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Given the lack of evidence on patients with medically refractory vestibular migraine, this study aimed to identify factors associated with pharmacotherapy failure and progression to botulinum toxin injection in vestibular migraine.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on definite vestibular migraine patients from September 2015 to July 2019 who completed the Dizziness Handicap Inventory at least six weeks apart..
The study comprised 47 patients (mean age = 50.2 ± 15.8 years), with a mean follow-up time of 6.0 ± 6.0 months. The mean pre-treatment Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was 57.5 ± 23.5, with a mean reduction of 17.3 ± 25.2 (p < 0.001) at last follow up. Oscillopsia (r = 0.458, p = 0.007), failure of first medication (r = 0.518, p = 0.001) and pre-treatment Dizziness Handicap Inventory question 15 (an emotional domain question) score (r = 0.364, p = 0.019) were the only variables significantly correlated with progression to botulinum toxin injection.
Motion hypersensitivity, failure of first medication, and fear of social stigmatisation suggest a decreased treatment response. These symptoms may require more aggressive treatment at an earlier stage.
Cloth face covering has been recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to decrease community viral transmission. This study aims to determine the filtration efficiency and airflow resistance of common household materials available for homemade mask production by comparing numbers of fabrics, various layers, and manipulation.
Common household woven, knitted and nonwoven fabrics were tested for filtration efficiency using a fit testing setup and airflow resistance with pressure gauge setup. Three different levels of layering (1, 2, and 4) were tested. Some fabric material was further tested after washing and drying. Filtration performance, the area under the fitted curve comparing airflow resistance and filtration efficiency, was calculated for each fabric material and compared.
Layering increased filtration efficiency and airflow resistance (p<0.0001 and p<0.01, respectively). Polyester felt demonstrated the highest filtration performance index (p<0.0001), higher than all tested 100% cotton materials (all p<0.05) as well as surgical masks (p<0.05). Washing plus drying did not alter filtration performance significantly (p>0.05).
A filtration performance of common household fabrics were compared. Homemade mask designers and producers will have improved data to better balance effectiveness, availability, and comfort with the goal of decreasing community viral transmission.
This study aimed to assess the outcomes of a prelacrimal recess approach assisted middle meatal antrostomy in the management of hard to reach maxillary sinus pathologies.
Twenty-five patients with maxillary sinus pathology underwent prelacrimal recess approach assisted middle meatal antrostomy (with a prelacrimal recess width of more than 3 mm). Patients were prospectively evaluated using both the Arabic version of the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 and nasal endoscopy at least 6 months post-operatively.
Our study included 25 maxillary sinuses (13 with antrochoanal polyps, 10 with maxillary fungal ball and 2 with a migrated part of a tooth). At a mean follow-up period of 10.9 months, all patients showed significant improvement in total mean Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 score. There was recurrence of one case with antrochoanal polyp and two cases with asymptomatic synechia. Injury to the nasolacrimal duct was not reported.
A prelacrimal recess approach assisted middle meatal antrostomy is a reliable and safe technique to manage pathologies in hard to reach regions within the maxillary sinus.
To perform a validation assessment of a novel porcine ex vivo model for otoplasty training.
A total of nine otolaryngology trainees performed a standard approach otoplasty on a porcine ear. They completed a series of tasks including posterior skin incision, anterior scoring, Mustardé suture placement and concha–mastoid suture placement. Trainees completed a post-task questionnaire assessing face validity, global content validity and task-specific content validity.
Trainees’ median scores for the porcine model were: 4 for face validity (interquartile range, 3–4), 5 for global content validity (interquartile range, 4–5) and 4 for task-specific content validity (interquartile range, 4–4).
This study is the first to formally validate the ex vivo porcine auricular model as a useful tool for training in otoplasty. The model should be incorporated into simulation training for otoplasty in order to improve learning, enable acquisition of specific surgical skills and improve operative outcomes.
COVID-19, first documented in December 2019, was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 30th January 20201. The disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has affected more than 9 million people and contributed to at least 490,000 deaths globally as of June 2020, with numbers on the rise2.
Increased numbers of patients seeking medical attention during disease outbreaks can overwhelm healthcare facilities, hence requiring an equivalent response from healthcare services. Surge capacity is a concept that has not only been defined as the “ability to respond to a sudden increase in patient care demands3” but also to “effectively and rapidly expand capacity4”.
This narrative review discusses how Singapore’s largest tertiary hospital has encapsulated the elements of surge capability and transformed a peacetime multi-storey carpark into a flu screening area in response to the COVID-19 disease outbreak.
Depression is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. This study aims to determine whether depression with atypical features shows different heritability and different degree of overlap with polygenic risk for psychiatric and immuno-metabolic traits than other depression subgroups.
Data included 30 069 European ancestry individuals from the UK Biobank who met criteria for lifetime major depression. Participants reporting both weight gain and hypersomnia were classified as ↑WS depression (N = 1854) and the others as non-↑WS depression (N = 28 215). Cases with non-↑WS depression were further classified as ↓WS depression (i.e. weight loss and insomnia; N = 10 142). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 22 traits were generated using genome-wide summary statistics (Bonferroni corrected p = 2.1 × 10−4). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of depression subgroups was estimated.
↑WS depression had a higher polygenic risk for BMI [OR = 1.20 (1.15–1.26), p = 2.37 × 10−14] and C-reactive protein [OR = 1.11 (1.06–1.17), p = 8.86 × 10−06] v. non-↑WS depression and ↓WS depression. Leptin PRS was close to the significance threshold (p = 2.99 × 10−04), but the effect disappeared when considering GWAS summary statistics of leptin adjusted for BMI. PRS for daily alcohol use was inversely associated with ↑WS depression [OR = 0.88 (0.83–0.93), p = 1.04 × 10−05] v. non-↑WS depression. SNP-based heritability was not significantly different between ↑WS depression and ↓WS depression (14.3% and 12.2%, respectively).
↑WS depression shows evidence of distinct genetic predisposition to immune-metabolic traits and alcohol consumption. These genetic signals suggest that biological targets including immune-cardio-metabolic pathways may be relevant to therapies in individuals with ↑WS depression.
Marital infidelity was not uncommon in the period covered in this book. Nor was it, for much of the time, a hidden or concealed crime. Newspapers regularly reported on bigamy, criminal conversation, divorce and desertion cases that came before the Irish courts and often involved adulterous behaviour. It is impossible to know how extensive extra-marital sexual behaviour was in any period. In this chapter we explore the attitudes expressed towards adulterous behaviour and couples who cohabited without marrying, how such behaviour reflected upon marital relationships and what it says more generally about sexuality in Irish society. Printed reports and newspaper accounts of trials for criminal conversation were an important medium through which the public became aware of adulterous affairs. This chapter reveals the level of non-conformity that existed in sexual matters amongst individuals and couples over a long time period. Sexual non-conformity can be viewed for instance, in cohabitation, adultery, the keeping of mistresses, and the advantage taken of women servants in households. By the end of the nineteenth century, both the Church and the law increasingly oversaw the implementation of sexual norms in society and perpetuated ideals for male and female sexual behaviour.
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to physical distancing measures in numerous countries in an attempt to control the spread. However, these measures are not without cost to the health and economies of the nations in which they are enacted. Nations are now looking for methods to remove physical distancing measures and return to full functioning. To prevent a massive second wave of infections, this must be done with a data-driven methodology. The purpose of this article is to propose an algorithm for COVID-19 testing that would allow for physical distancing to be scaled back in a stepwise manner, which limits ensuing infections and protects the capacity of the health care system.
Chapter 1 introduces smallpox and, its ultimate nemesis, cowpox. At the beginning of the modern age, a more virulent strain of smallpox spread around the world. Observing that survivors did not take smallpox a second time, many cultures recognised that exposure to a mild case might prove advantageous. The practice of smallpox inoculation, first observed in Istanbul, was the focus of interest in western Europe and was introduced experimentally in the English-speaking world in the 1720s. Though not without risks, inoculation led to advances in understanding contagion and improvements in therapy. It also helped clarify the relationship between similar human and animal diseases. The expansion of inoculation in the eighteenth century revealed individuals whose resistance to smallpox infection was associated with prior cowpox infection. Jenner used inoculation to put the notion that cowpox prevented smallpox to the test. Familiarity with the old practice set the scene for the rapid introduction of cowpox inoculation, a milder intervention.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity, diabetes, and allergy are chronic, multi-factorial conditions that are affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Over the last decade, the microbiome has emerged as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of NCDs. Microbiome profiles were altered in patients with NCDs, and shift in microbial communities was associated with improvement in these health conditions. Since the genetic component of these diseases cannot be altered, the ability to manipulate the microbiome holds great promise for design of novel therapies in the prevention and treatment of NCDs. Together, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept and the microbial hypothesis propose that early life exposure to environmental stimuli will alter the development and composition of the human microbiome, resulting in health consequences. Recent studies indicated that the environment we are exposed to in early life is instrumental in shaping robust immune development, possibly through modulation of the human microbiome (skin, airway, and gut). Despite much research into human microbiome, the origin of their constituent microbiota remains unclear. Dust (also known as particulate matter) is a key determinant of poor air quality in the modern urban environment. It is ubiquitous and serves as a major source and reservoir of microbial communities that modulates the human microbiome, contributing to health and disease. There are evidence that reported significant associations between environmental dust and NCDs. In this review, we will focus on the impact of dust exposure in shaping the human microbiome and its possible contribution to the development of NCDs.
The Ethiopian great famine was one of the severe forms of global famines ever documented in Africa as well as in the recent history of the world. Earlier famine studies, as natural experiments, had tested the association between prenatal famine exposure and the metabolic syndrome and reported heterogeneous findings. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of prenatal exposure to the 1983–1985 Ethiopian great famine on the metabolic syndrome in adults. Self-reported birth date and age of the study subjects were used to classify the status of famine exposure. The International Diabetes Federation criterion was used to assess the metabolic syndrome. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to examine relationship between prenatal famine exposure and the metabolic syndrome. The findings showed that, adjusted for covariates, adults who had prenatal exposure to famine were 2·94 times more likely to develop the metabolic syndrome compared with non-exposed groups (adjusted OR (AOR) 2·94, 95 % CI 1·66, 5·27). More specifically, famine exposure during prenatal life was associated with increased waist circumference (AOR 2·27 cm, 95 % CI 0·28, 4·26), diastolic blood pressure (AOR 2·47 mmHg, 95 % CI 0·84, 4·11), TAG (AOR 0·20 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·10, 0·28) and fasting blood glucose (AOR 0·24 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·43) compared with the control groups. Higher proportion of the metabolic syndrome, risky anthropometric and dyslipidaemic parameters were observed among exposed groups. This finding adds further evidence on fetal origin of adult diseases hypothesis. The finding may imply that one potential means of preventing adulthood metabolic syndrome is to optimise maternal nutrition during pregnancy.
The Paleolithic diet (PaleoDiet) is an allegedly healthy dietary pattern inspired by the consumption of wild foods and animals assumed to be consumed in the Paleolithic era. Despite gaining popularity in the media, different operational definitions of this Paleolithic nutritional intake have been used in research. Our hypothesis is that specific components used to define the PaleoDiet may modulate the association of this diet with several health outcomes. We comprehensively reviewed currently applied PaleoDiet scores and suggested a new score based on the food composition of current PaleoDiet definitions and the theoretical food content of a staple dietary pattern in the Paleolithic age. In a PubMed search up to December 2019, fourteen different PaleoDiet definitions were found. We observed some common components of the PaleoDiet among these definitions although we also found high heterogeneity in the list of specific foods that should be encouraged or banned within the PaleoDiet. Most studies suggest that the PaleoDiet may have beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, CVD and hyperlipidaemias) but the level of evidence is still weak because of the limited number of studies with a large sample size, hard outcomes instead of surrogate outcomes and long-term follow-up. Finally, we propose a new PaleoDiet score composed of eleven food items, based on a high consumption of fruits, nuts, vegetables, fish, eggs and unprocessed meats (lean meats); and a minimum content of dairy products, grains and cereals, and legumes and practical absence of processed (or ultra-processed) foods or culinary ingredients.
Necrotising otitis externa is a progressive infection of the external auditory canal which extends to affect the temporal bone and adjacent structures. Progression of the disease process can result in serious sequelae, including cranial nerve palsies and death. There is currently no formal published treatment guideline.
This study aimed to integrate current evidence and data from our own retrospective case series in order to develop a guideline to optimise necrotising otitis externa patient management.
A retrospective review of necrotising otitis externa cases within NHS Lothian, Scotland, between 2013 and 2018, was performed, along with a PubMed review.
Prevalent presenting signs, symptoms and patient demographic data were established. Furthermore, features of cases associated with adverse outcomes were defined. A key feature of the guideline is defining at-risk patients with initial intensive treatment. Investigations and outcomes are assessed and treatment adjusted appropriately.
This multi-departmental approach has facilitated the development of a succinct, systematic guideline for the management of necrotising otitis externa. Initial patient outcomes appear promising.
Treatment of inflammatory and neoplastic disease in the maxillary sinus, pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae requires appropriate surgical exposure. As modern rhinology evolves, so do the techniques available. This paper reviews extended endoscopic approaches to the maxillary sinus and the evidence supporting each technique.
A literature search of the Ovid Medline and PubMed databases was performed using appropriate key words relating to endoscopic approaches to the maxillary sinus.
Mega-antrostomy and medial maxillectomy have a role in the surgical treatment of refractory inflammatory disease and sinonasal neoplasms. The pre-lacrimal fossa approach provides excellent access but can be limited because of anatomical variations. Both the transseptal and endoscopic Denker's approaches were reviewed; these appear to be associated with morbidity, without any significant increase in exposure over the afore-described approaches.
A range of extended endoscopic approaches to the maxillary sinus exist, each with its own anatomical limitations and potential complications.
To analyse the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising on the three major Brazilian free-to-air television (TV) channels.
Cross-sectional study. A protocol developed for the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support was applied for data collection. A total of 432 h of TV programming was recorded from 06.00 to 24.00 hours, for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days, in April 2018. All TV advertisements (ads) were analysed, and food-related ads were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the number and type of ads, food categories and the distribution of ads throughout the day and time of the day.
The three most popular free-to-air channels on Brazilian TV.
The study did not involve human subjects.
In total, 14·2 % (n 1156 out of 7991) of ads were food related (858 were specific food items). Approximately 91 % of food items ads included ultra-processed food (UPF) products. The top three most promoted products were soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and fast-food meals. Alcoholic beverage ads were more frequently broadcast in the evening.
The high risk of exposure of the Brazilian population to UPF ads should be considered a public health concern given the impact of unhealthy food advertising on people’s food choices and health.
Critical care transport organizations are nimble, operationally focused institutions that can aid in managing crises. Ornge provides air ambulance and critical care transport services to Ontario. From 12 bases, Ornge operates four PC-12 Next Generation fixed wing (FW) aircraft, eight AW-139 rotary wing (RW) aircraft, and four critical care land ambulances (CCLA) on a 24/7 basis. Ornge also contracts with private air carriers to provide lower acuity air ambulance services. Ornge performs over 20,000 patient-related transports annually. We discuss Ornge's approach to preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and identify potential unconventional roles.
Colombia is experiencing a nutrition transition, characterised by nutritionally poor diets and an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD). We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and general health outcomes related to the risk of NCD, in a nationally representative sample of Colombian adolescents and adults.
Cross-sectional analysis. The Alternative Healthy-Eating Index (AHEI) was derived to calculate diet quality. Adjusted regressions were used to examine the association between AHEI, self-perceived general health status (GHS) and anthropometric variables (i.e. age-specific z-scores for height, and BMI for adolescents; waist circumference and BMI for adults).
Nationally representative data from the Colombian National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN) 2010.
Adolescents aged 10–17 years (n 6566) and adults aged ≥18 years (n 6750).
AHEI scores were similar between adolescents (mean 29·3 ± 7·2) and adults (mean 30·5 ± 7·2). In the whole sample, a better diet quality (higher AHEI score) was associated with worse self-perceived GHS (adjusted (a) β-coefficient: –0·004; P < 0·001) and with a smaller waist circumference ((a) β-coefficient: –0·06; P < 0·01). In adults, a higher AHEI score was negatively associated with BMI ((a) β-coefficient: –0·02; P < 0·05), whilst in adolescents it was associated with a reduced height-for-age z-score ((a) β-coefficient: –0·009; P < 0·001).
A better diet quality was associated with reduced prevalence of predictors of NCD and with some indicators of general health in the Colombian population. In light of the high prevalence of overweight, our findings support the need for public health interventions focused on sustainable positive changes in dietary habits in the general population.