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The aim of this study was to evaluate planning target volume (PTV) margins for two different locations using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to ensure that the correct radiation dose is delivered to the tumour when using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Materials and methods:
Setup data were collected from 40 patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer (HN) (20 patients) and prostate cancer (20 patients). Setup errors from 720 registration images were analysed to evaluate systematic and random errors. Thereafter, optimal PTV margins were calculated based on International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 62 (ICRU), Stroom and Parker formulas compared with the Van Herk’s recipe.
To calculate the margins around the PTV, several different formulas have been used. Setup margins ranged between 2–4·3, 2·2–4·6 and 2·1–4·7 mm in X, Y and Z directions, respectively, for HN cases. Similarly, for the prostate site, setup margins ranged between 3·7–8·3, 3·2–6·8 and 3·3–8·2 mm in X, Y and Z directions.
To ensure better coverage of target volume, we adopted a PTV margin of 5 mm for HN PTVs and 10 mm for prostate PTVs in our department.
The mammalian kidney is a complex organ, requiring the concerted function of up to millions of nephrons. The number of nephrons is constant after nephrogenesis during development, and nephron loss over a life span can lead to susceptibility to acute or chronic kidney disease. New technologies are under development to count individual nephrons in the kidney in vivo. This review outlines these technologies and highlights their relevance to studies of human renal development and disease.
Mechanistic endophenotypes can inform process models of psychopathology and aid interpretation of genetic risk factors. Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes are associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provide clues to its development. This study evaluates whether common genetic risk for ADHD is associated with total brain volume (TBV) and hypothesized subcortical structures in children.
Children 7–15 years old were recruited for a case–control study (N = 312, N = 199 ADHD). Children were assessed with a multi-informant, best-estimate diagnostic procedure and motion-corrected MRI measured brain volumes. Polygenic scores were computed based on discovery data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N = 19 099 ADHD, N = 34 194 controls) and the ENIGMA + CHARGE consortium (N = 26 577).
ADHD was associated with smaller TBV, and altered volumes of caudate, cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus after adjustment for TBV; however, effects were larger and statistically reliable only in boys. TBV was associated with an ADHD polygenic score [β = −0.147 (−0.27 to −0.03)], and mediated a small proportion of the effect of polygenic risk on ADHD diagnosis (average ACME = 0.0087, p = 0.012). This finding was stronger in boys (average ACME = 0.019, p = 0.008). In addition, we confirm genetic variation associated with whole brain volume, via an intracranial volume polygenic score.
Common genetic risk for ADHD is not expressed primarily as developmental alterations in subcortical brain volumes, but appears to alter brain development in other ways, as evidenced by TBV differences. This is among the first demonstrations of this effect using molecular genetic data. Potential sex differences in these effects warrant further examination.
An image-guided radiotherapy capable linear accelerator was installed at our hospital which is equipped with an X-ray volumetric imaging (XVI) system. The aim of this study was to describe the results of acceptance tests which were carried out on the XVI facility to verify the manufacturer’s specification.
Materials and methods:
The commissioning test had six elements: system safety, geometric accuracy, image quality, registration and correction accuracy, X-ray tube and generator performance, and quality assurance (QA) procedures.
We had satisfactory results for all the tests. The system passed the safety testes, and the agreement of isocentres was found to be within the tolerance limit. Imaging quality was acceptable. Registration and correction accuracy was tasted with indigenously developed phantom and positioned accurately at isocentre. X-ray tube and generator test results showed that the tube was performing properly.
The described tests represent that the performance of the system is maintained at acceptable levels.
The lack of predictive biomarkers for therapeutic responses to schizophrenia leads clinical procedures to be decided without taking into account the subjects’ neuroanatomical features, a consideration, which could help in identifying specific pharmacological treatments for the remission of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique widely used for radiological diagnosis and produces 3-dimensional images in excellent anatomical detail, and with a great capacity to differentiate soft tissue. Various MRI techniques of the human brain have emerged as a result of research, enabling structural tests that may help to in consolidate previous findings and lead to the discovery of new patterns of abnormality in schizophrenia. A literature review was undertaken to assess the superior temporal gyrus (STG) as a possible biomarker in schizophrenia with the use of voxel-based morphometry of the brain using MRI. Many findings in studies of schizophrenia using MRI have been inconclusive and, in some cases, conflicting, although interesting results have been obtained when attempting to correlate neuroimaging changes with aspects of clinical features and prognosis of the disease. The individuals affected by this mental illness appear to have smaller STG volumes when compared to healthy controls and also to subjects with a diagnosis of first-episode affective psychosis or groups of individuals at high risk of psychosis. However, the wide variety of definitions surrounding the STG found in a number of studies is a contributing factor to the lack of correlation between brain abnormalities and clinical symptoms. For instance, disagreements have arisen due to studies using regions of interest to analyze the STG whereas other studies prioritize the analysis of only STG subregions or specific supratemporal plane regions. It is necessary to standardize the nomenclature of the areas to be studied in the future, as this will enable more consistent results, allowing higher clinical and morphological correlations.
Post-processing imaging techniques allow high-resolution computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone to be superimposed and viewed simultaneously (fusion imaging). This study aimed to highlight the practical utility of fusion imaging for disease localisation and evaluation in a UK case series of primary and post-operative cholesteatoma.
Fusion of computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance b1000 images was performed using specific software. Axial computed tomography images and coronal b1000 images were selected for fusion.
A case series of primary and post-operative cholesteatoma in which computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion assisted the management of both the patient pathway and surgical approach is reviewed.
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion can assist in pre-operative surgical planning and patient counselling through assessment of disease in both primary and revision scenarios. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion can assist the operative surgeon through accurate localisation that can influence both the operative technique and optimise operation theatre utilisation.
There is controversy over the extent to which the new International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to conduct the first investigation of distinctive neural processes during threat processing in CPTSD relative to PTSD.
This cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance study included 99 participants who met criteria for PTSD (PTSD = 32, CPTSD = 28) and 39 trauma-exposed controls. PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). CPTSD was assessed with an adapted version of the International Trauma Questionnaire. Neural responses were measured across the brain while threat or neutral faces were presented at both supraliminal and subliminal levels.
During supraliminal presentations of threat stimuli, there was greater bilateral insula and right amygdala activation in CPTSD participants relative to PTSD. Reduced supraliminal right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation and increased subliminal amygdala and insula activation were observed as common dysfunction for both CPTSD and PTSD groups relative to trauma controls. There were no significant differences in terms of subliminal presentations and no differences in functional connectivity. Dissociative responses were positively associated with right insula activation (r = 0.347, p < 0.01).
These results provide the first evidence of distinct neural profiles of CPTSD and PTSD during threat processing. The observation of increased insula and right amygdala activation in CPTSD accords with the proposal that CPTSD is distinguished from PTSD by disturbances in emotion regulation and self-concept.
Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) has recently been recognized as a separate psychiatric diagnosis, despite controversy over the extent to which it is distinctive from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD).
This study investigated distinctive neural processes underpinning emotion processing in participants with PGD, PTSD, and MDD with functional magnetic resonance study of 117 participants that included PGD (n = 21), PTSD (n = 45), MDD (n = 26), and bereaved controls (BC) (n = 25). Neural responses were measured across the brain while sad, happy, or neutral faces were presented at both supraliminal and subliminal levels.
PGD had greater activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), bilateral insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and right caudate and also greater pgACC–right pallidum connectivity relative to BC during subliminal processing of happy faces. PGD was distinct relative to both PTSD and MDD groups with greater recruitment of the medial orbitofrontal cortex during supraliminal processing of sad faces. PGD were also distinct relative to MDD (but not PTSD) with greater activation in the left amygdala, caudate, and putamen during subliminal presentation of sad faces. There was no distinction between PGD, PTSD, and MDD during processing of happy faces.
These results provide initial evidence of distinct neural profiles of PGD relative to related psychopathological conditions, and highlight activation of neural regions implicated in reward networks. This pattern of findings validates current models of PGD that emphasize the roles of yearning and appetitive processes in PGD.
The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), striatal network dysfunction, and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine the effects of the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype on striatal functional connectivity and visual memory performance in youths with ADHD.
After excluding those who had excessive head motion, a total of 96 drug-naïve youths with ADHD and 114 typically developing (TD) youths were assessed with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and the delayed matching to sample (DMS) task for visual memory. We examined the effects of ADHD, DAT1 CT haplotype, and the ADHD × CT haplotype interaction on the functional connectivity of five striatal seeds. We also correlated visual memory performance with the functional connectivity of striatal subregions, which showed significant diagnosis × genotype interactions.
Compared with TD youths, ADHD youths showed significant hypoconnectivity of the left dorsal caudate (DC) with bilateral sensorimotor clusters. Significant diagnosis × genotype interactions were found in the connectivity between the left DC and the right sensorimotor cluster, and between the right DC and the left dorsolateral prefrontal/bilateral anterior cingulate clusters. Furthermore, the connectivity of the left DC showing significant diagnosis × genotype interactions was associated with DMS performance in youths with ADHD who carried the DAT1 CT haplotype.
A novel gene-brain-behavior association between the left DC functional connectivity and visual memory performance in ADHD youths with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype suggests a differential effect of DAT1 genotype altering specific brain function causing neuropsychological dysfunction in ADHD.
Since our last report on the voluntary Hungarian Twin Registry (HTR) in 2012, the number of pairs or multiplets included increased from 310 to 1044. Efforts to turn the registry into a population-based one are on the way. Nearly 128,000 twins living in Hungary (98,500 adults) will be mailed information on how to register on the new HTR website. Twins will be asked to invite their spouses and immediate family members. Meanwhile, strong cooperation through exchange programs has been developed with other foreign twin registries. Current research focuses on radiogenomics, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, gut microbiome as well as basic molecular research and yielded new awards and further publications.
Language is full of ambiguities, ranging from challenging phonetic contrasts to homophones and homographs. While some ambiguity is inherent in any language, the challenge of resolving linguistic conflicts is even greater for those who speak multiple languages. The question of how bilinguals represent and control their two languages has been addressed using various methodologies ranging from case studies of multilingual aphasics to advanced neuroimaging techniques. In this chapter, we focus on two methods in particular that have contributed to the understanding of bilingual cognition. First, we review evidence from eye-tracking studies demonstrating that bilinguals activate their two languages in parallel. We follow with a discussion of fMRI research investigating whether different languages have shared or separate representations in the brain. Finally, we examine the processes underlying language control and discuss the ways in which different methodologies can contribute to our understanding of bilingual language processing.
This chapter elucidates the behavioral and neural underpinnings of bilingual lexical ambiguity processing during both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading. It provides an overview of the eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on bilingual nonselective lexical access, as assessed through cognates, interlingual homographs, and cross-language orthographic neighbors (i.e., words that are lexically ambiguous across languages). Ultimately, the chapter demonstrates that eye movement patterns vary as a function of the nature and amount of cross-language overlap, as well as individual differences in L2 background and executive control capacity. It also demonstrates that left hemisphere brain regions implicated in executive functions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia) are also implicated in resolving cross-language lexical ambiguity.
Despite its vital role in advancing live cell imaging (LCI) and unraveling the complex processes that control cellular function, fluorescence microscopy presents challenges for the researcher, including labeling agents that can interfere with normal molecular activities, and limitations on repeat measurements and long-term studies from photobleaching and phototoxicity phenomena. Holotomography microscopy delivers nanoscale, label-free, real-time LCI and can combine this quantitative phase imaging (QPI) with fluorescence for state-of-the-art spatiotemporal resolution as well as high molecular specificity. This article introduces QPI, examines its advantages for LCI, and reviews correlative microscopy studies in cell pathophysiology in combination with fluorescence.
A method was developed to expedite the imaging of diatoms by optimizing their orientation. This quick technique puts grooves into a SEM stub so that as the diatoms are laid down they either land on the flat surface or in a variety of positions in the grooves, thereby reducing time required to capture taxonomically critical features.
Studying offspring of schizophrenia (SZo) and bipolar disorder patients (BDo) provides important information on the putative neurodevelopmental trajectories underlying development toward severe mental illnesses. We compared intracranial volume (ICV), as a marker for neurodevelopment, and global and local brain measures between SZo or BDo and control offspring (Co) in relation to IQ and psychopathology.
T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 146 participants (8–19 years; 40 SZo, 66 BDo, 40 Co). Linear mixed models were applied to compare ICV, global, and local brain measures between groups. To investigate the effect of ICV, IQ (four subtests Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children/Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) or presence of psychopathology these variables were each added to the model.
SZo and BDo had significantly lower IQ and more often met criteria for a lifetime psychiatric disorder than Co. ICV was significantly smaller in SZo than in BDo (d = −0.56) and Co (d = −0.59), which was largely independent of IQ (respectively, d = −0.54 and d = −0.35). After ICV correction, the cortex was significantly thinner in SZo than in BDo (d = −0.42) and Co (d = −0.75) and lateral ventricles were larger in BDo than in Co (d = 0.55). Correction for IQ or lifetime psychiatric diagnosis did not change these findings.
Despite sharing a lower IQ and a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, brain abnormalities in BDo appear less pronounced (but are not absent) than in SZo. Lower ICV in SZo implies that familial risk for schizophrenia has a stronger association with stunted early brain development than familial risk for bipolar disorder.
Taking advantage of recent advances in parallel computing, we studied compositional disorder along metal–oxygen atomic columns in a complex Mo,V-oxide bronze using multislice frozen-phonon calculations. Commonly, the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) is used to model compositional disorder at crystallographic sites in a unit cell for a number of different theoretical and experimental techniques. In the VCA, a weighted linear sum of atomic properties is used to approximate the model structure. When using the VCA, the extracted V content of Mo,V–O columns from experimental high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images will be about half the V content estimated from simulations, considering the distinct cation ordering. This discrepancy is larger than the spread of HAADF signals of different configurational orders at a given V concentration, which can be up to 20%. Certain “isophilic” atomic arrangements along the column can be distinguished from more random ones using HAADF-STEM imaging. The trends and ratios of the simulated intensity spreads due to different compositional ordering along 11 M–O columns along the c-axis of the Mo,V oxide bronze qualitatively match those observed in experimental HAADF-STEM data. Instrumental and sample-based noise adds to the variability but does not significantly distort the relative ratios of column intensity variation. We observed that we only required seven random configurations to represent the intensity variations along columns.
Our brains are continuously changing and these changes alter brain functions. With maturation, there is growth and unfortunately, even with healthy aging, decline. Aging-related decrements affect neurons and their connectivity, neurotransmitter systems, and even support systems such as glia. Aging affects some brain regions (frontal lobes and hippocampi) more than others. This book reviews and discusses aging-related changes and their influence on the major neurobehavioral domains, beginning with reviews of aging-related changes in anatomy and physiology. Subsequent chapters review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of aging-related changes in sensory perception (vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste) and cognitive functions (memory, language, motor planning, attention, executive functions, emotions, creativity). In each chapter, mechanisms that may account for these changes are discussed. Declines related to aging per se are distinguished from declines related to aging-associated diseases. Final chapters discuss what can potentially be done to slow or reverse aging-related decline of cognitive functions, including exercise, cognitive rehabilitation, and pharmacological agents. It is hoped this book will help clinicians differentiate between normal aging processes and brain diseases, reduce the adverse effects of brain aging, and stimulate further research on how adverse effects of brain aging can be reversed, stopped, modified, or best managed.
Neuroimaging visualizes and quantifies age-related changes in brain structure, function, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic health. MRI studies show reductions in both overall and regional brain volumes, but to a lesser extent than in Alzheimer’s disease. Those aging non-pathologically tend to have relative preservation of mesial temporal and enthorhinal brain areas. White matter changes are also common as shown by hyperintensities on fluid attenuated inversion recovery and other T2 MRI images, presumably as a result of co-morbities that increasingly occur with age. Diffusion tensor imaging shows reductions in white matter integrity, including white matter fiber counts and overall white matter volume, beginning in mid- to late life. The neural response during both rest and task performance also shows reduced activation of core task-related networks but expansion to include other region activation. Reduced cerebral blood volume and flow also occur, likely reflecting alterations in hemodynamic function due to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular changes. Cerebral metabolic changes on MR spectroscopy occur with reduced concentrations of GABA and other neurotransmitters, as well as markers of neuronal integrity. Myoinositol, a marker of glial activation, may be elevated, indicating neuroinflammation, though this effect is likely not ubiquitous in successful aging.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often precedes Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD), and in a high proportion of individuals affected by MCI, there are already neuropathological processes ongoing that become more evident when patients progress to AD. Accordingly, there is a need for reliable biomarkers to distinguish between normal aging and incipient AD. Recent research suggests that, in addition to established biomarkers such as CSF Aß42, total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau, resting state connectivity established by functional magnetic resonance imaging might also be a feasible biomarker for prodromal stages of AD. In order to explore this possibility, we investigated resting state functional connectivity as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profiles in patients with MCI (n = 30; age 66.43 ± 7.06 years) and cognitively healthy controls (n = 38; age 66.89 ± 7.12 years). CSF Aß42, total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau concentrations were correlated with measures of cognitive performance (immediate and delayed recall, global cognition, processing speed). Moreover, MCI-related alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity within the default mode network were investigated using functional resting state MRI. As expected, MCI patients showed decreased CSF Aß42 and increased total tau concentrations. These alterations were associated with cognitive performance. However, there were no differences between MCI patients and cognitively healthy controls regarding intrinsic functional connectivity. In conclusion, our results indicate that CSF protein profiles seem to be more closely related to cognitive decline than alterations in resting state activity. Thus, resting state connectivity might not be a reliable biomarker for early stages of AD.