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This chapter discusses the impact of collective culpability after the Korean War from a microhistocial perspective. It situates the proliferation of this technology of societal control within the broader Cold War global politics and offers a critical review of Michel Foucault’s thoughts on modern disciplinary technology.
This essay began as a blog post on Skeptic.com that I wrote after a series of debates I did with John Lott, who has emerged as one of the strongest opponents of gun-control measures and a regular guest on Fox News. The original blog included my PowerPoint slides and accompanying commentary that I used in my debates; here I primarily focus on my experiences debating Lott, drawing on some of the more poignant data slides I used to counter his thesis that more guns equals less crime. This is followed by a discussion of a more recent debate I did with a radical gun advocate named Michael Huemer, who made the argument for guns as a necessary bulwark against governmental tyranny, which I debunked in the previous essay. I did not fully understand where Lott and Huemer (or gun-rights advocates of any kind) were coming from until I read George Lakoff’s book Moral Politics, which lifted the scales from my eyes and enabled me to understand what both conservatives and liberals really want, and not just in the realm of gun control, but in all dominions of life. The final part of this essay addresses those insights.
Because plant phenotypes can change in response to attacks by herbivores in highly variable ways, the distribution of herbivores depends on the occurrence of other herbivore species on the same plant. We carried out a field study to evaluate the co-occurrence of three coconut pests, the mites Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae), Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and the moth Atheloca bondari (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The eriophyid mite Ac. guerreronis is the most important coconut pest around the world, whereas S. concavuscutum and At. bondari are economically important only in some areas along the Brazilian coast. A previous study suggested that the necrosis caused by Ac. guerreronis facilitates the infestation of At. bondari larvae. Because all three species infest the area under the perianths on coconuts and S. concavuscutum also causes necrosis that could facilitate At. bondari, we evaluated the co-occurrence of all three species. We found that the occurrence of At. bondari was positively associated with Ac. guerreronis, but negatively associated with S. concavuscutum. In addition, the two mite species showed negative co-occurrence. Atheloca bondari was found on nuts of all ages, but more on nuts that had fallen than on those on the trees, suggesting that nuts infested by At. bondari tend to fall more frequently. We discuss the status of At. bondari as a pest and discuss experiments to test the causes of these co-occurrence patterns.
Chapter 3 focuses on the history of the DNVP from the elections to the Weimar National Assembly to the Reichstag elections of June 1920. It deals in particular with the way in which the DNVP established itself as a party of “national opposition” at the National Assembly with particular attention to its positions on the Weimar Constitution and the Versailles Peace Treaty. It also examines the success with which hard-line conservatives around Count Westarp were able to assert themselves in the deliberations over the party program and in pushing back against efforts of the young conservatives around Ulrich von Hassell to shape the DNVP into a progressive conservative party free from the follies of the past. The chapter ends with the Kapp putsch in March 1920, the adoption of the party program a month later, and the Reichstag elections of June 1920 in which the DNVP improves upon its performance at the polls in the elections to the National Assembly.
In this chapter, we focus on how wireless communication resources (spectral, temporal, and power) can be optimized and managed in wireless networks that support UAVsWestart by analyzing a very unique problem related to wireless networks supported by hovering UAV base stations: Cell association in hover time constraints. We show how the presence of hover time constraints for the UAVs will drastically change the way in which cell association is performed. Then, we generalize the problem of cell association to a fully fledged 3D cellular system that integrates both UAV base stations and UAV user equipment. Subsequently, we investigate the problem of spectrum and cache management in a wireless network supported by UAV base stations that are able to access both licensed and unlicensed spectrum resources.
Behavioral genetic research unequivocally supports the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on psychopathology risk. Decomposition of the sources of these influences has largely been carried out using twin and adoption studies. Building off the results of these studies, molecular genetic methodologies have come to dominate the field with the goal of identifying genetic variants that causally influence psychopathology risk. The chapter summarizes the logic of both quantitative and molecular genetic methods as well as their major findings as related to clinical psychology. Traditional and modern methods for estimating heritability based on familial relationships are described. From there the challenge of finding causal genetic variants in the context of polygenic phenotypes, including psychopathology, emerges. The chapter concludes by discussing the interaction between genes and the environment as well as future directions in the field, including rare variant analysis and epigenetics. An emphasis is placed on interpretation of results and limitations of past and current methodologies. Behavioral genetic research has produced strong results regarding the importance of genetic factors on psychopathology while also highlighting the influence of the environment. Uncovering the causal sources of these effects remains a young but active area of research.
Chapter 7 examines the DNVP’s reaction to the stabilization of Germany’s republican system under the auspices of a new government formed by the Center Party’s Wilhelm Marx in January 1924. In the campaign for the May 1924 Reichstag elections, the DNVP not only did its best to dissociate itself from the anti-social consequences of stabilization, but moved racism and antisemitism to the forefront of its campaign in an attempt to preempt attacks from the racists that had bolted the party in 1922. The result was a stunning victory at the polls that made its delegation the largest in the Reichstag. But with success comes responsibility, and the DNVP was suddenly faced with the task of voting for the Dawes Plan, a plan that in the campaign it had denounced as a “second Versailles.” In the decisive vote in August 1924, the Nationalist delegation to the Reichstag split right down the middle in a dramatic turn of events that only highlighted how deeply divided the DNVP was as it faced the prospect of governmental responsibility.
The X chromosome is known to play an important role in many sex-specific diseases. However, only a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the X chromosome have been found to be associated with diseases. Compared to the autosomes, conducting association tests on the X chromosome is more intractable due to the difference in the number of X chromosomes between females and males. On the other hand, X-chromosome inactivation takes place in female mammals, which is a phenomenon in which the expression of one copy of two X chromosomes in females is silenced in order to achieve the same gene expression level as that in males. In addition, imprinting effects may be related to certain diseases. Currently, there are some existing approaches taking X-chromosome inactivation into account when testing for associations on the X chromosome. However, none of them allows for imprinting effects. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a robust test, ZXCII, which accounts for both X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting effects without requiring specifying the genetic models in advance. Simulation studies are conducted in order to investigate the validity and performance of ZXCII under various scenarios of different parameter values. The simulation results show that ZXCII controls the type I error rate well when there is no association. Furthermore, with regards to power, ZXCII is robust in all of the situations considered and generally outperforms most of the existing methods in the presence of imprinting effects, especially under complete imprinting effects.
This is the first book to explore an ethical dilemma that psychiatrists increasingly face in the age of Donald Trump: is it ethical to comment on the mental health of public figures? Psychiatrists may intervene when a patient is unsafe, but what is their role when a politician appears ill and is a risk to the country? The APA’s Goldwater Rule declares that when a psychiatrist is asked for an opinion on a public figure, it is unethical to comment – yet controversy rages on the issue. Diagnosing from a Distance probes the dramatic history and complex ethics of the issue. With accessible style yet scholarly substance, this book begins with Adolf Hitler; traces the debate over Barry Goldwater, including Goldwater’s libel suit against Fact magazine; explores the rise of professionalism in the formation of the Goldwater Rule; documents errant CIA profiling during the Nixon years; and examines the controversy over President Trump. In light of this history, this book proposes a humane alternative to the Goldwater Rule. Based on original interviews and archival sources, Diagnosing from a Distance will change the way you think about the First Amendment, the media, and psychiatric ethics.
In the 1960s and 1970s, consensus was growing about the need for professionalism and ethical standards in medicine and psychiatry. Using the APA’s archives, I show that the Fact episode of 1964 concerned the APA greatly. Not only did the APA write to Ginzburg and object to his special Fact issue on Goldwater, but it followed Ginburg’s subsequent career closely. The group adopted the Goldwater Rule in 1973 in order to prevent episodes like the Fact debacle. After the Rule’s adoption, disagreements over it emerged within the APA. Members wrote in apparent confusion to the APA Ethics Committee, seeking guidance on how the Rule applied to their work. The APA never contemplated applying the Rule to forensic psychiatry, to the work of psychiatrists in insurance companies, or to the practice of psychological profiling for the FBI and CIA. It was comment in the media, and the risk of damage to psychiatry’s public image, that concerned the APA. The result was the appearance of a double standard: individual psychiatrists are banned from commenting on public figures, while psychiatrists working for organizations and government agencies may comment without interview or consent.
This chapter examines the controversy over psychiatric comment on Donald Trump. In 2016, Trump’s election led many psychiatrists to grow concerned for the country’s safety and to argue that when the country is unsafe, commenting on a public figure’s mental health is in fact an ethical obligation. The APA, on the other hand, held firm to and even strengthened its ban on such comment. For my narrative and analysis, I draw on original interviews with APA officials – including medical director Saul Levin and ethics chair Rebecca Brendel – and with critics of the APA, including Bandy X. Lee, Judith Herman, Robert Jay Lifton, and Leonard Glass. Using this new material and looking at the age of Twitter, this chapter presents the first sustained analysis of the controversy and its importance for psychiatry, ethics, and journalism in the age of Trump. As I note, in recent years, several prominent figures have argued for a revision of the libel standard articulated in New York Times v. Sullivan. These figures include the late Justice Antonin Scalia, current Justice Clarence Thomas, and President Donald Trump himself – leaving the future of libel law contested, as it has been since 1964.
This chapter reviews the material presented in this book, including the history of novel legal doctrines; the use of libel law for political purposes; the interrelationship between politicians, media, and political followers; and the recurring debates over the ethics of comment from a distance. Goldwater was so far ahead of his time in understanding the political value of lawsuits that he anticipated the conservative legal movement of the 1980s. I then propose an alternative approach to the Goldwater Rule, drawing on the work of philosophers James Madison, John Rawls, Jacques Mauritain, and Martha Nussbaum to argue for a more liberal and tolerant guideline for psychiatric comment on public figures. The APsaA, in response to the Fact episode of 1964, adopted such a guideline under President Heinz Kohut. The result was a respectful and ethically coherent stance that has stood the test of time. Instead of banning comment outright as the APA’s Goldwater Rule does – a form of coercive paternalism in the sense described by philosopher Sarah Conley and others – I argue that the psychiatric community should respect the conscience of the individual psychiatrist acting in good faith.
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Several nutraceuticals have shown interesting clinical results in HF prevention as well as in the treatment of the early stages of the disease, alone or in combination with pharmacological therapy. The aim of the present expert opinion position paper is to summarise the available clinical evidence on the role of phytochemicals in HF prevention and/or treatment that might be considered in those patients not treated optimally as well as in those with low therapy adherence. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular HF treatment options were weighed up and graded according to predefined scales. A systematic search strategy was developed to identify trials in PubMed (January 1970 to June 2019). The terms ‘nutraceuticals’, ‘dietary supplements’, ‘herbal drug’ and ‘heart failure’ or ‘left verntricular dysfunction’ were used in the literature search. The experts discussed and agreed on the recommendation levels. Available clinical trials reported that the intake of some nutraceuticals (hawthorn, coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, d-ribose, carnosine, vitamin D, probiotics, n-3 PUFA and beet nitrates) might be associated with improvements in self-perceived quality of life and/or functional parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output in HF patients, with minimal or no side effects. Those benefits tended to be greater in earlier HF stages. Available clinical evidence supports the usefulness of supplementation with some nutraceuticals to improve HF management in addition to evidence-based pharmacological therapy.
Recent research has begun to investigate implicit learning at the level of meaning. The general consensus is that implicitly linking a word with a meaning is constrained by existing linguistic knowledge. However, another factor to consider is the extent to which attention is drawn to the relevant meanings in implicit learning paradigms. We manipulated the presence of cue saliency during implicit rule learning for a grammatical form (i.e., articles) linked to meaning (i.e., animacy vs. varying notions of size). In a series of experiments, participants learned four novel words but did not know that article usage also depended on a hidden rule, creating an opportunity for implicit rule learning. We found implicit learning through the use of a highly salient meaning (Experiment 1) or if image size was made salient by being explicitly cued (Experiment 3), but not in a low salient paradigm for intrinsic object size (Experiment 2). The findings suggest that implicit learning of semantic information might not be as constrained as previously argued. Instead, implicit learning might be additionally influenced by feature-focusing cues that make the meaning contrasts more salient and thereby more readily available to learning.
Chapter 6 “Associationalism (1983–2013)” reveals the limits of RJ’s institutionalization, and further highlights the ambiguity and reciprocity of the IRI’s state-society relations and associational life. While many of RJ’s former revolutionary activists and war veterans were absorbed into the expanding bureaucracy, some of them established and joined volunteer groups and civic associations at the grassroots level. Though claiming to be politically and financially independent, these organizations were established with the encouragement and backing of the IRI’s factionalized elites. While appropriating RJ’s developmental and populist rhetoric, ideology, and practice, these organizations helped political elites in their efforts to gain popular legitimacy, political support, and electoral votes by mobilizing and socializing youth, students, veterans, villagers, and other citizens. As an unintended consequence, these organizations exerted bottom-up pressures and demands on the political elites whom they had supported for increased and improved public goods and social services, and, in the process, represented a seedbed of authentic and autonomous activism and lobbying.
Psychiatric disorders as well as subcortical brain volumes are highly heritable. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for these traits have been performed. We investigated the genetic correlations between five psychiatric disorders and the seven subcortical brain volumes and the intracranial volume from large-scale GWASs by linkage disequilibrium score regression. We revealed weak overlaps between the genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders and subcortical brain and intracranial volumes, such as in schizophrenia and the hippocampus and bipolar disorder and the accumbens. We confirmed shared aetiology and polygenic architecture across the psychiatric disorders and the specific subcortical brain and intracranial volume.
Obsession and delusion are theoretically distinct from each other in terms of reality testing. Despite such phenomenological distinction, no extant studies have examined the identification of common and distinct neural correlates of obsession and delusion by employing biologically grounded methods. Here, we investigated dimensional effects of obsession and delusion spanning across the traditional diagnostic boundaries reflected upon the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using connectome-wide association studies (CWAS).
Our study sample comprised of 96 patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder, 75 patients with schizophrenia, and 65 healthy controls. A connectome-wide analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between obsession and delusion severity and RFSC using multivariate distance-based matrix regression.
Obsession was associated with the supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule, while delusion was associated with the precuneus. Follow-up seed-based RSFC and modularity analyses revealed that obsession was related to aberrant inter-network connectivity strength. Additional inter-network analyses demonstrated the association between obsession severity and inter-network connectivity between the frontoparietal control network and the dorsal attention network.
Our CWAS study based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides novel evidence for the circuit-level functional dysconnectivity associated with obsession and delusion severity across diagnostic boundaries. Further refinement and accumulation of biomarkers from studies embedded within the RDoC framework would provide useful information in treating individuals who have some obsession or delusion symptoms but cannot be identified by the category of clinical symptoms alone.
A consensus workshop on low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) was held in November 2018 where seventeen experts (the panel) discussed three themes identified as key to the science and policy of LCS: (1) weight management and glucose control; (2) consumption, safety and perception; (3) nutrition policy. The aims were to identify the reliable facts on LCS, suggest research gaps and propose future actions. The panel agreed that the safety of LCS is demonstrated by a substantial body of evidence reviewed by regulatory experts and current levels of consumption, even for high users, are within agreed safety margins. However, better risk communication is needed. More emphasis is required on the role of LCS in helping individuals reduce their sugar and energy intake, which is a public health priority. Based on reviews of clinical evidence to date, the panel concluded that LCS can be beneficial for weight management when they are used to replace sugar in products consumed in the diet (without energy substitution). The available evidence suggests no grounds for concerns about adverse effects of LCS on sweet preference, appetite or glucose control; indeed, LCS may improve diabetic control and dietary compliance. Regarding effects on the human gut microbiota, data are limited and do not provide adequate evidence that LCS affect gut health at doses relevant to human use. The panel identified research priorities, including collation of the totality of evidence on LCS and body weight control, monitoring and modelling of LCS intakes, impacts on sugar reduction and diet quality and developing effective communication strategies to foster informed choice. There is also a need to reconcile policy discrepancies between organisations and reduce regulatory hurdles that impede low-energy product development and reformulation.
The Thomas Jefferson Center Annual Reports credit the Volker Fund for a founding grant and the Earhart Foundation for providing critical support to graduate students. The Rockefeller Foundation supported Nutter’s NBER Soviet growth project and provided Tullock’s initial fellowship at the TJC. The Earhart Fellowship program has been neglected in previous histories of this period, perhaps because it was decentralized. The Foundation selected faculty sponsors to award graduate fellowship to students of their choice. The chapter presents the history of the fellowship program by major departments over the whole of the foundation’s existence. Harvard, Berkeley, and Columbia had fellows a year before the University of Chicago but Earhart fellowships at those institutions declined over time while those at Chicago and Virginia survived. Thus, the association of the Earhart Foundation with Chicago seems to be a result of a survival bias. The number of sponsors or fellows who were president of the American Economic Association or Nobel laureates is also remarkable. Earhart funded Nutter’s “rational debate” series exemplifying government by discussion at the early Virginia School.
Psychiatric disorders are a group of complex psychological syndromes with high prevalence. Recent studies observed associations between altered plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders. This study aims to systematically explore the potential genetic relationships between five major psychiatric disorders and more than 3,000 plasma proteins.
The genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of attention deficiency/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were driven from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. The GWAS datasets of 3,283 human plasma proteins were derived from recently published study, including 3,301 study subjects. Linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and each of the 3,283 plasma proteins.
LDSC observed several genetic correlations between plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD and lysosomal Pro-X carboxypeptidase (p value = 0.015), ASD and extracellular superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn; p value = 0.023), BD and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6 (p value = 0.007), MDD and trefoil factor 1 (p value = 0.011), and SCZ and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 (p value = 0.011). Additionally, we detected four common plasma proteins showing correlation evidence with both BD and SCZ, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (p value = 0.012 for BD, p value = 0.011 for SCZ).
This study provided an atlas of genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and plasma proteome, providing novel clues for pathogenetic and biomarkers, therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders.