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Though recognized as a separate category in the Methods of Work, administrative detention for refugees and asylum seekers were originally noted as a concerning practice and added to the mandate of the WGAD by Resolution 1997/50 of the Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR).2
In its first report to the Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR), the WGAD identified a number of situations involving questions of principle, which required special consideration.1 In its third session, the WGAD decided it would consider such questions and adopt decisions about them (referred to as “deliberations”) not in the abstract but in connection with the consideration of individual cases submitted to it.2 Over its history, the WGAD has adopted nine Deliberations and a commentary on drug policies, which will each be examined in turn.
The author presents a necessarily brief summary of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) regarding immigration, featuring especially Pius XII's much neglected apostolic constitution Exsul familia. He also sets out some of the philosophical presuppositions of CST as it pertains to immigration. These presuppositions are to be found, he maintains, especially in the writings of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. He then examines in some detail Francisco de Vitoria's ideas regarding immigration, based as they are upon Aristotelian and Thomistic principles. Finally, he offers answers to questions that have arisen over the course of the essay.
The common good (bonum commune) has, since antiquity, referred to the aim of social and political association, and was particularly prominent in medieval Christian political theology. Since St. John XXIII’s 1961 encyclical letter, Mater et magistra, ecclesiastical statements about social teaching have employed a formulation of the common good, usually in the version that appeared in the Second Vatican Council’s 1965 Pastoral Constitution for the Church in the Modern World, Gaudium et spes, as “the sum of those conditions of social life that allow social groups and their individual members relatively thorough and ready access to their own fulfillment.” This chapter discusses the origins and development of this formulation as well as the ways that it has been used in subsequent Catholic Social Teaching. While it has sometimes been interpreted as an “instrumental” account of the common good, the sources and uses of the notion suggest that it is the particularly modern political component of a fuller notion of the common good continuous with the tradition. In particular, the recent formulation is concerned to limit the power of the modern state and protect the dignity of the human person in the challenging conditions of political modernity.
One of the long-standing puzzles in the political behavior literature is about immigrants' low level of political participation: after achieving comparable and sometimes even higher levels of socioeconomic status relative to the native-born citizens, why do immigrants still participate less in politics? We argue that the different formative years experiences associated with immigrants who moved to the United States at an older age is the key that explains the participation gap between immigrants and the native-born population. Using the 1994–2016 Current Population Survey and their Voting and Civic Engagement Supplements as data sources, we develop a hierarchical model that simultaneously accounts for region-, country-, and individual-level variables. The results are striking. We show that immigrants who move to the United States at a young age participate in politics at a rate that is indistinguishable from the native-born population; those who migrated at an older age participate less. The fact that over 60% of the immigrant population moved to the United States as adults is a main factor that contributes to the political participation gap between immigrants and the native-born population.
A community-based program is increasingly recognized as promoting health and active social participation in one’s life, yet information is lacking about the use and impact of such programs among immigrant visible minority seniors. This mixed-method research evaluated the impact of a cultural community program for Korean immigrant seniors by examining participants’ health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) benefits and overall well-being. In this study, 79 participants completed the SF-36v2 questionnaire twice to assess the impact of Canada Enoch Senior’s College (CESC) program on their HR-QOL and well-being. Statistically significant improvement in physical and mental health domains was observed: bodily pain and role limitations due to emotional problems. Qualitative data from participants’ interviews supported the survey findings with positive contributions in health and social arenas of seniors’ lives. These results suggest that the CESC program contributes to quality of life and well-being of Korean senior participants and supports similar community-based cultural programs.
In the years after 1965, a new wave of Asian, Latino, Caribbean, and African immigrants has transformed and revitalized the religious landscape of many U.S. cities. This essay explores the transformation of Christianity in greater Boston, where new immigrants replenished ailing congregations and infused them with new religious and social practices. This de-Europeanization of Christianity was not simply a result of transnational practices but resulted from a collaborative process between immigrants and native-born religious institutions. Both Catholic and Protestant churches experienced this immigrant-based revitalization, but evangelical Protestants have been particularly adept at partnering with newcomers to promote a “quiet revival” of urban Christianity.
Research on interracial marriage and relationships uses the incidence of interracial romantic relationships to measure immigrant assimilation. Little attention, however, has been paid to the implications of interracial relationships for racial group politics. Are those who practice exogamy politically distinct from those who do not? We develop testable hypotheses from existing theories of and literature on interracial marriages/relationships. We test these hypotheses on several outcomes using the 2008 National Asian American Survey of Asian Americans, as this group has one of the highest rates of interracial marriage with Whites. We find that those with interracial partners are more likely to be concerned about racial issues, less likely to favor co-ethnic candidates and belong to ethnically concentrated civic groups, but are no more likely to be concerned about immigration or to favor a pathway to citizenship. We offer some theoretical reasons for these findings and discuss the implications of these findings for immigrant assimilation, interracial marriage, and the American racial order.
This paper explores the effect of norms—standards of conduct dictated by an identity—on white, American immigration attitudes. Results from a survey experiment show that when respondents evaluate immigrants who violate cultural norms, by speaking a non-English language and/or rooting for a foreign soccer team, respondents are less supportive of green cards for immigrants. Moreover, norm violations are consequential for tolerant, prejudiced, liberal, moderate, and conservative respondents. Valuing cultural norms is a shared and pervasive aspect of immigration attitudes, and targeting norms for inquiry brings into view the societal structure of opposition to immigration. However, norm violations affect green card support among liberals only in evaluations of Latino immigrants, and among conservatives only in evaluations of European immigrants.
This paper examines immigrant poverty at an older age in Sweden with an emphasis on late-in-life immigrants. We analyse tax data for the entire Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born population. The poverty status of a household is assessed using two criteria. First, the disposable income of the household in which the person lived in 2007 must be below 60 per cent of the median equivalent income in Sweden as a whole. Second, to be classified as ‘twice poor’ a household's net assets must be below SEK 10,000. The results indicate that three out of four Swedish-born older persons were not classified as poor by either of the criteria, and only 1 per cent by both criteria. In contrast, among older persons born in low-income countries almost three out of four were classified as poor according to one of the criteria and not fewer than one in three according to both. Results of estimating logistic models indicate that the risk of being considered poor according to both criteria is strongly positively related to one's age at immigration. Our results indicate that it is crucial that migrants, particularly those who arrive after age 40, be better integrated into the Swedish labour market. To alleviate poverty among those migrants who are already of older age, increased transfers are probably the only possible alternative.
This project draws on psychological and sociological social psychology to investigate immigration policy opinions among native-born non-Hispanic Whites. Using data from a suburban Chicago-area county that has seen substantial growth in the Latino immigrant population, we examine Anglos’ opinions on three dimensions of immigration policy: preferred immigration rate, resistance to immigration, and assistance for immigrants. Our central hypothesis is that liberalizing effects of Anglo/Latino interpersonal contact are conditioned on Anglos’ recognition of hardships and barriers faced by Latinos. Five of the six interaction effects we estimated were highly significant: Personal contact with Latinos does promote more positive, progressive immigration policy opinions, but only among some Anglos—those who were acquainted with immigrants who had run afoul of immigration law or believed there is substantial local discrimination against Latinos. The results are reminiscent of James Kluegel’s (1985) analysis of White Americans’ views about affirmative action: “If there isn’t a problem, you don’t need a solution.” Affirmation of local anti-Latino discrimination was the stronger moderator of contact effects and also showed main effects on immigration policy opinion stronger than the effects of interpersonal contact. Denial of anti-Latino discrimination may be a means used by Anglos to defend their group position.
As more older persons opt to age in place, there is a growing trend to hire migrant workers as live-in caregivers to care for them. This raises the need to examine the quality of care they receive within this unique care setting. The objective of this pilot study was to establish the components of quality of care as provided by migrant live-in caregivers.
We interviewed a convenience sample of older persons cared for by migrant live-in caregivers and their relatives. When relatives reported that older persons could not be interviewed due to advanced dementia, only relatives were interviewed. Overall, 72 older persons and 117 relatives were interviewed. We used the Quality of Care Questionnaire (QuCQ) developed for this study to examine the main components of quality of care in this population.
Factor analysis using older persons’ data revealed two factors. In the first factor, “caretaking,” items concerning provision of prompt care exhibited the highest loadings. Items measuring interpersonal aspects of the care dynamic had the highest loadings in the second factor, thus labeled “relationship.” The factor analysis based on relatives’ data yielded similarities and differences with the one based on older persons’ data. Yet, there were significant correlations between relative and older persons’ responses when using the older persons’ factor structure.
According to older persons and relatives, quality of care depends on the extent to which older persons’ care-related needs, as well as social ones, are addressed. Appropriate evaluation of quality of care in the live-in setting is important for its improvement.
To investigate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for changing dietary intake, particularly energy, fat and fibre intakes, in the intervention group (IG) compared with the control group (CG).
Randomised controlled trial.
IG (n 50) and CG (n 46). The IG was offered seven group sessions, including one cooking class, over a period of 4 months. The participants filled out 4 d food diaries at the start, mid and end of the study.
Iraqi-born residents of Malmö, Sweden, at increased risk for developing diabetes.
At baseline, participants’ fat intake was high (40 % of total energy intake (E%)). The predefined study goals of obtaining <30 E% from fat and ≥15 g fibre/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) were met by very few individuals. In the IG v. the CG, the proportion of individuals obtaining <40 E% from fat (48·4 v. 34·6 %, P=0·65), <10 E% from saturated fat (32·3 v. 11·5 %, P=0·14) and ≥10 g fibre/4184 kJ (45·2 v. 26·9 %, P=0·46) appeared to be higher at the last visit, although the differences were statistically non-significant. A trend towards decreased mean daily intakes of total energy (P=0·03), carbohydrate (P=0·06), sucrose (P=0·02) and fat (P=0·02) was observed within the IG. Differences in changes over time between the groups did not reach statistical significance.
Although no significant differences were observed in the two groups, our data indicate that this culturally adapted programme has the potential to modify dietary intake in Middle Eastern immigrants. The high fat intake in this group should be addressed.
This study investigates the universality of transformational leadership with respect to employee perceptions and three outcomes: job satisfaction, self-rated health, and well-being. We do so among employees of different national and cultural backgrounds, yet within a shared national and sectorial setting. Our study has a repeated measures design based on survey data from 2,947 employees (2,836 natives Danes and 111 immigrants) in the Danish elder care sector. While we find no difference between native Danes and immigrants in their perception of transformational leadership, we find that transformational leadership is not a universal predictor of outcomes. Although transformational leadership predicts change in none of the outcomes for immigrants, it does predict change in job satisfaction and well-being for native Danes. Based on our findings, we suggest applying a combination of universalistic and contingency paradigms when leading composite employee groups.
The foreign-born population in the United States has reached new heights, and experts predict that the country will be “majority minority” by 2042, possibly earlier. Despite its growing ethnic, racial, national, and other forms of diversity, the fundamental location of Blackness at the bottom of the pyramid of structural racism endures. In attempts to overcome the real and perceived tensions that characterize relationships between immigrants and African Americans, efforts to create space for interpersonal connection and shared structural analysis have proliferated in organizations across the country. Drawing from seventy-five interviews with individuals leading these initiatives and the review of over fifty different pedagogical resources they have developed and used, this article presents a classification and assessment of these programs. We consider these programs using an anti-racist, African Americanist framework reflected in Steinberg’s “standpoint of [the] black figure, crouched on the ground as others pluck fruit off the tree of opportunity” (2005, p. 43), and analyze their successes and shortcomings. Successes include the creation of spaces for interaction across difference and the building of a shared analysis. We find evidence of transformative effects at the intra- and interpersonal levels. The greatest limitations include immigrant-centricity in relationship-building efforts and a reluctance to engage immigrants in conversation about their relationships to Whiteness, Blackness, and racial hierarchies in the United States and in their countries of origin.
To examine whether the cross-sectional association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity varied according to birthplace and length of residence in the USA among California women.
Using cross-sectional, population-based data from the California Women’s Health Survey (CWHS) 2009–2012, we examined whether the association between food insecurity and overweight or obesity varied by birthplace–length of US residence.
Women (n 16 008) aged 18 years or older.
Among US-born women, very low food security (prevalence ratio (PR)=1·21; 95 % CI 1·11, 1·31) and low food security (PR=1·19; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·28) were significantly associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, after controlling for age, marital status, race/ethnicity, poverty and education. Among immigrant women who lived in the USA for 10 years or longer, very low food security was significantly associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, after controlling for covariates (PR=1·16; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·27). Among immigrant women who had lived in the USA for less than 10 years, low and very low food security were not significantly associated with overweight/obesity, after controlling for covariates.
Food insecurity may be an important pathway through which weight may increase with longer US residence among immigrant women. Public health programmes and policies should focus on increasing food security for all women, including immigrant women, as one strategy to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity.
This study examines the role that motivational values play in the experience of discrimination in young immigrants in Spain and how this role is mediated by parental values. Participants in the study were 193 dyads of pre-adolescent to young adult first and second generation immigrants and one of their parents. All participants were either of Moroccan or Romanian ascent, the two largest immigrant groups in Spain. The proposed SEM model had an adequate fit, χ2(2, N = 193) = 2.272, p = .321, RMSEA = .027, CFI = .999, NFI = .994, and yielded a large R2, both for the Moroccan group (R2 = .79, p < .01), and the Romanian group (R2 = .80, p < .01). It showed that the value dimension openness to change vs. conservation is positively related to their experience of discrimination (β = .35, p < .01, for Moroccans group; and β = .29, p < .001, for Romanians). This relationship was mediated by parental values and their parents’ experience of discrimination. A possible explanation is that immigrants high in openness to change are likely to pursue contact with the host culture more intensely, and thus increase the probability of interactions involving discrimination. Additionally, parental values and their own experience of discrimination influences their children, making them more vulnerable to discrimination stress and more likely to perceive discrimination. While most research is focused on external or environmental variables, this study highlights the importance of value orientations and parental influences in immigrants’ experience of discrimination.