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This chapter builds on the previous ones by presenting a close analysis of the institutional and infrastructural factors that precipitated the outbreak and that perpetuated its spread. Precipitating describes the factors that immediately triggered the outbreak while perpetuating describes the factors that maintained propitious conditions for the ongoing transmission of cholera and that curtailed an effective public health response. I argue that the origins, scale and impact of the cholera outbreak were overdetermined by a multi-level failure of Zimbabwe’s public health infrastructure. I situate this multi-level failure in the country’s political conflicts and economic crisis, which created a ‘perfect storm’ for the fulmination of cholera. The chapter is organised around three principal features of Zimbabwe’s health infrastructure: the collapse of functioning health care delivery services; the spectacular mismanagement and sabotage of the country’s water reticulation systems; and the livelihood changes ushered in by the Zimbabwe’s economic meltdown and hyperinflation, which rendered vast swathes of the population vulnerable to cholera through food insecurity and malnutrition.
Chapter 5 investigates more stable forms of ordering the security arena. They are characterized by clearly voiced claims, hierarchized actor relations, and structured processes of security provision. Such ordering is commonly expected by the state but state practices often fall short of its narratives of stable ordering. Other actors also turn to stable ordering when they believe they are able to gain larger stakes in the arena. Actors can even resort to force when they have the means to press their claims. Stable ordering can create predictable security but it can also create organized insecurity.
Much scholarly attention has been given to the potentially disruptive distributional implications of new technologies in labor markets. Less explored is the way citizens as socially embedded individuals perceive and respond to technological transformation. This study fills this gap by exploring how welfare state institutions shape and are shaped by citizens’ perceptions of technological transformation. My analysis covering over 50 developed and developing countries finds that welfare state generosity is associated with a greater acceptance of technological change. I also provide evidence consistent with the expectation that labor market interventions of the welfare state have the potential to reduce the skill cleavage over technological transformation by mitigating the insecurity faced by the low-skilled. Additionally, citizens embracing technological transformation are more supportive of the welfare state than techno-skeptics are.
While the historical emergence and present-day settings of English in Southeast Asia are highly varied, it is possible, nevertheless, to identify a number of key themes that can provide important insights into the changing status and properties of English in this region. In this regard, the chapter begins by selectively focusing on the history of English in Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand, in order to highlight how (post)colonization influences the ways in which English inserts itself into different countries. The chapter then draws attention to issues that are fundamental to understanding the contemporary development of English, such as neoliberalism, migration, and commodification. Retaining the earlier connection with the focus on (post)colonization, the chapter closes by considering possible strategies of decolonization as different Southeast Asian countries attempt to evolve beyond the constraints of exonormativity and linguistic insecurity.
My current interest in silence, gender, and power owes much to discussions with Marysia Zalewski over the years. Much of my work has focused on masculinity, gender relations, and gender hierarchies with a focus on security and development in conflict zones. More recently, I have begun to explore silence not as a sign of disempowerment, but as a powerful force that can be used in many ways. This approach enables a more multi-levelled understanding of silence and voice and their many interactions. It has much to tell the Global North, where we prize voice and often underestimate the power of silence.
To evaluate the association between weight status and food insecurity of children living in social vulnerability who are beneficiaries of a food assistance programme (FAP).
From all children benefiting from the FAP in the municipality, 30 % were mapped in forty-seven distribution points. Their weight status was evaluated using BMI-for-age and food insecurity was determined with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Socio-economic data of the participants were collected using regular questionnaires. The main outcome measure was obesity.
To be a beneficiary of the FAP, a family must have a child aged 24–96 months and receive less than half a minimum wage per capita. Participating families receive 1 litre of whole milk per day.
In all, 1487 children had BMI-for-age and food insecurity data. Of these children, 376 (25·3 %) had excess weight, of whom 164 (11·0 %) presented with obesity, and only twenty-seven (1·8 %) were underweight; 76 % of the families had some degree of food insecurity. Multivariable analysis revealed no overall association between household food insecurity and weight status. In the specific comparison, children living in severe food insecurity were less likely to present obesity than those children living in food security (prevalence ratio = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·96; P = 0·03).
In a socially vulnerable population that participates in a FAP, there was no overall association between food insecurity and weight status in children, a result which is similar to what is observed in more developed contexts.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as the primary tool to alleviate food insecurity in the United States. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in numerous studies, but the majority of SNAP recipients are still food insecure. One factor behind this is the difference in food prices across the country—SNAP benefits are not adjusted to reflect these differences. Using information from Feeding America's Map the Meal Gap (MMG) project, we compare the cost of a meal by county based on the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP)—which is used to set the maximum SNAP benefit—with the cost of the average meal for low-income food-secure households. We find that the cost of the latter meal is higher than the TFP meal for over 99 percent of the counties. We next consider the reduction in food insecurity if, by county, the maximum SNAP benefit level was set to the cost of the average meal for low-income food-secure households. We find that if this approach were implemented, there would be a decline of 50.9 percent in food insecurity among SNAP recipients at a cost of $23 billion.
To examine the association between food insecurity and child sleep outcomes and to investigate whether parent psychosocial factors mediate such associations.
Cross-sectional study. Usual wake time and bedtime, bedtime routine and sleep quality were reported by parents using the adapted Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Food insecurity was assessed using the eighteen-item US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Module. Parent psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, parenting self-efficacy and depressive symptomology, were assessed using validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between food insecurity and sleep outcomes controlling for potential confounders. Mediation analyses and Sobel tests were applied to test the mediating effect of psychosocial factors.
Head Start pre-school classrooms in four regions across central Pennsylvania, USA.
Low-income children of pre-school age (n 362) and their caregivers.
Prevalence of household, adult and child food insecurity was 37·3, 31·8 and 17·7 %, respectively. Food security status at any level was not associated with child sleep duration or bedtime routine. Child food insecurity, but not household or adult food insecurity, was associated with 2·25 times increased odds (95 % CI 1·11, 4·55) of poor child sleep quality in the adjusted model. Perceived stress, self-efficacy and depressive symptomology mediated less than 2 % of the observed effect (all Sobel test P > 0·6).
Food insecurity, particularly at the child level, is a potential modifiable risk factor for reducing sleep-related health disparities in early childhood. Future studies are needed to explore the plausible mechanisms underlying the associations between food insecurity and adverse child sleep outcomes.
To assess, from a systems perspective, how climate vulnerability and socio-economic and political differences at the municipal and state levels explain food insecurity in Mexico.
Using a cross-sectional design with official secondary data, we estimated three-level multinomial hierarchical linear models.
The study setting is Mexico’s states and municipalities in 2014.
Heads of households in a representative sample of the general population.
At the municipal level, vulnerability to climate disasters and a poverty index were significant predictors of food insecurity after adjusting for household-level variables. At the state level, gross domestic product and the number of nutrition programmes helped explain different levels of food insecurity but change in political party did not. Predictors varied in strength and significance according to the level of food insecurity.
Findings evidence that, beyond food assistance programmes and household characteristics, multiple variables operating at different levels – like climate vulnerability and poverty – contribute to explain the degree of food insecurity. Food security governance is a well-suited multisectoral approach to address the complex challenge of hunger and access to a nutritious diet.
The present study aimed to examine the combined effects of disease management and food insecurity on physical and mental health in a representative Korean population.
A cross-sectional study.
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2012–2015.
Adults aged ≥30 years (n 17 934) who participated in the KNHANES.
Among health-care factors, unmet health-care needs and mental health counselling were different by food insecurity status, with a higher prevalence in adults with food insecurity. The prevalence of underweight was higher in men with food insecurity (5·9 %), whereas the prevalence of obesity was higher in women with food insecurity (37·4 %), than that in men and women with food security. Food insecurity was associated with a high risk of all mental health outcomes. For the combined effects of disease management and food insecurity, unmet health-care needs was related to increased risk of obesity for food-insecure men (Pinteraction = 0·029) and lack of participation in nutrition education or counselling was related to increased risk of obesity for food-insecure women (Pinteraction = 0·010). In addition, higher unmet health-care needs in adults with food insecurity was related to higher risk of mental health outcomes.
Unmet health-care needs may exacerbate obesity for food-insecure men and mental health problems for both food-insecure men and women. In addition, lack of participation in nutrition education or counselling may exacerbate the obesity for food-insecure women.
To examine the association between food insecurity and emotional eating (EE) in US Latinxs and explore the mediating role of perceived stress.
Cross-sectional analysis. Food insecurity was measured with the six-item US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Scale; EE with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire R18-V2; and perceived stress with Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale-10. Covariates included age, sex, education, marital status, household size and country of birth. Mediation was tested using the Baron and Kenny method and the mediated proportion was calculated. Analyses included multivariable linear regression and multinomial logistic regression.
A largely Latinx city in Massachusetts, USA. Participants were recruited from a community health centre serving a large portion of this Latinx community.
Latinx individuals (n 580), aged 21–84 years.
Overall, 34·4 % were food insecure and 33·8 % experienced High EE. Food insecurity was associated (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) with higher odds of High EE (1·96; 1·28, 3·02) but not Low EE (1·27; 0·82, 1·99). Food insecurity was associated (β; 95 % CI) with higher perceived stress (5·69; 4·20, 7·19). Perceived stress was associated (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) with High EE (1·09; 1·06, 1·12) but not Low EE (1·00; CI 0·97, 1·02). When perceived stress was added in the main effects model, food insecurity was no longer associated (OR; 95 % CI) with High EE (1·31; 0·83, 2·07) and explained 69·9 % of the association between food insecurity and High EE.
The association between food insecurity and high EE among Latinxs may be largely mediated by perceived stress. Longitudinal studies are needed.
To analyse usual intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients, and their percentage of inadequacy, in a Brazilian population at severe food insecurity (SFI) risk, determined from a predictive model using two national databases.
Cross-sectional study. Our study used a statistical model to predict SFI using the 2009 National Sample Household Survey, where the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale measured SFI.
The model was applied in a probabilistic sample of 34 003 Brazilians aged 10 years or older that participated in a national dietary survey during 2008–2009. The application of the model generated the probability of each individual being in SFI. The probability of SFI was grouped into quartiles (first quartile with the lowest SFI risk, fourth quartile with highest probability of SFI risk).
The intakes of macro- and micronutrients were associated with SFI. The amount of energy and nutrients in the diet tended to be lower among individuals in the fourth quartile, with highest probability of SFI. The average intake of all studied minerals (Ca, Fe, Na, Mg) was less in individuals in the fourth quartile. Only Na presented a higher percentage of inadequacy in the first quartile, the one with a lower chance of SFI.
The food intake of the Brazilian population at higher SFI risk is characterized by energy reduction, reduced consumption of macronutrients and high prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, as well as a lower mean intakes, when compared with the first quartile with the lowest SFI risk.
Terror is always experienced subjectively, making it very difficult to assess its impact. Both the PRC in Sunan and the ROC in Taiwan engaged in strenuous actions to establish internal security and harden previously soft borders, and both deliberately used campaigns of fear to extend their reach deep into society. The PRC did so in Sunan with an openly named campaign: the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries while the ROC in Taiwan engaged in a series of vicious police actions against suspected Communists and subversives. While the confirmed numbers of victims are elusive, in either raw numbers or as a percentage of the population, the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries dispatched more victims in Sunan than the White Terror did in Taiwan. But in Taiwan, no social group was immune, and violent repression fell much more unpredictably than it did in Sunan.
John Gray widens the perspective to look at the fear of insecurity as it has spread in recent times across the European continent from Italy to Hungary. He details the various reactions to migrants from the Middle East and the reforms and policy decisions they have created at the state level. His argument is that the security state has transcended politics. With piercing insights, he examines the populism of France’s Macron and asks whether Russia’s Putin is a Hobbesian strategist, and if so, what that suggests for geopolitical strategies from the US, China, and elsewhere.
Food insecurity (FI) is a challenge to policy makers worldwide, who need to understand which polices and programmes are effective at overcoming FI. The present study aimed to examine the impact of family income and conditional cash transfers on changes in household FI status in a highly vulnerable municipality in Northeast Brazil.
A population-based longitudinal cohort study among families in a municipality in the semi-arid area in Northeast Brazil (2011 and 2014). FI was estimated with the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (EBIA). The effects of family income and cash transfer on changes in FI were estimated using logistic regression models and the population-attributable risk fraction.
Households in Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil.
Household respondents interviewed in 2011 (n 358) and 2014 (n 326).
There was a reduction in FI prevalence of 17·5 % across time; 24·5 % of families who were food insecure in 2011 became food secure in 2014. After adjustment, families that did not experience an increase in their total household income or a reduction in the cash transfer amount were at increased risk of persistent FI across time. If the cash transfer programme had not been in place, about 10 % of the families that switched from food insecure to food secure across time would have remained in FI instead.
The decrease of FI occurred in an area of extreme climatic and social vulnerability. These changes were more related to the cash transfer than the increase in family income over time.
The final section of the book turns to the debtor’s body. Experiences of insecurity were profoundly physical, borne out through the threat of confinement and the loss of liberty. Read through the lens of the prison, the life cycle of debt, from contracting credit, to insecurity, to default, was an embodied experience, and the ways in which debtors’ bodies were treated have important implications for the characterisation of economic culture during Britain’s transition to capitalism. Chapter 6 describes the body as a site for negotiated relations of power and obligation. By uncovering how creditors inflicted different forms of harm on debtors, from the denial of liberty to violent physical assault, it reveals the coercive nature of credit. Failure to abide by the rules of credit was dealt with by incarceration and physical punishment. In an era normally characterised by politeness and the decline of violence, the treatment of debtors instead reveals an economy tinged with aggression and even violence.
After surveying the existing historiography on credit, the social order and economic culture, this chapter proposes a new approach to the economic and social history of eighteenth-century Britain. It argues for the centrality of insecurity in its economic, social and corporeal forms to understanding the lives of individuals. It addresses especially the insecurities of the middling sorts, whose lives were intimately tied to processes of commercialisation. The chapter introduces the debtors’ prisons, which generated the records upon which the rest of the book is based.
This concluding chapter considers the implications of insecurity for narratives of economic success and proletarianisation in eighteenth-century Britain. It argues that economic growth generated social inequality and was compatible with failure. Risk was built into the capitalist model. Credit was a tool that allowed for innovation and entrepreneurship, but it also brought people down. The assumption that periods of economic growth bring shared prosperity therefore requires revision. Furthermore, there was a much broader segment of society who were precarious in the eighteenth century than the proletariat, but they were precarious in different ways. Middling poverty was not built around their relationship to the means of production, their relationship to land tenure or their need to sell their labour. Instead, their insecurities were a result of their relationship to debt. A new vision of class formation is therefore necessary, which recognises these broader forms of insecurity.