation using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) and also whether thermal processing of lupins has an effect on CP degradation in the rumen and analysed protein fractions. The rising political and consumer demand for milk products from dairy production systems based on domestic protein sources and the wide range of lupin types and varieties that can be chosen as protein feed in dairy nutrition requires research to determine the variability in CP degradation characteristics in the rumen. For CP degradation measurements, ground grains were incubated in the rumen of three lactating Jersey cows fitted with a ruminal cannula for different times from 2 to 48 h, and the washing loss of non-incubated samples was also measured. Protein fractions were analysed according to CNCPS and used for the estimation of ruminally degraded protein. In situ CP degradation parameters varied widely between untreated samples. The mean value for the washout fraction was 29.3% (from 16.4% to 43.6%). The potentially degradable fraction averaged 70.5% (from 55.6% to 83.7%), hence maximal degradation of CP was close to completeness. Mean degradation rate was 16.6%/h (from 12.6 to 21.0%/h). Variation in estimated parameters led to variation in the effective degradation (ED) averaging 76.6% (from 67.3% to 83.0%) when calculated assuming a ruminal outflow of 8%/h. Thermal treatment of lupins induced changes in degradation characteristics, primarily by lowering degradation rates, and also led to a significant reduction in ED. The ED calculated from analysed protein fractions averaged 10 percentage points higher than ED calculated from in situ parameters for untreated grains. The ED based on protein fractionation was also reduced by heat treatment, but the correlation with in situ based ED was poor. It can be concluded that the variation in ED indicates a potential to increase the amount of rumen undegraded protein without additional chemical or physical treatment and the effect of genetic factors and agronomic practices on ED of lupin grains should be investigated in systematic studies in the future.
Nutrient profiling (NP) is a method for evaluating the healthfulness of foods. Although many NP models exist, most have not been validated. This study aimed to examine the content and construct/convergent validity of five models from different regions: Australia/New Zealand (FSANZ), France (Nutri-Score), Canada (HCST), Europe (EURO) and Americas (PAHO). Using data from the 2013 UofT Food Label Information Program (n15342 foods/beverages), construct/convergent validity was assessed by comparing the classifications of foods determined by each model to a previously validated model, which served as the reference (Ofcom). The parameters assessed included associations (Cochran–Armitage trend test), agreement (κ statistic) and discordant classifications (McNemar’s test). Analyses were conducted across all foods and by food category. On the basis of the nutrients/components considered by each model, all models exhibited moderate content validity. Although positive associations were observed between each model and Ofcom (all Ptrend<0·001), agreement with Ofcom was ‘near perfect’ for FSANZ (κ=0·89) and Nutri-Score (κ=0·83), ‘moderate’ for EURO (κ=0·54) and ‘fair’ for PAHO (κ=0·28) and HCST (κ=0·26). There were discordant classifications with Ofcom for 5·3 % (FSANZ), 8·3 % (Nutri-Score), 22·0 % (EURO), 33·4 % (PAHO) and 37·0 % (HCST) of foods (all P<0·001). Construct/convergent validity was confirmed between FSANZ and Nutri-Score v. Ofcom, and to a lesser extent between EURO v. Ofcom. Numerous incongruencies with Ofcom were identified for HCST and PAHO, which highlights the importance of examining classifications across food categories, the level at which differences between models become apparent. These results may be informative for regulators seeking to adapt and validate existing models for use in country-specific applications.
The parasitic purple witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.] is a serious constraint to maize production in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in poor soils. Various Striga spp. control measures have been developed, but these have not been assessed in an integrated system. This study was conducted to evaluate a set of promising technologies for S. hermonthica management in western Kenya. We evaluated three maize genotypes either intercropped with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], or silverleaf desmodium [Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC] or as a sole crop at two locations under artificial S. hermonthica infestation and at three locations under natural S. hermonthica infestation between 2011 and 2013. Combined ANOVA showed significant (P<0.05) cropping system and cropping system by environment interactions for most traits measured. Grain yield was highest for maize grown in soybean rotation (3,672 kg ha−1) under artificial infestation and in D. uncinatum and peanut cropping systems (3,203 kg ha−1 and 3,193 kg ha−1) under natural infestation. Grain yield was highest for the Striga spp.-resistant hybrid under both methods of infestation. A lower number of emerged S. hermonthica plants per square meter were recorded at 10 and 12 wk after planting on maize grown under D. uncinatum in the artificial S. hermonthica infestation. A combination of herbicide-resistant maize varieties intercropped with legumes was a more effective method for S. hermonthica control than individual-component technologies. Herbicide-resistant and Striga spp.-resistant maize integrated with legumes would help reduce the Striga spp. seedbank in the soil. Farmers should be encouraged to adopt an integrated approach to control Striga spp. for better maize yields.
The purpose of this study was primarily to evaluate the association of total fibre intake with the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also evaluated the association of dietary fibre from fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes with the incidence of CKD in a population-based prospective study. We followed up 1630 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study for 6·1 years, who were initially free of CKD. Baseline diet was assessed by a valid and reliable FFQ. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated, using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, and CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2. OR using multivariable logistic regression was reported for the association of incident CKD with tertiles of dietary fibre intake. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, diabetes and using angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, the OR for subjects in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of total fibre intake was 0·47 (95 % CI 0·27, 0·86). In addition, for every 5 g/d increase in total fibre intake, the risk of incident CKD decreased by 11 %. After adjusting for potential confounders, OR for participants in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of fibre from vegetables was 0·63 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·93) and from legumes it was 0·68 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·98). We observed inverse associations between total fibre intake and risk of incident CKD, which demonstrate that high fibre intake, mainly from legumes and vegetables, may reduce the occurrence of CKD.
The use of forage legumes has been proposed as a means of generating sustainable grazing environments. Their limited use, particularly in tropical pastures, is partially due to the limited knowledge regarding the efficiency of utilization by animals. The present study characterized the sward structure, nutritive value and ingestive behaviour of dairy heifers in pastures of peanut cv. Belmonte under continuous stocking management. Treatments corresponded to sward heights of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm, according to a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The following response variables were evaluated: vertical distribution of the morphological components within the sward, forage mass, nutritive value (simulated grazing), bite rate (BR), bite mass (BM) and short-term herbage intake rate (STIR). The top half of the sward height was mainly composed of leaves and the bottom half mainly of stolon and dead material regardless of management height. Greater values of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were recorded during autumn, while higher values of in-vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility (0·85) occurred during spring regardless of management height for the grazed stratum. In relation to treatments, greater values of crude protein were recorded on swards managed at 5 cm (0·27) and 10 cm (0·26). Bite rate, BM and STIR varied with sward height, but not with a season of the year. The STIR followed a broken line response to sward height, with increasing values up to 13·1 cm (106 g DM/kg body weight). Sward structure played an important role in determining the STIR. To maximize the STIR of dairy heifers under continuous stocking management, swards should be managed at heights of not <13·1 cm.
The human population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050 and thus high yield crop varieties need to be developed. Remote sensing can estimate crop parameters non-destructively and quickly. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the use of a commercial RGB camera with an expensive canopy sensor in the crop development of two legumes. The RGB camera based vegetation index (NGRDI) was compared with the canopy sensor derived vegetation indices (NDVI and NDRE) for estimating legume crop growth parameters. The results indicated that the use of a simple digital camera RGB can in some cases replace spectral canopy sensors.
The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively – DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea products while, it displayed neither positive nor negative impact on nutrient digestibility. The present findings indicate the feasibility of these processes, particularly enzymatic treatment, for improving the nutritional quality of pea as a protein source for broiler nutrition.