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To examine nutrient and food intakes according to the levels of skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in the elderly.
Data were derived from the 2017 National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. SMI was calculated by dividing appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (kg) by height squared (m2). We calculated the multivariable-adjusted means of individuals’ dietary intake. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and food categories was assessed by examining dietary records using a semi-weighed method and compared according to the sex-specific quartiles of SMI.
Men and women aged ≥60 years.
Among 797 men and 969 women, individuals with a higher SMI consumed more energy and more nutrients than did those with a lower SMI after adjusting for age, lifestyle and physical activity factors. After further adjusting for energy intake, total dietary fibre, vitamin A, vitamin B6, K, Fe and Cu were positively associated with higher SMI in men (Pfor trend < 0·05). For food categories, men with a higher SMI consumed more vegetables and meats, but the associations were attenuated after adjustment for energy and remained significant for vegetable only (Pfor trend = 0·018).
Japanese elderly people with a higher SMI consumed more energy and nutrients and more vegetables than did those with a lower SMI. This finding shows that diet is important in preventing muscle loss among the elderly in an ageing society.
The aims of this study were to examine the preparedness of vulnerable people ages 75 years and older and to clarify the characteristics of older adults that are associated with disaster preparedness.
We conducted interviews with persons requiring special care ages 75 years and older living in coastal communities of western Japan, where earthquakes and tsunami disasters are a concern. The survey included participant characteristics such as demographic indicators, physical function, health status, community involvement, and disaster preparedness. Binomial logistic regression analysis was performed with participant characteristics as independent variables and disaster preparedness as the dependent variables.
The characteristics related to disaster preparedness were age, family composition, cognitive function, level of interaction with neighbors, and participation in community activities.
Being female, living alone, and having cognitive impairment were factors that led to decreased disaster preparedness. However, it was suggested that close human interactions in the community facilitated preparedness. Community engagement is crucial in reducing disaster damage and recovering effectively. In order to facilitate preparedness measures for persons requiring special care ages 75 and older, it is important to establish community preparedness.
Issues concerning the association among attachment anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation among the elderly have rarely been explored. The present study investigated the relationship among attachment anxiety, depression and perceived support concerning suicidal ideation among older people.
Tertiary care settings
The authors recruited 191 elderly patients from 10 tertiary care settings in Thailand
Participants provided data on their suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt using Module C of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Their attachment anxiety was assessed using the revised Experience of Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR-R-18), while their level of depression was investigated using the Geriatric Depression Scale. In addition, their perception of being supported was ascertained using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. We performed two mediation analyses and moderation analyses separately using the product of coefficients approach. First, we created a mediation model to examine the role of attachment anxiety and depression on suicidal ideation. Second, a moderated mediation model was created to explore the relationship of perceived social support as a moderator of depression.
We found that depression significantly mediated the association between attachment anxiety and suicidal ideation. The association between depression and suicidal ideation was moderated by the level of perceived social support.
Findings of this study may broaden our understanding of how suicidal ideation develops among the elderly and further stimulate future research exploring the interaction of positive and negative factors of suicidality among the elderly. Implications of the findings were also discussed.
As the systems that people depend on are increasingly strained by the coronavirus disease–2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, public health impacts are manifesting in different ways beyond morbidity and mortality for elderly populations. Loneliness is already a chief public health concern that is being made worse by COVID-19. Agencies should recognize the prevalence of loneliness among elderly populations and the impacts that their interventions have on loneliness. This letter describes several ways that loneliness can be addressed to build resilience for elderly populations as part of the public health response to COVID-19.
In December 2019, a new type of coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), appeared in Wuhan, China. Serious outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, have occurred throughout China and the world. Therefore, we intend to shed light on its potential clinical and epidemiological characteristics.
In this retrospective study, we included 50 confirmed fatal cases of SARS-CoV-2 reported on Chinese official media networks from January 16, 2020, to February 5, 2020. All the cases were confirmed by local qualified medical and health institutions. Specific information has been released through official channels. According to the contents of the reports, we recorded in detail the gender, age, first symptom date, death date, primary symptoms, chronic fundamental diseases, and other data of the patients, and carried out analyses and discussion.
In total, 50 fatal cases were reported: median age was 70 y old, and males were 2.33 times more likely to die than females. The median number of days from the first symptom to death was 13, and that length of time tended to be shorter among people aged 65 and older compared with those younger than 65 (12 days vs 17 days; P = 0.046). Therefore, the older patients had fewer number of days from the first symptom to death (r = -0.40; P = 0.012).
In our study, we found that most of the deaths were elderly men with chronic fundamental diseases, and their COVID-19 progression to death time was shorter. At the same time, we demonstrated that older men are more likely to become infected with COVID-19, and the risk of death is positively correlated with age.
Introduction: The elderly (65 yo and more) increase in Canada is well documented along with a disproportionate use of Emergency Departments after a minor injury. These patients requires specific care given a 16% risk of functional decline following a visit to ED. To prevent functional decline, a multidimensional assessment of the elderly is recommended in the emergency department. Objective: To determine if ED grip strength can predict functional decline at 3 or 6 months post-injury. Methods: A multicentre prospective study in 5 ED across Canada was realized between 2013 and 16. Patients 65 years old and over, autonomous in daily living activities and consulting the emergency department for minor trauma were recruited 7 days a week. Clinical-demographic data, functional status, fear of falling, number of falls in the last month, grip strength measurement were collected in the ED. Functional decline (loss of at least points to functional status) was calculated at 3 and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and linear regression model with repeated measurements were used to determine if the grip strength was predictive of functional decline at 3 or 6 months. Results: 387 patient were recruited. Mean age was 74 ± 7 years old, 52% were male. XXX experienced a fall in the last month. The initial maximum grip strength was (24 ± 10 intervention vs. 28 ± 13 control; p ≤ 0.05). grip strength is associated with pre-injury functional status (p < 0.0001) and fear of falling (p = 0.0001) but does not predict 3 or 6 month functional decline. Conclusion: Given the strong association with fear of falling and functional status at initial ED evaluation, we recommend that grip strength measurement could be included in a multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department assessment as needed.
The number of older people choosing to relocate to retirement villages (RVs) is increasing rapidly. This choice is often a way to decrease social isolation while still living independently. Loneliness is a significant health issue and contributes to overall frailty, yet RV resident loneliness is poorly understood. Our aim is to describe the prevalence of loneliness and associated factors in a New Zealand RV population.
A resident survey was used to collect demographics, social engagement, loneliness, and function, as well as a comprehensive geriatric assessment (international Resident Assessment Instrument [interRAI]) as part of the “Older People in Retirement Villages Study.”
RVs, Auckland, New Zealand.
Participants included RV residents living in 33 RVs (n = 578).
Two types of recruitment: randomly sampled cohort (n = 217) and volunteer sample (n = 361). Independently associated factors for loneliness were determined through multiple logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs).
Of the participants, 420 (72.7%) were female, 353 (61.1%) lived alone, with the mean age of 81.3 years. InterRAI assessment loneliness (yes/no question) was 25.8% (n = 149), and the resident survey found that 37.4% (n = 216) feel lonely sometimes/often/always. Factors independently associated with interRAI loneliness included being widowed (adjusted OR 8.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.15–16.48), being divorced/separated/never married (OR 4.76; 95% CI 2.15–10.54), poor/fair quality of life (OR 3.37; 95% CI 1.43–7.94), moving to an RV to gain more social connections (OR 1.55; 95% CI 0.99–2.43), and depression risk (medium risk: OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.53–4.35; high risk: OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.47–11.95).
A considerable proportion of older people living in RVs reported feelings of loneliness, particularly those who were without partners, at risk of depression and decreased quality of life and those who had moved into RVs to increase social connections. Early identification of factors for loneliness in RV residents could support interventions to improve quality of life and positively impact RV resident health and well-being.
Older individuals who are in poor health or who lack spousal support are in many ways vulnerable in contemporary China. Declines in family size, combined with improvements in life expectancy and the out-migration of young adults from rural areas, have reduced the pool of potential care-givers for a growing number of older individuals. At the same time, state support for elderly people remains inadequate, further emphasising families’ role in care provision. This paper uses couple-level panel data from the 2012, 2014 and 2016 China Family Panel Studies to examine whether older couples with health-care or other needs receive help in the form of intergenerational co-residence. Multinomial logistic regressions are used to examine factors associated with the intergenerational solidarity framework from the older parents’ perspective that could motivate co-residence. Results show that when mothers report activity limitations or poor word recall at baseline, or when at least one parent has activity limitations in both waves, the probability of co-residence in both waves increases. Further, when both parents have depression at baseline, or when a parent loses a spouse, the probability of transitioning to co-residence increases. Findings suggest that adult children in present-day China do respond to parental needs by living together. Nevertheless, going forward, the state will likely have to play a greater role in old-age care provision.
The cessation of driving is a difficult transition for the elderly, but it can be facilitated through interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore the satisfaction, usefulness and applicability of the CarFreeMe intervention in the French-Canadian context. A qualitative clinical research device was used on ten older adults aged between 61 and 90 years. The participants had stopped driving within the last twelve months or were planning to stop driving in the near future and did not have cognitive impairments. After the intervention, the participants were generally satisfied and reported on its usefulness and applicability in a French-Canadian context. In addition, they identified the positive impacts related to their social involvement as they re-engaged in or pursued their significant activities. Further research is required to assess the intervention’s effects and the practicability of implementing it in Canada.
This paper aims to report our experience with a minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, performed in a day-surgery setting under local anaesthesia.
A retrospective study of 30 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps was conducted. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 and modified Lund–Kennedy scores were collected. Intra- and post-operative pain was evaluated using a 10-point visual analogue scale.
The mean Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 score decreased from 41.8 ± 15.8 pre-operatively to 13.3 ± 9.5 post-operatively (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the mean endoscopic score decreased from 6.8 ± 1.8 to 0.2 ± 0.7 (p < 0.001). The mean intra-operative pain score was 2.9 ± 3.2, and 29 patients (96.7 per cent) reported no pain in the post-operative period (visual analogue scale score = 0).
Our study confirms that minimally invasive surgery represents a safe, repeatable procedure that results in remarkable subjective and objective improvement, without intra- and post-operative pain or discomfort.
Although it is known that certain emotion regulation processes produce a buffering effect on the relationship between life events and well-being, this issue has been poorly studied in the elderly population. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test and confirm a comprehensive model of the impact that past life events have on older adults’ psychological distress, exploring the possible mediating roles of emotion regulation processes. These include rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth.
In this cross-sectional study, 387 people over 60 years old residing in the community were assessed on life events, physical functioning, emotion regulation variables, psychological well-being, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The structural model tested achieved a satisfactory fit to the data, explaining 73% of the variance of older adults’ psychological distress. In addition, the main results suggest possible mediation effects of both the physical functioning and the emotional variables: rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth in the face of hardship.
These findings confirm the importance of emotion regulation processes in the final stages of life. They reveal the various adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms that underlie the relationship between life events and psychological distress. The findings suggest – both in the explanatory models of psychological well-being and in psychotherapeutic interventions – the importance of emotion regulation in the elderly population’s health.
Challenges faced by older people include losses of loved ones through death; declining health, mobility, and function of the five senses; loss of independence; diminishing cognitive ability; and the struggle with Erik Erikson’s final two stages of life, namely generativity versus stagnation and ego integrity versus despair. Those who dedicate their energies to helping the elderly meet these challenges will be well served by the toolbox of techniques within the rubric of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). This chapter will serve as a brief overview of IPT principles, a review of the extant scientific literature on its efficacy in late life, and case vignettes to illustrate how it was used for each of the four foci of IPT, namely, role transition, grief, role disputes, and interpersonal deficit.
In examining the challenges facing the nurse in the area of aged care some of the philosophical and ethical aims of this book are most acutely demonstrated. In general, in advanced capitalist societies such as Australia, there is a tendency to regard ageing in a negative light. The importance that society attaches to productivity as a measure of value, and the decline of traditional family and community structures, have seen societal attitudes towards the aged shift, from one of respect to a more general disregard or devaluing of the possible contributions of the elderly. It is in this context that the role of the nurse as a builder of capability and a supporter of autonomy becomes most significant. While there are limits to the therapeutic benefit that a nurse can provide to a person’s physical health, nurses can play a substantial role in supporting and promoting the exercise of autonomy in the face of physical changes, especially in the context of ageing.
With the rapid growth of the older population worldwide, understanding how older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) use memory strategies to mitigate cognitive decline is important. This study investigates differences between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI subtypes in memory strategy use in daily life, and how factors associated with cognition, general health, and psychological well-being might relate to strategy use.
One hundred forty-eight participants with MCI (mean age = 67.9 years, SD = 8.9) completed comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychological assessments, and the self-report ‘Memory Compensation Questionnaire’. Correlational and linear regression analyses were used to explore relationships between memory strategy use and cognition, general health, and psychological well-being.
Memory strategy use does not differ between MCI subtypes (p > .007) despite higher subjective everyday memory complaints in those with amnestic MCI (p = .03). The most marked finding showed that increased reliance-type strategy use was significantly correlated with more subjective memory complaints and poorer verbal learning and memory (p < .01) in individuals with MCI. Moreover, fewer subjective memory complaints and better working memory significantly predicted (p < .05) less reliance strategy use, respectively, accounting for 10.6% and 5.3% of the variance in the model.
In general, the type of strategy use in older adults with MCI is related to cognitive functioning. By examining an individual’s profile of cognitive dysfunction, a clinician can provide more personalized clinical recommendations regarding strategy use to individuals with MCI, with the aim of maintaining their day-to-day functioning and self-efficacy in daily life.
Both morbidity and mortality are elevated for individuals with subsyndromal depression (SSD) compared to non-depression (ND) in those of younger ages, but scientific studies are scarce for very old individuals. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the morbidity and mortality in very old individuals with SSD and ND.
Design and setting:
An 8-year prospective population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old individuals in Sweden.
Data were collected from postal questionnaires and clinical assessments at baseline, after 1, 5, and 8 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with Geriatric Depression Scale and the results were classified into ND, SSD, and syndromal depression. Mortality was investigated using multivariable cox regressions, and variables of morbidity were investigated using linear mixed models.
Compared to ND, in people with SSD, mortality was elevated in the univariate regression, but this association vanished when controlling for relevant covariates. Morbidity was elevated with regard to basic activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, loneliness, self-perceived health, and depressive symptoms for individuals with SSD compared to ND, whereas cognitive speed, executive functions, and global cognitive function were not significantly impaired when adjusting for covariates.
SSD among very old individuals is longitudinally associated with elevated morbidity but not mortality, when controlling for relevant covariates. Considering the high prevalence of SSD and the demographic development of increasing numbers of very old people, the findings highlight the need to develop clinical and societal strategies to prevent SSD and associated negative outcomes.
Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.
Self-rated health is one of the most widely used measures in gerontology, but it has not been evaluated systematically in older adults with schizophrenia (OAS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the utility of self-rated health in OAS by examining its influencing factors and contrasting these findings with a community comparison (CC) group.
We compared 249 community-dwelling persons aged 55 years and older having a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnosis of schizophrenia arising before age 45 years with a demographically similar group of 113 older adults in the general community. Using a modified version of Ocampo’s model of self-rated health, we identified 12 predictor variables within 5 dimensions.
There were no significant differences in self-health ratings between the OAS and the CC groups. Six of the 12 variables in the model significantly correlated with self-rated health in both groups. In linear regression analysis, three variables were significantly associated with self-rated health in both groups: Center for Epidemiological Studies−Depression score, number of physical disorders, and perception of self-health versus others. Self-rated health assessment was not associated with positive or negative symptoms or lack of awareness of mental illness.
There was a striking similarity in the factors influencing self-rated health in the two groups. The findings were consistent with results of previous gerontological studies that self-rated health reflects elements of psychiatric and physical well-being, as well as perceptions of their age peers. Our results support the use of self-rated health as a legitimate clinical and research measure in OAS.
The demographic transition is a global event intensified during the last decades that represents population aging. Thus, the studies directed to the elderly 80 years of age or more with preserved cognitive functions (named SuperAgers) emerges as a possible path to full comprehension of the health of those aging with acceptable levels of functionality and independency.
To evaluate the cognitive performance of the elderly over 80 years old, associating the results to their educational level.
We evaluated 144 healthy elders with 80 years or more through the following cognitive tests Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Verbal Fluency Test (VF) and compared the tests’ scores with their educational level segmented in years of formal education, being the groups ILLITR (<1 year of schooling), 1TO4 (from 1 to 4 years of schooling), and 5MORE (>5 years of schooling).
There was positive influence of educational level on the cognitive tests’ score, which indicates higher cognitive reserve of the elderly with higher educational levels.
The functionality and independence of the so-called SuperAgers is determined by the cognitive reserve acquired throughout life, mainly developed by the years of formal education.
To assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pictorial Fit-Frail Scale (PFFS) among patients, caregivers, nurses, and geriatricians in an outpatient memory clinic.
A Canadian referral-based outpatient memory clinic.
Fifty-one consecutive patients and/or their caregivers, as well as attending nurses and geriatricians.
Participants (patients, caregivers, nurses, and geriatricians) were asked to complete the PFFS based on the patient’s current level of functioning. Time-to-complete and level of assistance required was recorded. Participants also completed a demographic survey and patients’ medical history (including the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], and Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment [CGA]) was obtained via chart review.
Patient participants had a mean age of 77.3±10.1 years, and average MMSE of 22.0±7.0, and 53% were female. Participants were able to complete the PFFS with minimal assistance, and their average times to completion were 4:38±2:09, 3:11±1:16, 1:05±0:19, and 0:57±0:30 (mins:sec) for patients, caregivers, nurses, and geriatricians, respectively. Mean PFFS scores as rated by patients, caregivers, nurses, and geriatricians were 9.0±5.7, 13.1±6.6, 11.2±4.5, 11.9±5.9, respectively. Patients with low MMSE scores (0–24) took significantly longer to complete the scale and had higher PFFS scores. Inter-rater reliability between nurses and geriatricians was 0.74, but it was lower when assessments were done for patients with low MMSE scores (0.47, p<0.05). The correlation between PFFS and a Frailty Index based on the CGA was moderately high and statistically significant for caregivers, nurses, and geriatricians (r=0.66, r=0.59, r=0.64, respectively), but not patients.
The PFFS is feasible, even among people with some slight cognitive impairment, though it may be less useful when patients with severe dementia administer it to themselves. Further, the PFFS may help inform clinicians about areas of concern as identified by patients, enabling them to contribute more to diagnostic and treatment decisions or helping with health tracking and care planning.
Fish harbour many types of nutrients that are beneficial for preventing cognitive decline. Therefore, habitual fish intake might contribute to a lower risk of incident dementia. However, few prospective cohort studies have investigated fish consumption in relation to incident dementia, and their findings have been inconsistent. To investigate the association between fish consumption and the risk of incident dementia, we collected data on the consumption of fish and other foods using an FFQ in a baseline survey of individuals aged ≥65 years living in Ohsaki City, Japan. After 5·7 years of follow-up, the incidence of dementia was 1118 (8·5 %) among 13 102 participants. We then used a multivariate-adjusted Cox model to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Compared with subjects with the lowest fish intake (Q1), the multivariate HR were 0·90 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·11) for Q2, 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for Q3 and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·997) for Q4 (Ptrend = 0·029). Such associations were also observed even after excluding participants who were diagnosed with dementia in the first 2 years of follow-up and those who had poorer cognitive function at baseline. In conclusion, an association was observed between higher fish consumption and a lower risk of incident dementia among healthy elderly people without disability. These findings suggest that habitual fish intake may be beneficial for the prevention of dementia.