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Both blood- and milk-based biomarkers have been analysed for decades in research settings, although often only in one herd, and without focus on the variation in the biomarkers that are specifically related to herd or diet. Biomarkers can be used to detect physiological imbalance and disease risk and may have a role in precision livestock farming (PLF). For use in PLF, it is important to quantify normal variation in specific biomarkers and the source of this variation. The objective of this study was to estimate the between- and within-herd variation in a number of blood metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and serum IGF-1), milk metabolites (free glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, urea, isocitrate, BHB and uric acid), milk enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)) and composite indicators for metabolic imbalances (Physiological Imbalance-index and energy balance), to help facilitate their adoption within PLF. Blood and milk were sampled from 234 Holstein dairy cows from 6 experimental herds, each in a different European country, and offered a total of 10 different diets. Blood was sampled on 2 occasions at approximately 14 days-in-milk (DIM) and 35 DIM. Milk samples were collected twice weekly (in total 2750 samples) from DIM 1 to 50. Multilevel random regression models were used to estimate the variance components and to calculate the intraclass correlations (ICCs). The ICCs for the milk metabolites, when adjusted for parity and DIM at sampling, demonstrated that between 12% (glucose-6-phosphate) and 46% (urea) of the variation in the metabolites’ levels could be associated with the herd-diet combination. Intraclass Correlations related to the herd-diet combination were generally higher for blood metabolites, from 17% (cholesterol) to approximately 46% (BHB and urea). The high ICCs for urea suggest that this biomarker can be used for monitoring on herd level. The low variance within cow for NAGase indicates that few samples would be needed to describe the status and potentially a general reference value could be used. The low ICC for most of the biomarkers and larger within cow variation emphasises that multiple samples would be needed - most likely on the individual cows - for making the biomarkers useful for monitoring. The majority of biomarkers were influenced by parity and DIM which indicate that these should be accounted for if the biomarker should be used for monitoring.
Preclinical and human studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation and the development of depressive behaviors. This is proposed to occur through downstream effects of inflammatory cytokines on neuroplasticity, neurogenesis and neurotransmitter function, although the neural correlates remain poorly understood in humans.
In Study 1, structural magnetic resonance imaging and serum inflammatory cytokine data were analyzed from 53 psychiatrically healthy female participants. Correlational analyses were conducted between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and volume in a priori regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In Study 2, medical data [including serum inflammatory acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein)] were analyzed for 12 589 participants. Participants were classified as having (n = 2541) v. not having (n = 10 048) probable lifetime MDD using phenotypes derived using machine-learning approaches. Non-parametric analyses compared inflammation between groups, whereas regression analyses probed whether inflammation predicted probable MDD classification while accounting for other variables.
In Study 1, significant negative correlations emerged between IL-6 and hippocampal, caudate, putamen and amygdalar volume. In Study 2, the MDD group showed a higher probability of elevated inflammation than the non-MDD group. Moreover, elevated inflammation was a significant predictor of probable MDD classification.
Findings indicate that inflammation is cross-sectionally related to reduced volume in brain regions implicated in MDD phenotypes among a sample of psychiatrically healthy women, and is associated with the presence of probable MDD in a large clinical dataset. Future investigations may identify specific inflammatory markers predicting first MDD onset.
Infertility is an important reproductive health problem, and male infertility is especially important in more than half of infertility cases. Due to the importance of genetic factors in this condition, analysis of semen alone is not enough to recognize men with idiopathic infertility. A molecular non-invasive investigation is necessary to gain valuable information. Currently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are being used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers. miRNAs, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, act as post-transcriptional gene silencing regulators either by inhibition or repression of translation. Changes in the regulation of miRNAs have been investigated in several different types of male infertility, therefore the biological role of miRNA and gene targets has been defined. The purpose of this study was to review recent research on the altered expression of miRNA in semen, sperm, and testicular biopsy samples in infertile males with different types of unexplained infertility. Changes in miRNA regulation were investigated using microarray and the miRNA levels were confirmed by real-time qRT-PCR. This review explains why creating a non-invasive diagnostic method for male infertility is necessary and how changes in miRNA expression can be used as new diagnostic biomarkers in patients with differing spermatogenic and histopathologic injury.
It has taken more than 40 years for the fields of immunology and neuroscience to capture the potential impact of the mechanistic understanding of how an active immune signalling brain might function. These developments have grown an appreciation for the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system and their key role in the health and disease of the brain and spinal cord. Moreover, the understanding of the bidirectional communication between the brain and the peripheral immune system has evolved to capture an understanding of how mood can alter immune function and vice versa. These concepts are rapidly evolving the field of psychiatry and medicine as a whole. However, the advances in human medicine have not been capitalised upon yet in animal husbandry practice. Of specific attention are the implications that these biological systems have for creating and maintaining heightened pain states. This review will outline the key concepts of brain–immune communication and the immediate opportunities targeting this biology can have for husbandry practices, with a specific focus on pain.
The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a fast-acting intervention for major depressive disorder. Previous studies indicated neurotrophic effects following ECT that might contribute to changes in white matter brain structure. We investigated the influence of ECT in a non-randomized prospective study focusing on white matter changes over time.
Twenty-nine severely depressed patients receiving ECT in addition to inpatient treatment, 69 severely depressed patients with inpatient treatment (NON-ECT) and 52 healthy controls (HC) took part in a non-randomized prospective study. Participants were scanned twice, approximately 6 weeks apart, using diffusion tensor imaging, applying tract-based spatial statistics. Additional correlational analyses were conducted in the ECT subsample to investigate the effects of seizure duration and therapeutic response.
Mean diffusivity (MD) increased after ECT in the right hemisphere, which was an ECT-group-specific effect. Seizure duration was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) following ECT. Longitudinal changes in ECT were not associated with therapy response. However, within the ECT group only, baseline FA was positively and MD negatively associated with post-ECT symptomatology.
Our data suggest that ECT changes white matter integrity, possibly reflecting increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier, resulting in disturbed communication of fibers. Further, baseline diffusion metrics were associated with therapy response. Coherent fiber structure could be a prerequisite for a generalized seizure and inhibitory brain signaling necessary to successfully inhibit increased seizure activity.
Schizophrenia is a complex syndrome of unknown etiology and difficult to manage. Unconjugated bilirubin has been researched as a potential biological marker of this syndrome. The objective of this review article was to gather the studies published to date on the relationship between this molecule and schizophrenia. Broad inclusion criteria have been used (PRISMA) to include as many relevant studies as possible. Fourteen studies were selected: 3 analyzed the effects of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in animal models; 6 demonstrated an increased incidence of schizophrenia in patients with increased unconjugated bilirubin; 2 reported an increased incidence of the disease in patients with decreased unconjugated bilirubin; and 3 linked an increased incidence of schizophrenia with an increased excretion of the oxidative product of bilirubin, the so-called biopyrrins. Because of apparently contradictory reported results, the hypothesis that the relationship between schizophrenia and unconjugated bilirubin was not linear and that there was an inflammatory dysfunction explaining this was considered. The 2 most accepted models for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are described, and the possible role of the molecule in each is clarified. The bilirubin buffer system and its role in antioxidant defense was explored. The average levels of unconjugated bilirubin in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder were also compared, having been hypothesized that these diseases could be different points of a same pathological spectrum. Finally, it was concluded that unconjugated bilirubin is a promising molecule that could be used as a possible biological marker for schizophrenia, and the necessity of subsequent efforts for its research was considered.
Optimising micronutrient status globally is a major health priority. Nutritional biomarkers are critical for the identification of nutrient inadequacies in light of the limitations of dietary assessment methods. Early diagnosis and prevention of nutrient inadequacies require sensitive, validated and harmonised methods to determine and monitor micronutrient status in individual healthcare and population-based surveys. Important criteria in the identification, validation and implementation of nutritional biomarkers include the testing of biomarker specificity and sensitivity, and their response to dietary as well as physiologic changes, e.g. age or pregnancy. Nutritional status can be categorised into deficient, suboptimal, adequate and excess status, where appropriate, and provided cut-offs are available. Cut-offs are quantitative measures to reflect health outcomes and are important in validating nutritional surveys, interventions and monitoring of populations. For many biomarkers, available cut-offs have limited interpretability and are most commonly derived in adult populations only. For the comparison of studies from across the globe, the harmonisation of analytical methods is essential and can be realised with the use of internationally available reference material and interlaboratory comparison studies. This narrative review describes current efforts on identifying and validating existing and new biomarkers, the derivation of biomarker cut-offs, and international efforts on harmonisation of laboratory methods for biomarker quantitation and their interpretation, in the example of B-vitamins. Establishing sensitive, reliable and cost-efficient biomarkers and related cut-offs for use in populations across the globe are critical to facilitating the early diagnosis of micronutrient inadequacies on the clinical and community-based level for timely intervention and disease prevention.
Limitations in our capacity to predict the occurrence of suicidal behavior constitute a major problem in the prevention of suicide. Due to their extremely limited predictive value, ratings scales and clinical measures are not available for practical use. This is an area in which neuroscience can be expected to contribute substantially via the identification of biomarkers using genetic and brain imaging techniques. Recent studies using genetic approaches suggest the existence of specific biomarkers that can be detected in the blood. In addition, findings from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies indicate functional impairments with increasing specificity in association with suicidal behavior. Biomarkers can be expected to contribute substantially to the devlopment of accurate prediction in the context of personalized medicine.
Unbalanced metabolic status in the weeks after calving predisposes dairy cows to metabolic and infectious diseases. Blood glucose, IGF-I, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are used as indicators of the metabolic status of cows. This work aims to (1) evaluate the potential of milk mid-IR spectra to predict these blood components individually and (2) to evaluate the possibility of predicting the metabolic status of cows based on the clustering of these blood components. Blood samples were collected from 241 Holstein cows on six experimental farms, at days 14 and 35 after calving. Blood samples were analyzed by reference analysis and metabolic status was defined by k-means clustering (k=3) based on the four blood components. Milk mid-IR analyses were undertaken on different instruments and the spectra were harmonized into a common standardized format. Quantitative models predicting blood components were developed using partial least squares regression and discriminant models aiming to differentiate the metabolic status were developed with partial least squares discriminant analysis. Cross-validations were performed for both quantitative and discriminant models using four subsets randomly constituted. Blood glucose, IGF-I, NEFA and BHB were predicted with respective R2 of calibration of 0.55, 0.69, 0.49 and 0.77, and R2 of cross-validation of 0.44, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.70. Although these models were not able to provide precise quantitative values, they allow for screening of individual milk samples for high or low values. The clustering methodology led to the sharing out of the data set into three groups of cows representing healthy, moderately impacted and imbalanced metabolic status. The discriminant models allow to fairly classify the three groups, with a global percentage of correct classification up to 74%. When discriminating the cows with imbalanced metabolic status from cows with healthy and moderately impacted metabolic status, the models were able to distinguish imbalanced group with a global percentage of correct classification up to 92%. The performances were satisfactory considering the variables are not present in milk, and consequently predicted indirectly. This work showed the potential of milk mid-IR analysis to provide new metabolic status indicators based on individual blood components or a combination of these variables into a global status. Models have been developed within a standardized spectral format, and although robustness should preferably be improved with additional data integrating different geographic regions, diets and breeds, they constitute rapid, cost-effective and large-scale tools for management and breeding of dairy cows.
An index of biomarkers derived from dietary factors (diet–biomarker-related index) identifies foods and nutrients that encompass physiological potentials and provides scientific evidence for dietary patterns that increase the risk of disease associated with specific biomarkers. Although men and women have different dietary patterns and physiological characteristics, sex is not often considered when investigators develop a diet–biomarker-related index. We aimed to review whether epidemiological studies developed diet–biomarker-related indices in a sex-specific way.
We systematically searched for epidemiological studies that developed diet–biomarker-related indices, including (i) biomarker prediction indices that include dietary factors as explanatory variables and (ii) dietary patterns to explain biomarker variations, in the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We qualitatively reviewed the sex consideration in index development.
We identified seventy-nine studies that developed a diet–biomarker-related index. We found that fifty-four studies included both men and women. Of these fifty-four studies, twenty-nine (53·7 %) did not consider sex, eleven (20·3 %) included sex in the development model, seven (13·0 %) considered sex but did not include sex in the development model, and seven (13·0 %) derived a diet–biomarker-related index for men and women separately. A list of selected dietary factors that explained levels of biomarkers generally differed by sex in the studies that developed a diet–biomarker-related index in a sex-specific way.
Most studies that included both men and women did not develop the diet–biomarker-related index in a sex-specific way. Further research is needed to identify whether a sex-specific diet–biomarker-related index is more predictive of the disease of interest than an index without sex consideration.
To compare the performance of the commonly used 24 h recall (24hR) with the more distinct duplicate portion (DP) as reference method for validation of fatty acid intake estimated with an FFQ.
Intakes of SFA, MUFA, n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid (LA) were estimated by chemical analysis of two DP and by on average five 24hR and two FFQ. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and LA were used to objectively compare ranking of individuals based on DP and 24hR. Multivariate measurement error models were used to estimate validity coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ with the DP and 24hR as reference methods.
Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Ninety-two men and 106 women (aged 20–70 years).
Validity coefficients for the fatty acid estimates by the FFQ tended to be lower when using the DP as reference method compared with the 24hR. Attenuation factors for the FFQ tended to be slightly higher based on the DP than those based on the 24hR as reference method. Furthermore, when using plasma fatty acids as reference, the DP showed comparable to slightly better ranking of participants according to their intake of n-3 fatty acids (0·33) and n-3:LA (0·34) than the 24hR (0·22 and 0·24, respectively).
The 24hR gives only slightly different results compared with the distinctive but less feasible DP, therefore use of the 24hR seems appropriate as the reference method for FFQ validation of fatty acid intake.
In this research communication we exploited the potential use of milk microRNAs (miRs) as biomarkers for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). bTB is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis which affects animal health, influencing herd economic sustainability. Diagnosis is based on skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and quantification of interferon gamma but both techniques are influenced by several confounding factors. Thus, new methods for early diagnosis are required. In this context, microRNAs have been used as promising biomarkers for both infectious and non-infectious diseases. To determine the possible involvement of microRNAs in bTB, we analysed the expression of four immune-related miRs in 200 cows grouped in cases and controls with respect to positivity to tuberculosis. The analysis showed a different magnitude of expression in the groups indicating that active tuberculosis could influence miRs expression. We used expression values of miR-146a, the highest differentially expressed miR, for Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. In order to determine a test cut-off value for miR-146a expression that would differentiate cases and controls, a value for the miR-146a expression higher than 8 was selected as this gave a test specificity and sensitivity of 80·0% and 86·0% respectively. These values confirm the possibility of using miR-146a as a milk prognostic biomarker for bovine tuberculosis.
The work reported in this Research Communication describes the modification in epithelial cell populations during the first and the last month of milking in Holstein Friesian cows that have undergone different management during the dry period, and we report the differential expression of CD49f+ and cytokeratin18+ cell subpopulations. Twenty six cows were randomly divided into 2 balanced groups that were housed at stocking density of either 11 m2 (CTR) or 5 m2 from 21 ± 3 d before the expected calving until calving. Cells collected from milk samples taken in early lactation and late lactation were directly analysed for CD45, CD49f, cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 18 and cell viability. We observed a differential expression with a significant reduction in CD49f+ (P < 0·01) and cytokeratin 18+ (P < 0·05) cells in early lactation. Differences were still evident in late lactation but were not significant. These observations suggest that mammary epithelial cell immunophenotypes could be associated with different animal management in the dry period and we hypothesise they may have a role as biomarkers for mammary gland function in dairy cows.
People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience, in addition to the progressive loss of cognitive functions, a decline in functional performance such as mobility impairment and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Functional decline in dementia is mainly linked to the progressive brain pathology. Peripheral biomechanical changes by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been suggested but have yet to be thoroughly studied.
A multi-center, longitudinal, one-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in 144 people with early stage AD or mixed Alzheimer's/Vascular dementia. Linear mixed model analyses was used to study associations between AGE-levels (AGE reader) and mobility (Timed Up and Go), and ADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and Barthel index), respectively.
A significant association between AGE levels and mobility (β = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.43–5.73) was revealed; however, no significant association between AGE levels and ADL was found. Over a one-year time span, mean AGE levels significantly increased, and mobility and ADL performance decreased. Change in AGE levels was not significantly correlated with change in mobility.
This study indicates that high AGE levels could be a contributing factor to impaired mobility but lacks evidence for an association with ADL decline in people with early stage AD or mixed dementia. Future research is necessary on the reduction of functional decline in dementia regarding the effectiveness of interventions such as physical activity programs and dietary advice possibly in combination with pharmacologic strategies targeting AGE accumulation.
The identification of biomarkers for depression is of great clinical relevance as the diagnosis is currently subjective. Recent research points towards sortilin as a potential biomarker for depression, and the aim of the current study was to investigate the serum sortilin level in response to antidepressant treatment.
The study included 56 depressed individuals of which 41 responded to treatment. Depression scores and serum levels of sortilin were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 13.
The depression score and response to treatment were not predicted by the sortilin level. Likewise, we observed no significant change in serum sortilin levels following 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, no association between the serum sortilin level and depression score was observed.
The results do not point towards sortilin as a state-dependent biomarker.
Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in young adolescents (age 12–17 years) with either FEP (N = 27) or ADHD (N = 28) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 43). The MMN paradigm consisted of a four-tone auditory oddball task with deviant stimuli based on frequency, duration and their combination.
Significantly less MMN was found in patients with psychosis compared to healthy controls in response to frequency and duration deviants. MMN amplitudes in the group of patients with ADHD were not significantly different from patients with psychosis or healthy controls. No significant group differences were found on P3a amplitude.
Young adolescents with FEP showed impaired MMN compared to healthy controls while intermediate and overlapping levels of MMN were observed in adolescents with ADHD. The findings suggest that young FEP patients already exhibit pre-attentive deficits that are characteristic of schizophrenia albeit expressed on a continuum shared with other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT−HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β1) and rates of HR increase (β2) and decrease (β3, β4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β2 (−0.34 v. −0.20) than high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI yearling heifers had similar acute stress HR means and a lower β1 (0.003 v. 0.006) than high-RFI yearling heifers. Overnight HR and acute stress HR are potential indicators of RFI in heifer calves. However, acute stress HR results varied in yearling heifers, suggesting previous handling experience and/or age influence stress response. Pending further development (predictive ability, repeatability), the acute stress assessment could have potential for on-farm application as a feed efficiency proxy in young heifers with minimal handling experience.
The product of the G72 gene is an activator of d-amino acid oxidase and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increased G72 protein levels may be associated with disturbed glutamatergic transmission and increased reactive oxygen species. Only one pilot study by Lin et al. has investigated the potential role of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare serum G72 protein levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to retest the results of the previous pilot study.
Materials and methods
In total, 107 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 60 age–sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were compared regarding serum G72 protein levels.
The mean serum G72 protein values were 495.90±152.03 pg/ml in the schizophrenia group and 346.10±102.08 pg/ml in the healthy control group. The mean serum G72 protein level was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (t=−3.89, p<0.001). A receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to compare the schizophrenia and healthy control groups. It was determined that the cut-off value was 141.51 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.991 and a specificity of 0.821.
We suggest that serum G72 protein levels may represent a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia and have confirmed the results of the previous preliminary study. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and the inclusion of first episode schizophrenia patients are required to clarify the reliability and validity of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia.
The present study aims to identify the role of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and fractalkine in CHD-associated pulmonary hypertension in children.
This is a prospective review of 37 children with CHD-related pulmonary hypertension, 21 children with congenital heart defects, and 22 healthy children.
Serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the children with CHD-related pulmonary hypertension (respectively, p=0.049 and 0.026). Serum C-reactive protein concentrations correlated negatively with ejection fraction (r=−0.609, p=0.001) and fractional shortening (r=−0.452, p=0.007) in the pulmonary hypertension group. Serum fractalkine concentrations correlated negatively with ejection fraction (r=−0.522, p=0.002) and fractional shortening (r=−0.395, p=0.021) in the children with pulmonary hypertension. Serum interleukin-6 concentrations also correlated negatively with Qs (r=−0.572, p=0.021), positively with Rs (r=0.774, p=0.001), and positively with pulmonary wedge pressure (r=0.796, p=0.006) in the pulmonary hypertension group. A cut-off value of 2.2 IU/L for C-reactive protein was able to predict pulmonary hypertension with 77.5% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity. When the cut-off point for interleukin-6 concentration was 57.5 pg/ml, pulmonary hypertension could be predicted with 80% sensitivity and 75% specificity.
Inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 may have a role in the clinical evaluation of paediatric pulmonary hypertension related to CHDs.