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This chapter introduces the framework of a model of inclusive pedagogy that consists of four key dimensions: attitudinal inclusion, academic inclusion, linguistic inclusion and social inclusion. We illustrate the issues through reference to teacher data elicited at the project secondary schools. We discuss the prevalence of linguistic diversity in English schools that makes teachers’ knowledge about such language diversity essential to effectiveness in the classroom and, in light of this, we identify key forms of ‘bilingual assistance’ which support EAL pedagogy. The final section of the chapter presents an outline of a teacher knowledge framework which we argue needs to form the basis of teacher professional development in the EAL context.
This chapter discusses the policy and educational context of provision for newcomer migrant children in Europe and the United Kingdom (including a review of relevant EU documentation relating to the social and academic integration of newcomer children in schools) before focusing on the specific context of the East of England which is the setting for our empirical study. We review statistical data relating to regional provision of support for EAL in schools and discuss the findings of a regional school survey conducted for the project.
Chapter 10 brings the different chapters together and responds to the question: ‘How might a public education system become more ethical?’ In other words, it asks how an education system itself can be conducive to and embody ethical living in relationships, and assumes that such ethical living will require concern for the well-being of persons and will constitute a vital aspect of one’s own well-being. It clarifies that educational system isn’t a collection of schools, but instead, it is the way in which various institutions are interrelated according to the principles that define the way they work together. These institutions include schools, examination boards, teacher training colleges, local authorities, the national curriculum authority, the ministry, national school inspection offices, various institutional employers, a framework of laws, and from there, the wider global economy. To propose ethically oriented systemic transformation, the chapter outlines the nature of an educational system that is centred around the well-being of persons in the four principles, including non-instrumentalisation, whole-person development, well-being and learning as human becoming. It then explores how these principles can be applied to the design of the system, and to key aspects of schooling, such as curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation and learning communities.
Chapter 9 draws on a case study of a pilot project in two secondary schools, one in the United Kingdom and one in Colombia, to illustrate how ethical education spaces can be co-created, sustained and enriched. It regards ethical education practice to consist of at least three aspects: (1) exploring students’ self-awareness which is intimately connected to relationships with others; (2) experiencing one’s feelings, emotions and relations, and (3) inquiring into one’s own and others’ lived realities, and things in the world. These respond to the particular needs and challenges of adolescence and contribute to enriching students’ relationships with self and others, learning and goodness in the world. To present the case study, this chapter begins by considering the needs for relational development during adolescence. It then articulates the conceptual framework underpinning the above ethical education practices. Following a detailed description of each ethical space, the pedagogical intentions underlying it, and the learning processes that the students embarked on within each space, the case study discusses how the participating students have experienced these spaces, and reflects on teaching and learning practices that have enabled these experiences. Finally, this chapter makes suggestions on how ethical spaces might be integrated in secondary education.
Chapter 8 presents ‘cultivating inner qualities’ (CIQ) an initiative case study for developing ethical relations in Chinese schools. In the light of the emergent shift from ‘teaching to test’ to ‘educating whole human beings’, the CIQ project has been launched in primary and secondary schools within the different economic development regions in China, targeting especially marginalised children who suffer from severe social and emotional deprivation and exclusion. The core of CIQ practice is centred on developing ethical relations in schools, including time and space within the curriculum to enrich social emotional experiences, developing relational competencies, fostering trust and caring relationships and encouraging mutual respect and mutual support amongst teachers and students. In addition, CIQ is an innovative approach to school management, and to home–school collaboration. Research into CIQ suggests that these core ethical education practices are key to cultivating students’ holistic inner qualities, such as a greater awareness of interconnection between oneself and others; better and more positive interpersonal relationships; a stronger sense of responsibility for each other’s learning; healthier emotional states; and more relational resilience when facing challenges.
Chapter 5 explores the question: ‘Which experiences and reflections could help young people to become more ethically aware and motivated within the context of public education?’ It addresses four important societal worries. First, the rise of relativism as different worldview positions meet and confront each other in a super-diverse society. Second, the existence of populist hermeneutical bubbles, in which people only get information that confirms their own views. Third, a general attitude of apathy and uncaring in an economy-driven society that only believes in market values. Fourth, a hardening of traditional moral positions of minorities who feel threatened in their group identity. It argues that the ethical should be understood in a broad sense, and that the crisis is not only about norms and values in a strict moral sense of what is right or wrong behaviour; it is also about an existential search for identity and belonging, and about sources of inspiration for living a ‘good life’ that transcends the particular needs of a person. It thus proposes ethical, existential and spiritual re-orientation which encompasses personal and societal explorations and evaluations with regard to diverging views on the ‘good life’ as found in late-modern societies.
What does it mean for a relationship to be ethical? Chapter 3 will provide two answers to this question and show how they are related. First, an ethical relationship requires that both parties appreciate and treat the other person as a being of equal non-instrumental value. Second, an ethical relationship requires that both parties are disposed to understand each other well in a specific way. This requires overcoming an epistemological asymmetry by reading the intentions of others according to the idea that they primarily will do some good. The two claims are related as follows: an important way of not respecting a person is to fail to understand her by succumbing to the epistemological asymmetry. It will examine this asymmetry in practice by showing how people typically misunderstand each other. Finally, this chapter will briefly explore the implications of these conclusions for relationship-based ethical education within the existing school system. These include creating spaces for sharing in which young people can feel safe, private and not judged, and where the educators can engender an appropriate atmosphere for listening and dialogue.
This chapter examines the cultural case for Scottish independence made from the 1960s onwards, understood in a broad sense as the view that the Union threatens the autonomy of Scotland’s distinctive institutions, particularly its egalitarian character as expressed through its democratic intellectual and educational traditions. The chapter focuses on the influential argument along these lines articulated by the philosopher George Davie and a number of cultural nationalists influenced by him. Although widely discussed, this cultural nationalism was considered to be a false start by many influential figures in the independence movement. The chapter concludes by reviewing why many leading advocates of independence instead looked to alternative intellectual sources, or translated the cultural case into a political one, to advance their cause.
A Deaf with disabilities (DWD) male professor, 2 hearing female teacher candidates, 11 parents (4 of whom were immigrants), and 6 DWD children sought to better understand the experiences of parents of DWD children by conducting an ethnographic study (Singer, Kamenakis, Shapiro, & Cacciato, in press). The research team recorded reflexive journals as a way to analyse their methodology. In this essay, we reflect on 3 themes developed from the reflexive journals: (a) researcher positionality, (b) negotiating power in research, and (c) language variation in practice. We discuss our experiences and contextualise these accounts within relevant scholarship, attempting to locate some amount of resolution to the very human experiences upon which we reflect. We provide key takeaways for doing research with and among people with disabilities in special educational settings, particularly focusing on people who communicate in nonnormative ways. We conclude with a culminating discussion of the significance of creating emancipatory special education research.
Twelve intellectual disability psychiatry trainee representatives and 13 training programme directors were surveyed to assess the current state of training, to establish what motivated specialty trainees to choose intellectual disability psychiatry, and to explore issues that might affect retention.
The combined survey response rate was 83%. All trainees had chosen intellectual disability psychiatry after experience in either their personal or working life. Overall, specialty trainees were satisfied with their training; the majority felt supported to meet training requirements. Trainee isolation was the main concern for current trainees.
Recruitment for specialty training in intellectual disability psychiatry is acknowledged to be a concern for workforce planning and could affect access to and quality of psychiatric care for people with intellectual disability. The results of this survey could be used as a guide to improve efforts to attract trainees. Acknowledging and reducing trainee isolation could improve trainee morale.
Recent years have seen a revival of debates about the role of business and the sources of business power in postindustrial political economies. Scholarly accounts commonly distinguish between structural sources of business power, connected to its privileged position in capitalist economies, and instrumental sources, related to direct forms of lobbying by business actors. The authors argue that this distinction overlooks an important third source of business power, which they conceptualize as institutional business power. Institutional business power results when state actors delegate public functions to private business actors. Over time, through policy feedback and lock-in effects, institutional business power contributes to an asymmetrical dependence of the state on the continued commitment of private business actors. This article elaborates the theoretical argument behind this claim, providing empirical examples of growing institutional business power in education in Germany, Sweden, and the United States.
People with common mental disorders often seek medical attention from their family doctors. Thus, it is essential for family doctors to possess primary mental health knowledge. The aim of this study was to understand whether psychiatrists endorse the primary mental health competencies identified by the World Organization of Family Doctors and whether they agree that family doctors are demonstrating these competencies. A questionnaire was constructed based on 32 core competencies. Presidents of all World Psychiatric Association member societies were invited to complete the questionnaire or to forward it to local experts. According to the respondents, these competencies are considered relevant yet not sufficiently possessed by typical primary care doctors. Proposals are made to bridge this assumed competency gap.
How can the political meaning of the family and its relationship with the state be redefined in the liberal era? This chapter explores three answers that rearticulate the standing of the family within the liberal commonweal and redraw the balance between family and state. The responses differ in their narration of the interest that the liberal state has in the institution of the family, depicting the latter as an agency of the state, an organ of the state, or an apolitical space that marks the state’s limits and dependence on prepolitical conditions. The three approaches are presented as concurrent trends representing discrepant versions of liberalism as a political theory.
In this time of Covid-19, life in healthcare has changed immeasurably. It has rapidly been injected with an ‘all hands-on deck’ approach, to facilitate the necessary adaptations required to reduce the spread of the virus and deliver frontline clinical care. Inevitably aspects of these changes have disrupted the delivery of medical education, notably clinical placements have been cancelled and social distancing guidelines prohibit face-to-face teaching. The training of future doctors is an essential part of this effort. Indeed, the emergence of a global health threat has underlined its continued importance. For medical educators and students alike, we have been presented with a challenge. Concurrently this presents us with an impetus and opportunity for innovation. For some time now, a transformation in medical education has been called for, with an increasing recognition of the need to prepare students for the changing landscape of healthcare systems. This has included a focus on the use of technology enhanced, and self-directed learning. As a team of educators and clinicians in psychiatry, working in the School of Medicine and Medical Sciences (SMMS) in University College Dublin (UCD), we will share how we have responded. We outline the adaptations made to our ‘Psychiatry’ module, and consider the influence this may have on its future delivery. These changes were informed by direct student input.
The Latin American model of vocational education has been widely portrayed as a homegrown success story, particularly by scholars and stakeholders who are aware of the region’s skill deficits, wary of alien solutions, and suspicious of institutional transfers more generally. Is the Latin American model really homegrown? I use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to trace the model’s mores and methods not to the New World but to Central Europe and go on to identify three different transmission paths in the 20th century: imitation by Latin Americans of German origin, descent, and/or training in the run-up to World War II; propagation by West German attachés and advisors in an effort to rehabilitate their country’s image in the wake of the war; and adaptation by local employers and policymakers—who received additional support from Germany—at the turn of the last century. The results suggest that institutional importation is less a discrete event or outcome to be avoided than an ongoing process that, first, entails translation, adaptation, and at times obfuscation by importers as well as exporters; and, second, is facilitated by immigrants, their descendants, and diplomats in transnational contact zones.
Patient-controlled anagesia (PCA), used for the control of moderate to severe pain in the acute postoperative period, allows patients to self-administer boluses of intravenous or subcutaneous opioids. This chapter describes the advantages of this therapy, contraindications and provides top tips for PCA administration.
During Africa’s anti-colonial movements, women in French colonies were less politically active than women in British colonies. Hern examines how differences in British and French education policies in the Gold Coast and Senegal between the 1920s and the 1950s shaped women’s opportunities for participating in nationalist activity and becoming involved in early-independence politics. Compared to girls’ education in Senegal, girls’ education in the Gold Coast was more widespread, came from a variety of providers, and was less focused on domesticity. Women in the Gold Coast were thus more likely to be mobilized as political agents during the nationalist movement and integrated into Ghana’s new independent government.
Free open access medical education (FOAM) resources in emergency medicine (EM) have grown exponentially in recent years. Within this movement, there are relatively few resources dedicated to simulation in EM. EM Sim Cases is a FOAM resource that was started in 2015 with the goal of creating a central database of simulation cases and scholarly articles that could be shared worldwide and thus reduce needless duplication of effort. Since 2015, EM Sim Cases has grown to have an annual average of 8,148 views per month from a total of 161 countries. It has an editorial team of 18 members as well as a leadership team of three. There is a robust, peer-reviewed case bank ranging in topic from neonatal resuscitation to end-of-life care as well as a number of simulation-relevant educational posts.
Emergency medicine (EM) training programs incorporate simulation for teaching as well as formative and summative assessment. The development of a simulation curriculum for Canadian postgraduate EM programs is underway and would be facilitated by a standardized, user-friendly, nationally endorsed simulation template. We convened a nationally representative group of simulation educators to participate in a three-phase process to develop and refine a simulation case template for Canadian EM educators. Participants provided feedback by means of free text comments and focus groups which were analyzed to inform modification of the template. We anticipate that this template will facilitate the sharing of cases across sites and the development of standardized cases for simulation-based assessment.
This article is the first to report the nationwide public support rate for the death penalty in China. Using a national representative sample with 31,664 respondents, it shows that 68 per cent of China's citizens are for the death penalty, while 31 per cent are opposed to it. These numbers suggest that support for capital punishment in China, although strong, is much weaker than in some other East Asian jurisdictions and less than first assumed by commentators. However, contrary to previous notions that public support for the death penalty derives from uninformed popular prejudice, it is the elites in China – i.e. those who receive higher education – who are more in favour of the death penalty. Further empirical analyses suggest that this is not because of political ideology or fear of crime. Rather, the reason is likely that the elites know fewer, and sympathize less with, criminal offenders, who generally come from underprivileged groups. These findings challenge a range of prevailing perceptions of public attitudes to the death penalty in China, especially the culture explanation for the Chinese public's punitiveness, and have important policy implications.