To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Macroalgae play important ecological roles, including as hosts for a wide range of epifauna. However, the diversity relationships between macroalgae and epifauna are poorly understood for most tropical host species and algal morphologies. This study aims to characterize and analyse the diversity of invertebrates present amongst macroalgae with three distinct morphologies (three-dimensional, filamentous and foliose) across different tropical intertidal sites in Singapore. Morphological and DNA barcoding tools were employed for epifaunal species identification, and ordination statistics and multiple linear regression were used to test the effects of algal morphology, species and site on community structure and diversity of epiphytic invertebrates. Overall, epifaunal communities were distinct among sites and algal morphologies, and diversity was affected significantly by algal morphology. In particular, filamentous macroalgae hosted the highest abundance of epifauna dominated mainly by amphipods, which were able to take advantage of the high surface area to volume ratio in filamentous algal mats as a consequence of their thinner forms. Foliose species showed a significantly negative effect on invertebrate diversity. Our findings highlight the diverse associations between intertidal macroalgae and invertebrates with high turnover between algal morphology and sites that contribute to the high biodiversity of tropical shores. Future studies should consider the effects of the host habitat, seasonality and more algal species on epifaunal diversity.
The first record of the ophiuroid family Ophiohelidae from the Mediterranean Sea is reported. It consists of the description of the new record of Ophiomyces grandis from the Mallorca Channel seamounts in the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean, where it shows high abundances. We present both the morphological description of the individuals collected and, for the first time, the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of this species. The morphological traits of our specimens match the available descriptions of O. grandis. On the other hand, molecular analyses show a large genetic distance between O. grandis and Ophiomyces delata, the two species being very similar morphologically. Despite the high abundances of O. grandis reported here, previous surveys in the Mallorca Channel seamounts using ROV did not detect it, emphasizing the importance of beam trawl sampling to improving the biodiversity description of these geomorphological sea bottom features.
The Bay of Málaga is located in a high biodiversity and productivity area that harbours a wide variety of commercial species exploited by different fishing fleets. Benthic and demersal fauna from circalittoral soft bottoms have been studied using a benthic dredge (BD) (8 sampling stations) and an otter trawl (OT) (8 sampling stations on a seasonal basis). Some sediment and water column variables, as well as the trawling activity, have also been studied and used for analysing their linkage with the fauna. A total of 287 species have been found in these bottoms and fish, molluscs and crustaceans represented the most diverse and abundant faunistic groups. A new record of the decapod Hippolyte leptometrae for Spanish waters is also included in this study. Some multivariate analyses using BD samples indicated the presence of three assemblages, but these seem to represent different facies of a single benthic community due to the absence of acute sediment changes and significant differences in the fauna. OT samples only displayed differences related to seasons but not to sediment types or depth. These seasonal differences seem to be linked to biological and ecological features of both dominant and/or commercial species. Mud and organic matter contents (%OM) in sediment, as well as the temperature, were the main variables linked to the spatial distribution of the benthic community identified with BD, whereas medium and coarse sand as well as gravel contents were the main variables linked to the changes of the epibenthic and demersal assemblage resulting from OT samples. The information of this study is of importance for improving the knowledge on the biodiversity of circalittoral soft bottoms of the Mediterranean and Alboran Sea as well as for the potential creation of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in the Bay of Málaga.
The new species Begonia maguniana H.P.Wilson from New Guinea is described. It is endemic to the Central Range of New Guinea at altitudes of c.1700–2300 m and belongs to the IUCN category Least Concern.
The rocky intertidal of the Argentinean coast extends 7,000 km from Río de la Plata (36°S) to Tierra del Fuego (54°S). Intertidal rocky platforms increase in frequency and extent from north to south. In the north, part of this extension has a microtidal nature changing to meso- and macro-tidal in southern Patagonia. The rocky shores of Argentina are characterised by low biodiversity and low biomass compared with other parts of the world. There is an increase in biodiversity at high latitudes, an opposite trend to the current paradigm. Facilitation, competition and grazers shape these patterns at local scales, while there are few predators and their size is frequently small, having lower effects than predators in other coasts. The role of invasive species and anthropogenic impacts on the rocky shores are reviewed as well as the global change effect along the coast. We conclude by considering the knowledge gaps and the special features of Argentine rocky shores which are shaped by their environmental setting and phylogeographic history leading to low diversity, missing functional groups for some taxa and a gradient of increasing diversity towards the poles.
Despite its long coastline, relatively little is known about mainland China’s intertidal communities compared to Europe and the United States, although more is known from Taiwan and Hong Kong. In general, northern areas are dominated by temperate species, with tropical species in the south and subtropical areas supporting a diversity of species from both regions. Studies of intertidal systems are in their infancy, developing since the 1930s and particularly after the 1960s with a primary focus on taxonomy and distribution patterns. While species lists and distributions have been available for mainland China since the 1930s, and more recently Taiwan and Hong Kong, many of these are outdated and recent approaches reveal many cryptic species complexes. Basic information of spatial and temporal patterns is available, but is focussed on few locations, while larger-scale or temporally replicated studies are rare, with Hong Kong being an exception. As a result, we know a lot about a few small areas, and have often used this to generalise much larger areas. This bias is even more true for studies investigating intertidal processes. Clearly, this is an under-studied region and, given the unprecedented anthropogenic pressures it faces, we may already be documenting a highly degraded intertidal system.
While constant change characterises ecology, subtidal ecologists seem set to take a deep dive in to the biological processes that accelerate and compensate for environmental change. Similar to the technological and collaborative progress that benefited the present generation of authors, continuing progress may assist future generations of subtidal ecologists to figure out why kelp forests are characterised by global mosaics of long-term loss, gain and stasis. Where and how might kelp decline or flourish or simply persist future ocean change? Our review takes a biogeographic perspective to synthesise ecological patterns and the processes that create them. On this basis, we consider the modification of ecological processes by oceans undergoing physical and chemical change and, as a result, consider their future ecology. We find that future oceans will make life beyond the capacity of kelp to exist on many coasts, but not all coasts will be beyond the capacity of a kelp’s life. Consequently, this review provides a sign post for future research into the future decline or persistence or even increase of kelp forests.
Climate change and heavy anthropic pressures are giving rise to important modifications in the rocky benthic communities of the Mediterranean Sea. In particular, sponge assemblages have been deeply affected due to the susceptibility of some species to dramatic phenomena such as mass mortalities or widespread variations in the abundance of other species. For this reason, long-term biodiversity monitoring of the sponge assemblages is important for understanding the direction of changes over time. We studied the sponge fauna living off Tricase Porto (Otranto Strait) and compared its composition with the results of a study conducted in the same area 50 years ago. The comparison indicated that the sponge diversity of this area has strongly increased in the last 50 years and a large number of the sponges recorded in the old survey are still present in the recent community. This evidence matches with other results obtained from different localities of the Mediterranean Sea indicating an increase of sponge diversity, possibly due to the present water warming. The description of two new Demosponge species, Diplastrella boeroi sp. nov. and Spirastrella angulata sp. nov., is also provided.
In the tropics, limestone caves in karstic areas are known for their unique biodiversity. However, many caves remain unstudied and little is known about underlying gradients that determine diversity and biomass in aquatic microhabitats. Here, we sampled zooplankton and benthos in a set of 12 aquatic caves, locally called closed cenotes in Yucatán, Mexico. Our aim was to explain diversity patterns and differences in biomass with particular attention for correlations between bat colony characteristics and other biota. Compared with caves that support photosynthesis, diversity was low with an average of four planktonic and two benthic species in these dark caves. Undetectable phosphorus concentrations in the water suggest this nutrient is limiting. Several associations hint at a potential link between bat abundance and functional guild composition, water quality and aquatic biota. As such, more bats were linked to higher nitrate concentrations. Yet this was not translated to higher invertebrate biomass, probably since phosphorus is limiting. Overall, the trends found in this survey suggest that bats could be important as fertilizers of the caves although mechanistic links that mediate the flux of nutrients need to be confirmed experimentally.
Cosmopolitan habitat-forming taxa of algae such as the genus Corallina provide an opportunity to compare patterns of biodiversity over wide geographic scales. Nematode assemblages inhabiting Corallina turves were compared between the south coasts of the British Isles and South Korea. A fully nested design was used with three regions in each country, two shores in each region and replicate samples taken from three patches on each shore to compare differences in the taxonomic and biological trait composition of nematode assemblages across scales. A biological traits approach, based on functional diversity of nematodes, was used to make comparisons between countries, among regions, between shores and among patches. The taxonomic and biological trait compositions of nematode assemblages were significantly different across all spatial scales (patches, shores, regions and countries). There is greater variation amongst nematode assemblages at the scale of shore than at other spatial scales. Nematode assemblage structure and functional traits are influenced by the local environmental factors on each shore including sea-surface temperature, the amount of sediment trapped in Corallina spp. and tidal range. The sea-surface temperature and the amount of sediment trapped in Corallina spp. were the predominant factors determining nematode abundance and composition of assemblages and their functional diversity.
During the expedition POS397 ‘GroMet’ in 2010 the sediments of the Great Meteor Seamount (GMS) plateau were sampled quantitatively for the first time, allowing statistical analysis of the community structure of Harpacticoida and Canuelloida. Analysis of similarity revealed no differences between three geographic regions at family/species level. Analysis of diversity indicated slightly greater diversity in the south, with more species belonging to more genera/families. Dispersal opportunities possibly occurring at the plateau (emergence, erosion, rafting) are discussed. Of 18 investigated families 106 species were identified, but only 5.66% were already scientifically known and widely distributed. Within the investigated families, 37.74% of the species belonged to shallow-water genera, leading to the conclusion that the plateau was once connected to shallow-water habitats, perhaps functioning as a stepping stone, but is now geographically isolated. This isolation is most likely due to seafloor spreading of the Atlantic Ocean and descending of the GMS. On the plateau, six species with wider distribution ranges were present, indicating that species may arrive accidentally, but their means of settlement remains unknown. Comparisons of the identified GMS plateau fauna with that of other seamounts and mid-oceanic islands revealed similar communities at family level, but at species level the GMS shares only one species with the Seine Seamount; all other elevations had more species in common. Hence, the GMS plateau is considered to be isolated regarding benthic Copepoda but may play an important role in meiofaunal species distribution, as it represents a shallow-water habitat within the deep sea.
Intraspecific and interspecific cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a biotechnique with great possibilities for wild mammals because it allows the maintenance of biodiversity by recovering species, nuclear reprogramming for the production of pluripotency-induced cells, and studies related to embryonic development. Nevertheless, many areas in cloning, especially those associated with wild mammals, are still in question because of the difficulty in obtaining cytoplasmic donor cells (or cytoplasts). Conversely, donor cell nuclei (or karyoplasts) are widely obtained from the skin of living or post-mortem individuals and often maintained in somatic cell banks. Moreover, the creation of karyoplast–cytoplast complexes by fusion followed by activation and embryo development is one of the most difficult steps that requires further clarification to avoid genetic failures. Although difficult, cloning different species, such as wild carnivores and ungulates, can be successful via iSCNT with embryo development and the birth of offspring. Thus, novel research in the area that contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and knowledge of the physiology of species continues. The present review presents the failures and successes that occurred with the application of the technique in wild mammals, with the goal of helping future work on cloning via iSCNT.
The basis for the Global Environmental Accounts (GENA) that are proposed in this book are the internationally agreed System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA). However, some economic terminology and the focus on the national boundaries are removed from the framework. This chapter also looks at stock/flow accounting and the network perspective of species and ecosystems as well as the idea of planetary boundaries and other environmental limits to nature and resources.
The previous chapters have shown that there is one powerful community (“the GDP multinational") which is being challenged by a heterogeneous and weakly organised community (“the Beyond-GDP cottage industry). The ever-expanding range of Beyond-GDP initiatives will not lead to success however. A new strategy is based on the GDP success story and aims to create an institutionalised community with a clear goal and coherent structure based on a common language. The chapter argues that the community should not be based on the SDGs, green accounting or the SEEA. It also argues that the community should not be based on economic terminology and theory but rather on multidisciplinary building blocks such as stock/flow accounting, networks and limits. The aim of the community is to enhance well-being and sustainability and one of its most important features is its common language: the System of Global and National Accounts (SGNA). The SGNA has four system accounts (environment, society, economy and distribution), which describe how the systems are developing. However, this does not yet tell people whether the developments are good or bad. This is left to the quality accounts.
Macrophytes provide a habitat for many species of marine invertebrates, the gastropods being one of the main components. This study provides new information about Sargassum-associated gastropod biodiversity, through characterization of the fauna from a highly impacted area of Brazil, investigating its variation at a small spatial scale and between two main seasons of the year, as well as its relationship with macroalgae parameters. Density of gastropods was higher during the warmest season and varied throughout sampling sites. A significant and positive, however weak, relationship between gastropod density and Sargassum dry weight was found in all localities. For all sites, a marked and unusual dominance of Bittiolum varium was observed. The high dominance of this species seems to be related to the impacts caused by shipping activities and highway construction in the 1970s and 1980s, which caused a decline in local species diversity that seems to have continued until now. Many species, both typical of these habitats and characteristic of other, nearby habitats, benefit from Sargassum sp. These macrophytes allow gastropods to establish and grow during their most vulnerable stages, as shown by the growth series and juvenile forms found for most species of gastropods. The present data highlight the importance of macrophyte habitats for gastropod biodiversity in coastal areas and call attention to the importance of raising knowledge on this fauna, especially in impacted areas, thus contributing to the conservation of these highly diverse and ecologically important macrophyte–gastropod systems.
A new species, Begonia rheophytica (§ Platycentrum), is described from northern Myanmar; it was initially confused with B. rhoephila, which is confined to Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison with other species with a rheophytic leaf shape is made. This new addition brings the number of currently recognised Begonia species in Myanmar to 73. An updated checklist of Myanmar Begonia species is also included.
Evidence has been slowly accumulating that the urban home gardens of immigrants or transnational migrants in the USA conserve food plant diversity with roots in the developing world. Published species lists for home gardens indicate that, at least at the species level, this diversity is not novel but consists of widely grown, culturally important plant species that are also available through the horticultural trade. In 2018, we returned to the home garden of a Mexican-origin household in Chicago and confirmed the identity of a plant provisionally identified as Jaltomata darcyana during an earlier inventory of the garden. A recently named species of Central America, J. darcyana has not been previously recorded in cultivation. Collection of this species from a Chicago garden suggests that urban gardens may harbor other novel species awaiting documentation by urban ecologists and botanists.
Protected areas are frequently used loci for ecological and conservation research, with several national/international designations identifying scientific research as a key objective. For example, Ecological Stations (ESs) in Brazil are strictly protected areas with the explicit goals of protecting nature and hosting scientific research. Nevertheless, simply mandating scientific research does not necessarily translate into action. Here, we quantitatively assess the scientific productivity of ESs and identify the main socio-ecological factors associated with different levels of scientific research. Specifically, we adopt a multi-model inference approach with a hurdle regression model to independently evaluate the factors associated with the presence/absence of research and the volume of studies in ESs. Surprisingly, given their stated remit, a large proportion of ESs had little or no scientific productivity. Results also indicate that older ESs were more likely to be associated with published research and that the volume of publications was associated with the number of years since the first article was published. The presence of a management plan and a management council were also significant positive drivers of research. Our results strongly suggest that, despite their clear mandate, ESs are not effectively fulfilling their role as a policy instrument for generating valuable scientific data.
The Enenteridae Yamaguti, 1958 and Gyliauchenidae Fukui, 1929 exhibit an interesting pattern of host partitioning in herbivorous fishes of the Indo-West Pacific. Enenterids are known almost exclusively from fishes of the family Kyphosidae, a group of herbivorous marine fishes common on tropical and temperate reefs. In contrast, gyliauchenids are found in most of the remaining lineages of marine herbivorous fishes, but until the present study, had never been known from kyphosids. Here we report on the first species of gyliauchenid known from a kyphosid. Endochortophagus protoporus gen. nov., sp. nov. was recovered from the Western buffalo bream, Kyphosus cornelii (Whitley, 1944), collected off Western Australia. Kyphosus cornelii also hosts an enenterid, Koseiria allanwilliamsi Bray & Cribb, 2002, and is thus the first fish known in which enenterids and gyliauchenids co-occur. Molecular phylogenetic analyses place the new species close to those of Affecauda Hall & Chambers, 1999 and Flagellotrema Ozaki, 1936, but there is sufficient morphological evidence, combined with the unusual host, to consider it distinct from these genera. We discuss factors which may have contributed to the host partitioning pattern observed between enenterids and gyliauchenids.
An identification key to the 39 species of Menegazzia recorded for Australia and its offshore islands (including Tasmania) is presented. Distribution patterns are discussed and summarized. Mainland Australia supports 19 species, with seven endemics, and shares 12 species with Tasmania, six with New Zealand and one with South America. The new species, Menegazzia williamsii Kantvilas from New South Wales, is described and is characterized by an inflated, fragile, esorediate thallus containing stictic acid but lacking isopigmentosin, 2-spored asci and an inspersed epihymenium. In addition, M. hypernota Bjerke, formerly known only from New Zealand, is recorded from Tasmania for the first time.