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Shock control bumps can be used to control and weaken the shock waves that form on engine intakes at high angles of attack. In this paper, it is demonstrated how shock control bumps applied to an engine intake can reduce or eliminate shock-induced separation at high incidence, and also increase the incidence at which critical separation occurs. Three-dimensional Reynolds-average Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations are used to model the flow through a large civil aircraft engine intake at high incidence. The variation in shock strength and separation with incidence is first studied, along with the flow distribution around the nacelle. An optimisation process is then employed to design shock control bumps that reduce shock strength and separation at a fixed high incidence condition. The bump geometry is allowed to vary in shape, size, streamwise position and circumferential direction around the nacelle. This is shown to be key to the success of the shock control geometry. A further step is then taken, using the optimisation methodology to design bumps that can increase the incidence at which critical separation occurs. It is shown that, by using this approach, the operating range of the engine intake can be increased by at least three degrees.
We aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing corn silage by orange peel silage on nutrient intake, ruminal parameters and milk production of multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Eight fistulated Holstein cows averaging 587.5 ± 39.6 kg and 111 ± 22 d in milking were randomly assigned to a double 4 × 4 Latin square design carried out two times to determine the effects of feeding with orange peel silage (OPS) in substitution of whole plant corn silage (WPCS). The treatments were a control diet with WPCS only or diets with OPS replacing WPCS in the total mixed diet (250, 500, or 750 g/kg DM). All cows were fed the same 750 : 250 g/kg roughage : concentrate ratio. The DM intake and milk production were reduced with the OPS inclusion, with decreases in consumption of neutral detergent fibre and increased consumption of non-fibrous carbohydrates. Diets with 250 and 500 g/kg OPS showed similar milk production and protein content in milk to the standard WCPS diet, whilst 750 g/kg orange peel silage as roughage increased fat and protein contents significantly. The orange peel silage as a substitute for corn silage for feeding dairy cows did not show adverse changes in the rumen environment and showed promising results in the increase of fat in milk of Holstein cows.
The performance of the solid fuel ramjet is accurately predicted using full part simulation of this propulsion system, where the flow fields of the intake, combustion chamber, and the nozzle are numerically studied all together. The conjugate heat transfer is considered between the solid phase and the gas phase to directly compute the regression rate of the fuel. The finite volume solver of the compressible turbulent reacting flow is utilized to study the axisymmetric three dimensional flow fields, and two blocks are used to discretize the computational domain. It is shown that the combustion chamber's pressure is changed due to the fuel flow rate's increment which must be taken into account in predictions. The results demonstrate that omitting the pressure dependence of the regression rate and also the effect of the combustor's inlet profile on the regression rate, which specially exists when simulating the combustion chamber individually, under-predicts the solid fuel burning rate when the regression rate augmentation technique is applied to improve the performance of the solid fuel ramjets. It is also illustrated that using the inlet swirl to increase the regression rate of the solid fuel augments considerably the thrust level of the considered SFRJ, while the predictions without considering all parts of the ramjet is not accurate.
To simulate the impact – effectiveness and safety – of water fortification with different concentrations of Ca using the Intake Modelling, Assessment and Planning Program.
This is a secondary analysis of national or sub-national dietary intake databases.
Setting and Participants:
Uganda, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Bangladesh, Zambia, Argentina, USA and Italy.
We found that for dietary databases assessed from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the strategy of fortifying water with 500 mg of Ca/l would decrease the prevalence of low Ca intake in all age groups. We also found that this strategy would be safe as no group would present a percentage of individuals exceeding the upper limit in >2 %, except women aged 19–31 years in Lao PDR, where 6·6 % of women in this group would exceed the upper limit of Ca intake. The same strategy would lead to some groups exceeding the upper limit in USA and Italy.
We found that for most LMIC countries, water fortified with Ca could decrease the prevalence of Ca intake inadequacy without exceeding the upper levels of Ca intake.
To determine the impacts of using a whole grain food definition on measurement of whole grain intake compared with calculation of total grams of intake irrespective of the source.
The Australian whole grain database was expanded to identify foods that comply with the Healthgrain whole grain food definition (≥30 % whole grains on a dry weight basis, whole grain ingredients exceeds refined grain and meeting accepted standards for healthy foods based on local regulations). Secondary analysis of the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) 2011–2012 dietary intake data included calculation of whole grain intakes based on intake from foods complying with the Healthgrain definition. These were compared with intake values where grams of whole grain in any food had been included.
Australians (≥2 years) who participated in the NNPAS 2011–2012 (n 12 153).
Following expansion of the whole grain database, 214 of the 609 foods containing any amount of whole grain were compliant with the Healthgrain definition. Significant mean differences (all P < 0·05) of 2·84–6·25 g/d of whole grain intake (5·91–9·44 g/d energy adjusted) were found when applying the Healthgrain definition in comparison with values from foods containing any whole grain across all age groups.
Application of a whole grain food definition has substantial impact on calculations of population whole grain intakes. While use of such definitions may prove beneficial in settings such as whole grain promotion, the underestimation of total intake may impact on identification of any associations between whole grain intake and health outcomes.
Feed costs account for the largest proportion of direct cost within suckler beef production systems. By identifying the cow type with enhanced capability of converting grazed herbage to beef output across lactations, suckler cow systems would become more efficient and sustainable. The objective of this study was to estimate grass DM intake (GDMI) and production efficiency among lactating suckler cows of diverse genetic merit for the national Irish maternal index (Replacement Index) which includes cow efficiency components such as milk yield and feed intake. Data from 131 cows of diverse genetic merit within the Replacement Index, across two different replacement strategies (suckler or dairy sourced), were available over two grazing seasons. Milk yield, GDMI, cow live weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded during early, mid and late-lactation, with subsequent measures of production efficiency extrapolated. Genetic merit had no significant effect on any variables investigated, with the exception of low genetic merit (LOW) cows being 22 kg heavier in BW than high genetic merit (HIGH) cows (P < 0.05). Beef cows were 55 kg heavier in BW (P < 0.001), had a 0.31 greater BCS (P < 0.05) and 0.30 Unité Fourragère Lait (UFL) greater energy requirement for maintenance compared to dairy sourced beef × dairy crossbred (BDX) cows (P < 0.001). The BDX had 0.8 kg greater GDMI, produced 1.8 kg more milk (P < 0.001), had a 0.8 UFL greater energy requirement for lactation and produced weanlings that were 17 kg heavier in BW than beef cows (P < 0.05). Subsequent efficiency variables of milk per 100 kg BW (P < 0.001), milk per kg GDMI (P < 0.001) and GDMI per 100 kg BW (P < 0.001) were more favourable for BDX. The correlations examined showed GDMI had moderate positive correlations (P < 0.001) with intake per 100 kg BW, net energy intake per kg milk yield, RFI and intake per 100 kg calf weaning weight but was weakly negatively correlated to milk yield per kg GDMI (P < 0.001). No difference was observed across genetic merit for beef cows for any of the traits investigated. Results from the current study showed that, while contrasting replacement strategies had an effect on GDMI and production efficiency, no main effect was observed on cows diverse in genetic merit for Replacement Index. Nonetheless, utilising genetic indexes in the suckler herd is an important resource for selecting breeding females for the national herd and phenotypic performance generated from this study can be included in future genetic evaluations to improve reliability of genetic values.
This chapter defines what kind of input contains the data necessary for acquisition (communicatively embedded input) and focuses on its fundamental role in acquisition. Subsequently, we review the claims on the role of output and interaction, focusing on these major issues: comprehensible output is necessary for acquisition; comprehensible output is beneficial for acquisition; comprehensible output does little to nothing for acquisition. We also discuss the nature of interaction more generally, focusing on whether interaction affects the acquisition of formal features of language.
In the present study, the aim was to investigate the correlation between the acute and habitual dietary intake of flavanones, their main food sources and the concentrations of aglycones naringenin and hesperetin in 24 h urine in a European population. A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and a 24-h urine sample were collected the same day from a subsample of 475 people from four different countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Acute and habitual dietary data were captured through a standardised 24-HDR and a country/centre-specific validated dietary questionnaire (DQ). The intake of dietary flavanones was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Urinary flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) were analysed using tandem MS with a previous enzymatic hydrolysis. Weak partial correlation coefficients were found between urinary flavanone concentrations and both acute and habitual dietary flavanone intakes (Rpartial = 0·14–0·17). Partial correlations were stronger between urinary excretions and acute intakes of citrus fruit and juices (Rpartial ∼ 0·6) than with habitual intakes of citrus fruit and juices (Rpartial ∼ 0·24). In conclusion, according to our results, urinary excretion of flavanones can be considered a good biomarker of acute citrus intake. However, low associations between habitual flavanone intake and urinary excretion suggest a possible inaccurate estimation of their intake or a too sporadic intake. For assessing habitual exposures, multiple urinary collections may be needed. These results show that none of the approaches tested is ideal, and the use of both DQ and biomarkers can be recommended.
The current study was carried out to examine the effect of cottonseed processing and chitosan supplementation on lamb performance, digestibility and nitrogen digestion. Eighty uncastrated Santa Inês lambs (23 ± 2.2 kg average weight, 4 months old) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that consisted of two cottonseed processing forms (whole or ground) and two chitosan levels (0 or 136 mg/kg live weight). Higher dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) was achieved with the diets containing the whole cottonseed. Ether extract ADC was higher in the animals fed the chitosan-containing diet. There was an interaction effect on the ADC of neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein, which increased with chitosan inclusion associated with the whole cottonseed. The lambs that received the treatment containing the whole cottonseed showed higher microbial protein synthesis. Chitosan addition increased nitrogen retention. The animals fed chitosan-containing diets showed higher microbial protein synthesis. There was an interaction effect on microbial protein synthesis. Whole cottonseed associated with chitosan in lamb diets increases ether extract ADC and microbial protein synthesis.
Estimating the feed intake of grazing herbivores is critical for determining their nutrition, overall productivity and utilization of grassland resources. A 17-day indoor feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential use of Medicago sativa as a natural supplement for estimating the total feed intake of sheep. A total of 16 sheep were randomly assigned to four diets (four sheep per diet) containing a known amount of M. sativa together with up to seven forages common to typical steppes. The diets were: diet 1, M. sativa + Leymus chinensis + Puccinellia distans; diet 2, species in diet 1 + Phragmites australis; diet 3, species in diet 2 + Chenopodium album + Elymus sibiricus; and diet 4, species in diet 3 + Artemisia scoparia + Artemisia tanacetifolia. After faecal marker concentrations were corrected by individual sheep recovery, treatment mean recovery or overall recovery, the proportions of M. sativa and other dietary forages were estimated from a combination of alkanes and long-chain alcohols using a least-square procedure. Total intake was the ratio of the known intake of M. sativa to its estimated dietary proportion. Each dietary component intake was obtained using total intake and the corresponding dietary proportions. The estimated values were compared with actual values to assess the estimation accuracy. The results showed that M. sativa exhibited a distinguishable marker pattern in comparison to the other dietary forage species. The accuracy of the dietary composition estimates was significantly (P < 0.001) affected by both diet diversity and the faecal recovery method. The proportion of M. sativa and total intake across all diets could be accurately estimated using the individual sheep or the treatment mean recovery methods. The largest differences between the estimated and observed total intake were 2.6 g and 19.2 g, respectively, representing only 0.4% and 2.6% of the total intake. However, they were significantly (P < 0.05) biased for most diets when using the overall recovery method. Due to the difficulty in obtaining individual sheep recovery under field conditions, treatment mean recovery is recommended. This study suggests that M. sativa, a natural roughage instead of a labelled concentrate, can be utilized as a dietary supplement to accurately estimate the total feed intake of sheep indoors and further indicates that it has potential to be used in steppe grassland of northern China, where the marker patterns of M. sativa differ markedly from commonly occurring plant species.
Intake in sugar-rich diets can be limited either via rumen fill or excessive rumen fermentation and source of non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) in the diet can affect both factors. The aim of the current study was to quantify the effect of partially replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels in sugarcane-based diets on digestibility, rumen ecosystem and metabolism of Nellore steers. Six rumen-cannulated steers were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square, replicated in time, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two levels of concentrate (600 or 800 g concentrate/kg dry matter [DM]) and three NFC sources. Each steer within a period was considered an experimental unit. Feeding more concentrate increased total tract digestibility of organic matter and decreased fibre intake and passage rate. It also reduced rumen populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Streptococcus bovis and increased Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Substituting PCP for GM increased rumen pH, acetic acid and organic matter digestibility. Feeding PCP also reduced R. flavefaciens and R. amylophilus rumen populations. Substituting SRM for GM increased starch digestibility and rumen propionic acid, but decreased rumen ammonia concentration. Feeding SRM increased rumen populations of Megasphaera elsdenii with the high-concentrate diet but reduced Ruminococcus albus populations at both concentrate levels. In conclusion, partial replacement of GM by PCP decreased intake in sugar-rich diets, while increasing total tract neutral detergent fibre digestibility. Replacement of GM with SRM increases rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility of starch.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
Non-decorticated sunflower meal (SFM) is a potential protein source for dairy cows with high-fibre content but high ruminal degradability. The effect of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) and wheat middlings (WM) with SFM on the intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen utilization and milk production of dairy cows was evaluated. Twelve Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk and distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and contained 550 g maize silage/kg dry matter (DM). Treatment diets were no SFM (CON) or 70, 140 and 210 g/kg DM of SFM replacing fixed mixture of SBM and WM (536 and 464 g/kg of the mixture, respectively). The inclusion of SFM in diet did not affect DM intake, but intake of rumen degradable protein increased linearly. Inclusion of SFM reduced or tended to reduce total-tract digestibility of non-fibre carbohydrate, total digestible nutrients and excretion of purine derivatives. Milk production, milk protein content and efficiency of nitrogen use for lactation were reduced with increasing levels of SFM in the diet. The use of non-decorticated SFM as a replacement for SBM–WM mixture in diet reduces performance and efficiency of nutrient use in lactating dairy cows. The outcome of the current study is attributed to reduced fibre digestibility in SFM hulls. Therefore, future studies should evaluate the use of decorticated SFM.
Intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, microbial protein synthesis, weight gain, yields of the main commercial cuts and carcass morphometric measurements were evaluated in lambs fed diets containing different levels of chitosan. Sixty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average body weight (BW) of 24 ± 2.2 kg were assigned to three treatments (diets containing 0, 136 or 272 mg chitosan/kg BW) in a completely randomized design. There was no effect of chitosan on dry matter (DM) intake. Ingested and retained N showed a quadratic response, with the highest values estimated at the chitosan levels of 142 and 152 mg/kg BW, respectively. Similar to N balance, microbial protein synthesis showed the same quadratic response, in which the level of 136 mg/kg BW resulted in higher synthesis when compared with the other levels. No effect of chitosan was detected on average daily gain, final weight, or carcass variables (hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, yield of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass). Conformation, visceral fat content and fatness of carcasses were also not altered by the use of chitosan. Chitosan improves the digestibility of DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre, and increases N balance and microbial protein synthesis but does not change the production performance of feedlot lambs.
Cultivated pastures in southern China are being used to improve forage productivity and animal performance, but studies on grazing behaviour of goats in these cultivated pastures are still rare. In the current study, the grazing behaviour of Yunling black goats under low (5 goats/ha) and high (15 goats/ha) stocking rates (SRs) was evaluated. Data showed that the proportion of time goats spent on activities was: eating (0.59–0.87), ruminating (0.05–0.35), walking (0.03–0.06) and resting (0.01–0.03). Compared with low SR, goats spent more time eating and walking, and less time ruminating and resting under high SR. Goats had similar diet preferences under both SR and preferred to eat grasses (ryegrass and cocksfoot) more than a legume (white clover). The distribution of eating time on each forage species was more uniform under high v. low SR. Bites/step, bite weight and daily intake were greater under low than high SR. Results suggest that the SR affects grazing behaviour of goats on cultivated pasture, and identifying an optimal SR is critical for increasing bite weight and intake.
Portion sizes and bowl sizes may be related to food intake and perceived fullness. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of portion size and bowl size and possible interactions between these variables on food intake and fullness in a sample of Japanese men.
Participants ate four different experimental meals across four weeks and completed questionnaires about their fullness using a visual analogue scale administered before and after meals. The four meal patterns included consistent portions of several foods commonly eaten together in typical Japanese meals, along with 150 g of rice served in a small rice bowl (diameter of 11·5 cm), 150 g of rice served in a large rice bowl (diameter of 13·5 cm), 250 g of rice served in a small rice bowl or 250 g of rice served in a large rice bowl.
Twenty-one adult men participated in the study.
Portion size had a significant main effect on rice intake (F(1,20)=83, P<0·001) and fullness (F(1,20)=8·0, P=0·010), but no significant effects of bowl size on the outcome variables were found. The interactions between portion size and bowl size on intake and fullness were not significant.
The sample of Japanese men showed an influence of portion size on food intake. Further research is needed to clarify the combined effects of bowl size and portion size on intake and fullness.
The current study aimed to test whether organic matter intake by free-ranging ruminants could be estimated from the amount of nitrogen (N) excreted in faeces and to compare this approach to conventional techniques. An equation describing the relationship between excreted N and nutrient intake was developed in indoor digestibility trials conducted with male sheep (n = 36) and cattle (n = 24) housed in metabolism cages and solely fed hay harvested from a local rangeland. Faecal N excretion was linearly related to organic matter (OM) intake without a significant animal species effect. To evaluate the linear equation, data from free-ranging trials conducted with sheep and cattle were used. The faecal N approach was compared with either in situ digestibility plus external marker (n = 123) or n-alkanes (n = 272) to estimate OM intake and digestible OM intake. Estimates obtained through the faecal N approach did not closely fit those obtained with either conventional technique for any variable. Averaging all individual values, the supply of metabolizable energy (ME) estimated through faecal N was similar to the required level, whereas both the in situ and n-alkanes techniques overestimated ME supply. In conclusion, OM intake by free-ranging sheep and cattle can be estimated based on the amount of N excreted in faeces with some advantages over conventional techniques: knowledge about herbage attributes is not required and it accounts for individual variability on selectivity and digestion processes.
To understand the relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in a sample of Portuguese adolescents.
Cross-sectional evaluation carried out in the 2003/2004 school year. Vitamin D intake was assessed by an FFQ and 25(OH)D was measured in a fasting blood sample.
Public and private schools in Porto, Portugal.
Adolescents aged 13 years (n 521) enrolled at school (EPITeen cohort).
Both mean (sd) intake and serum 25(OH)D level were far below the recommended, 4·47 (2·49) µg/d and 16·5 (5·7) ng/ml, respectively. A significant difference in serum level was found according to season, with lower values in winter than summer (14·8 (4·6) v. 17·3 (5·9) ng/ml, P<0·001). Vitamin D intake was weakly correlated with serum 25(OH)D (r=0·056, P=0·203).
Dietary vitamin D and serum 25(OH)D levels were positively but weakly correlated and the error was higher among those with higher serum 25(OH)D concentration. Our results support the need for strategies that promote increase of the most important food sources of vitamin D to reduce the high prevalence of low vitamin D status.
This study aimed to determine estimates of production efficiency among primiparous suckler cows of diverse genetic merit (GM) for the national Irish maternal index. Data from 82 heifers of diverse GM across two different replacement strategies (suckler (S) or dairy (D) sourced) were available. Milk yield, grass dry matter intake, cow BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. The maternal index had no significant effect on any parameters investigated, whereas S cows were 86 kg heavier in BW, had a 0.33 greater BCS and 0.6 UFL greater NEM requirement compared with D beef crossbred (F1) cows. The F1 produced 2.2 kg/day more milk and had greater lactation energy requirements (0.8 UFL) than S. The F1 produced 0.48 kg milk per 100 kg BW and 0.15 kg more milk per unit intake. An interaction between GM and cow origin (CO) showed that F1 low merit cows consumed an additional 1 kg DM than F1 high, and that S high merit cows produced 1.5 kg less milk than their S low counterparts resulting in a 0.5 UFL greater energy requirement for milk production for S low. The F1 high merit cows produced 0.12 kg more milk per unit intake than F1 low cows, whereas S low cows produced 0.12 kg less milk per unit intake than S high. The F1 low cows consumed 0.17 kg more DM per unit BW than F1 high. Thus, genetic selection for maternal traits has not resulted in differences in production efficiency traits, however CO differences were observed.
The objective was to assess the effects of inclusion rate and chop length of lucerne silage, when fed in a total mixed ration (TMR), on milk yield, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and digestion in dairy cows. Diets were formulated to contain a 50 : 50 ratio of forage : concentrate (DM basis) and to be isonitrogenous (170 g/kg CP). The forage portion of the offered diets was comprised of maize and lucerne silage in proportions (DM basis) of either 25 : 75 (high Lucerne (HL)) or 75 : 25 (low lucerne (LL)). Lucerne was harvested and conserved as silage at either a long (L) or short (S) chop length. These variables were combined in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to give four treatments (HLL, HLS, LLL, LLS) which were fed in a Latin square design study to Holstein dairy cows in two separate experiments. In total, 16 and 8 multiparous, mid-lactation cows were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. To ensure sufficient silage for both experiments, different cuts of lucerne silage (taken from the same sward) were used for each experiment: first cut for experiment 1 (which was of poorer quality) and second cut for experiment 2. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition where measured in both experiments, and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance were assessed using four cows in experiment 2. In experiment 1, cows fed LL had increased DMI (+3.2 kg/day), compared with those fed HL. In contrast, there was no difference in DMI due to lucerne silage inclusion rate in experiment 2. A reduction in milk yield was observed with the HL treatment in both experiment 1 and 2 (−3.0 and −2.9 kg/day, respectively). The HL diet had reduced digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) (−3% and −4%, respectively), and also reduced the efficiency of intake N conversion into milk N (−4%). The S chop length increased total tract digestibility of DM and OM (both +4%), regardless of inclusion rate. Inclusion of lucerne silage at 25% of forage DM increased milk yield relative to 75% inclusion, but a S chop length partially mitigated adverse effects of HL on DMI and milk yield in experiment 1 and on DM digestibility in experiment 2.