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The coastline of the Korean Peninsula is influenced by three major oceanographic ecoregions, including the estuarine Yellow Sea ecoregion on the west coast, the warmer and saline East China Sea ecoregion on the south coast, and the cold East Sea ecoregion on the east coast. The influence of these marine ecoregions on the distribution of intertidal barnacles has not been extensively studied. The present study examines the biogeography of thoracican barnacles from intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, along the coasts of Korea. Twenty-one species in seven families were identified, including three species of coral-associated barnacles. Species composition varied significantly in the three marine ecoregions. Multivariate analysis showed barnacle assemblages were significant among the three ecoregions, although there are large overlaps of clusters between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecoregions. The estuarine species, Fistulobalanus albicostatus, occurred mainly in the Yellow Sea ecoregion; warm-water species, Tetraclita japonica, and sponge inhabiting barnacles Euacasta dofleini were observed in the East China Sea ecoregion; and cold-water species, Balanus rostratus and Perforatus perforatus, were found in the East Sea ecoregion. Four invasive barnacle species were recorded and the European barnacle Perforatus perforatus expanded its range northward from its recorded distribution nine years earlier. The cold-water species, Chthamalus dalli and Semibalanus cariosus, previously recorded in the East Sea ecoregion, were absent in the present survey. A trend of increasing seawater temperatures in Korean waters may have a significant impact on the distribution of cold-water species and enhance the northward invasion of P. perforatus.
To determine the impact of an educational programme for primary schools that explored the biodiversity of tomato, by promoting science and sensory education with three distinct varieties of it, in the acceptance of vegetables.
A randomised controlled study in which children were exposed to the educational programme (intervention group) or remained in the class, as usual (control group). The educational programme consisted of three sessions where children explained the observed differences between the three varieties of tomato and individual perceptions of their flavours based on sensory-based food education and by planning and implementing experiments to explain those differences. We tested the effects on both children’s willingness to try and their liking for tomato, and for lettuce and cabbage to study the carry-over effect, compared with the control group (Mann–Whitney U test; P < 0·05).
The study took place in public primary schools in Porto, Portugal.
Children in the third grade (8–13-year-old children) (n 136) were randomly assigned to intervention or control group.
Children in the intervention group reported significant increases in their willingness to try and liking for tomato compared to the control group (P < 0·05), but not for lettuce and cabbage (P > 0·05).
These results highlight the potential for fostering children’s acceptance of a vegetable by exploring biodiversity through science education. Further work may clarify the effects of exploring biodiversity on the consumption of vegetables and establish whether the results are stable over time and replicable across contexts and populations.
Narratives shape human understanding and underscore policy, practice and action. From individuals to multilateral institutions, humans act based on collective stories. As such, narratives have important implications for revisiting biodiversity. There have been growing calls for a ‘new narrative’ to underpin efforts to address biodiversity decline that, for example, foreground optimism, a more people-centred narrative or technological advances. This review presents some of the main contemporary narratives from within the biodiversity space to reflect on their underpinning categories, myths and causal assumptions. It begins by reviewing various interpretations of narrative, which range from critical views where narrative is a heuristic for understanding structures of domination, to advocacy approaches where it is a tool for reimagining ontologies and transitioning to sustainable futures. The work reveals how the conservation space is flush with narratives. As such, efforts to search for a ‘new narrative’ for conservation can be usefully informed by social science scholarship on narratives and related constructs and should reflect critically on the power of narrative to entrench old ways of thought and practice and, alternatively, make space for new ones. Importantly, the transformative potential of narrative may not lie in superficial changes in messaging, but in using narrative to bring multiple ways of knowing into productive dialogue to revisit biodiversity and foster critical reflection.
The new species Psoroma capense and P. esterhuyseniae are described from four alpine localities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and are the only known Psoroma species from Africa. The specimens were all collected from moist sites near watercourses, on cool and mostly south-facing cliffs. Psoroma capense resembles P. tenue in gross morphology but differs in the ascending thallus squamules, lack of secondary compounds and short-ellipsoid to ovoid ascospores. However, a phylogenetic analysis involving the markers ITS, nucLSU, mtSSU and Mcm7, comparing the only recent collection of P. capense with previously published sequences, shows that it belongs to the P. hypnorum lineage, with no known, closely related species. Psoroma esterhuyseniae resembles P. hypnorum but has subglobose to short-ellipsoid ascospores without apical perispore extensions. The two species are thought to have evolved from one or two long-distance dispersal events during the Pleistocene.
The global loss of biodiversity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity, and a multi-faceted strategy is needed to address the size and complexity of this problem. This paper draws on scholarship from the philosophy of science and environmental ethics to help address one aspect of this challenge: namely, the question of how to frame biodiversity loss in a compelling manner. The paper shows that the concept of biodiversity, like many scientific concepts, is value-laden in the sense that it tends to support some ethical or social values over others. Specifically, in comparison with other potential concepts, the biodiversity concept is tied more closely to the notion that nature has intrinsic value than to the idea that nature is valuable instrumentally or relationally. Thus, alternative concepts could prove helpful for communicating about biodiversity loss with those who emphasize different value systems. The paper briefly discusses five concepts that illustrate the potential for using different concepts in different contexts. Going forward, conservationists would do well to recognize the values embedded in their language choices and work with social scientists to develop a suite of concepts that can motivate the broadest swath of people to promote conservation.
The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets a framework of universal Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address challenges to society and the planet. Island invasive species eradications have well-documented benefits that clearly align with biodiversity conservation-related SDGs, yet the value of this conservation action for socioeconomic benefits is less clear. We examine the potential for island invasive vertebrate eradications to have ecological and socioeconomic benefits. Specifically, we examine: (1) how SDGs may have been achieved through past eradications; and (2) how planned future eradications align with SDGs and associated targets. We found invasive vertebrate eradication to align with 13 SDGs and 42 associated targets encompassing marine and terrestrial biodiversity conservation, promotion of local and global partnerships, economic development, climate change mitigation, human health and sanitation and sustainable production and consumption. Past eradications on 794 islands aligned with a median of 17 targets (range 13–38) by island. Potential future eradications on 292 highly biodiverse islands could align with a median of 25 SDG targets (range 15–39) by island. This analysis enables the global community to explicitly describe the contributions that invasive vertebrate management on islands can make towards implementing the global sustainable development agenda.
Rhamphobrachium (Rhamphobrachium) agassizii is reported from the Cantabrian Sea, Spain, from depths of 925–1207 m. This is its first record off the Iberian Peninsula and in European waters, representing its northernmost distribution in the North Atlantic Ocean to date. Previous reports of R. (R.) agassizii from the eastern and western North Atlantic demonstrate its apparent amphi-Atlantic distribution, which appears consistent with the distribution of the main Atlantic currents. It is a typical deep-water species with its deepest record at 2165 m from the Azores archipelago. The specimens were collected singly at two stations, attesting to the rarity of the species in contrast to its congener R. (Spinigerium) brevibrachiatum which was the most dominant polychaete species in a previous study.
This work aimed to test whether the colour variability featured by the European nudibranch Polycera quadrilineata is consistent with the concept of a single polychromatic species or may hide multiple lineages. Samples from across the geographic range of P. quadrilineata together with representatives from worldwide species with a focus on Atlantic diversity, were gathered and studied using an integrative taxonomic approach. Morpho-anatomical characters were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Bayesian molecular phylogenetics using MrBayes, the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery species delimitation method, and haplotype network analysis using the PopArt software were employed to help delimit species using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The results supported the existence of a second species, here described and named Polycera norvegica sp. nov., only known from Norway where it is sympatric with P. quadrilineata. The COI uncorrected p-genetic distance between the two species was estimated at 9.6–12.4%. Polycera norvegica sp. nov. differs by exhibiting a black dotted or patchy dotted pattern occasionally with more or less defined orange/brown patches, but never black continuous or dashed stripes as in P. quadrilineata. The two species share a common colouration with a whitish base and yellow/orange tubercles. Anatomically, P. norvegica sp. nov. has a weaker labial cuticle, a smaller radula with fewer rows, and only four marginal teeth, a reproductive system with a single lobed bursa copulatrix, shorter reproductive ducts, and a penis armed with two kinds of spines: needle-like and hook-shaped penile spines.
The ability of national governments to set and implement policies that protect biodiversity is currently facing widespread scepticism within the conservation movement. Here, we review the literature from several disciplines to outline a positive agenda for how the global conservation movement can address this. We combine the strengths of the people-centred and science-led conservation approaches to develop a framework that emphasizes the importance of ecological infrastructure for the long-term prosperity of human societies in an ever-changing world. We show that one of the major goals of the conservation movement (enhancing global ecological infrastructure to end species and ecosystem loss) remains central and irreplaceable within the broad sustainable development agenda. Then, we argue that the conservation community is now more prepared than ever to face the challenge of supporting societies in designing the ecological infrastructure they need to move towards more sustainable states. Because it is where global and local priorities meet, the national level is where impactful changes can be made. Furthermore, we point out two priorities for the conservation movement for the next decade: (1) substantially increase the amount of financial resources dedicated to conservation; and (2) advance the next generation of policies for ecological infrastructure.
The genera Ophiophragmus and Amphiodia are amphiurids that are considered taxonomically difficult due to their great resemblance, few diagnostic characters and synonymy problems. Our aim is to redescribe the species using scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of diagnostic structures, and to provide new information for the identification of these Ophiuroidea. Five Amphiodia spp. and six Ophiophragmus spp. recorded in Brazil were rigorously redescribed. The descriptions include new diagnostic characters derived from external morphology, arm microstructures and morphometry. We also provided comparative analyses of species with shared characters such as Amphiodia riisei and Amphiodia trychna. The geographic and bathymetric distributions of the studied species were updated, and new records are provided. All the information presented may be used in taxonomic, ecological and phylogenetic studies, helping to fill gaps in the knowledge of the biodiversity, ecology and evolution of these Ophiuroidea. Conclusively, all the tools applied here assisted in the identification of genera and species and could be useful in other taxonomic studies of Echinodermata.
Since its inception, the Arctic Council (AC) has focused on biodiversity, under its working group on the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna. By adopting a holistic, cross-sectoral approach to biodiversity governance, the AC has acknowledged that biodiversity is not only a matter for the Council and its governments: also non-state actors must be involved. This article analyses whether and how three essential non-state actors – science, business and NGOs – influence AC processes on Arctic biodiversity, comparing the roles of these actors on biodiversity governance in the wider international context. AC work on biodiversity has remained largely scientific, with fewer political commitments for states and the Council as such: science has had a significant influence, whereas there has been limited space for the involvement of the business sector. NGOs have served mainly as contributors and partners in scientific work, increasingly also assuming policy advocacy roles. This article notes the need for closer political cooperation on biodiversity in the AC, with firmer commitments for states and the AC, inspired by work in other AC focal areas.
A new species of Synarthonia, S. leproidica, is described from Luxembourg. Phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU and RPB2 sequences were used to determine the generic affiliation of this sterile species. Synarthonia leproidica differs from all other species of the genus by the combination of a leproid thallus and the production of psoromic acid. It is the sister species to S. muriformis in our phylogenetic analyses. The discovery of the new species suggests that other strictly sorediate lichen species might have been overlooked in Europe, even in intensely explored countries such as Luxembourg. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the placement of Reichlingia anombrophila in the genus Reichlingia and of Synarthonia astroidestera in the genus Synarthonia. Arthonia atlantica is transferred to the genus Reichlingia as R. dendritica.
In Chapter 6, William David looks at the inter-linkages between trade and environment in various FTAs and provides a thorough examination of new provisions in the environment chapters of regional trade agreements and how they may impact Indigenous peoples. Particular emphasis is placed on an exploration of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC), a side agreement of the NAFTA, as well as the CPTPP and the intersection between Indigenous rights, environmental law and ISDS under the NAFTA.
Droughts and land degradation result in biodiversity and ecosystem service losses with serious implications for human wellbeing. The Sahel region has seen increased plant cover since the end of 1970s–1980s droughts, but understanding the nature and implications of this change remains a priority. This study aimed to assess changes in the woody floristic composition of re-greened agrosystems since the droughts in Burkina Faso. In 148 vegetation survey plots distributed across areas with increasing woody plant cover and those to some extent protected from exploitation, a total of 71 species from 51 genera and 23 families were identified. Compared to pre-drought flora, our measurements show a decline in the diversity and density of woody species. Combretaceae species and thorny species of the genera Acacia and Balanites, which are more tolerant of drought, were the most dominant, indicating a post-drought woody vegetation that is more resistant to water stress. The increased presence of food-producing species in agroforestry parks (cultivated fields with woody plants) seems to reflect the growing needs of the human population.
In 1971 Norwegian ecophilosophers Sigmund Kvaløy, Arne Næss, and Nils Faarlund traveled to the periphery, to the faraway mountains of Nepal. It was a transformative experience for them. In the lives of the Sherpa, they saw an alternative environmentally friendly way of living. Upon their return to Norway they wrote about Sherpa life as an Oriental harmony juxtaposed with the harsh Occidental values of their own Western culture. This demarcation between Oriental ecological wisdom and the Occidental stupidity of the West eventually came to frame the deep-ecological debate at home and abroad. Sherpa life was to be a model for all Norwegians, and Sherpa-informed Norwegians were to be a subsequent model for the world.
Sets out the aims and objectives of the book, and the need it will fill. The scope is described in terms of topics included, geograpic coverage, literature consulted and cited (mainly 2005-2018), and other sources of reference (e.g. the IUCN Red List).
Growing human populations and higher demands for water impose increasing impacts and stresses upon freshwater biodiversity. Their combined effects have made these animals more endangered than their terrestrial and marine counterparts. Overuse and contamination of water, overexploitation and overfishing, introduction of alien species, and alteration of natural flow regimes have led to a 'great thinning' and declines in abundance of freshwater animals, a 'great shrinking' in body size with reductions in large species, and a 'great mixing' whereby the spread of introduced species has tended to homogenize previously dissimilar communities in different parts of the world. Climate change and warming temperatures will alter global water availability, and exacerbate the other threat factors. What conservation action is needed to halt or reverse these trends, and preserve freshwater biodiversity in a rapidly changing world? This book offers the tools and approaches that can be deployed to help conserve freshwater biodiversity.
The proliferation of disturbance-adapted species in human-modified landscapes may change the structure of plant communities, but the response of biodiversity to human disturbances remains poorly understood. We examine the proliferation of the palm, Syagrus coronata, in disturbed forest stands and its impacts on the structure of vascular epiphyte assemblages in a human-modified landscape of Brazilian Caatinga dry forest. First, we compared S. coronata density between old-growth and regenerating forest stands. We then surveyed vascular epiphytes on 680 phorophytes (S. coronata and non-palm/control species) across five habitat types with different disturbance levels. There was an eight-fold increase in S. coronata density in regenerating areas compared with in old-growth forest. Syagrus coronota supported richer epiphyte assemblages at local (i.e. per palm) and landscape (i.e. pooling all palms) scale than control phorophytes, supporting more than 11 times the number of species of control phorophytes at both scales. Epiphyte assemblages were more abundant, species-rich and dominated by abiotically dispersed species in forest sites with intermediate disturbance levels (regenerating forest stands). More than simply operating as an exclusive phorophyte for more than 90% of the epiphyte species we recorded here, S. coronata favours epiphyte persistence and structures their assemblages across human-modified landscapes of the Caatinga forest.
Since 2012, when Ophiothela was first described in the Atlantic, there has been no consensus regarding its identification. It has been described as O. mirabilis, O. cf. mirabilis, O. danae, or only Ophiothela sp. In order to fill these gaps, our aim was to test if specimens from Brazil are Ophiothela mirabilis and/or Ophiothela danae. Syntypes from the Museum of Comparative Zoology and United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, were used. We examined species boundaries of the small six-rayed brittle star Ophiothela using independent character sets utilizing morphology (external morphology and morphometry) and molecular data (16S and COI). Concordance was found between the analyses indicating that Ophiothela sp. from Brazil (BR), Ophiothela mirabilis and Ophiothela danae are closely related. We suggest that O. danae should be considered as a junior synonym of O. mirabilis. A detailed description of O. mirabilis BR is presented using external morphology and microstructural ossicles (arm plates, vertebra, dental and oral plates). This description includes new diagnostic features, particularly regarding its microstructures: (i) transspondylous articulation (first record in Ophiotrichidae); (ii) eight smooth knobs on the dorsal surface of the vertebrae (to date only in Ophiothela); (iii) vertebrae with distal keel divided into two separate end processes matching the two large dorsal grooves proximally (first time in the literature); and (iv) an opening on both sides of the oral plate (as seen in other fissiparous species Ophiactis savignyi and Ophiocomella ophiactoides).
The Order Suberitida is defined as a group of marine sponges without an obvious cortex, a skeleton devoid of microscleres, and with a deletion of a small loop of 15 base pairs in the secondary structure of the 28S rDNA as a molecular synapomorphy. Suberitida comprises three families and 26 genera distributed worldwide, but mostly in temperate and polar waters. Twenty species were reported along the entire Brazilian coast, and although the north-eastern coast of Brazil seems to harbour a rich sponge fauna, our current knowledge is concentrated along the south-eastern Atlantic coast. A survey was implemented along the northern coast of Brazil, and the collection allowed the identification of six species belonging to the Order Suberitida. Two of them are considered new to science: Suberites purpura sp. nov., Hymeniacidon upaonassu sp. nov., and four, Halichondria (Halichondria) marianae Santos, Nascimento & Pinheiro, 2018, Halichondria (H.) melanadocia de Laubenfels, 1936, Suberites aurantiacus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864), and Terpios fugax Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, are re-described. Taxonomic comparisons are made for Tropical Western Atlantic species and type species of the four genera. Finally, an identification key for the Western Atlantic Suberites species is provided.