To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Current research on the psychological health of near-centenarians (95−99 years old) and centenarians remains limited. Existing studies have mainly characterized their physical, cognitive, and social health. Results on the anxiety and depression of near-centenarians and centenarians (more than 95 years old) have been mixed with some studies, finding higher rates of anxiety and depression among those older than 95 years and others reporting no difference in rates compared with younger age groups. This study aims to synthesize the existing literature on the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians.
A systematic review was conducted using Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane database. Common and conflicting findings among the literature were examined.
Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, and 37 studies investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression. Five studies examined both anxiety and depression in the same sample. Prevalence data on anxiety and depression varied significantly, as did comparisons with rates in younger populations. Findings on predictors of anxiety and depression were contradictory.
There is a large degree of heterogeneity among studies of centenarians’ psychological status. Findings conflict on the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression and rates compared with younger age groups. Variation in findings may result from the different inclusion criteria, sampling methods, and measurement tools. Better harmonization of centenarian study methodologies may improve consistency of findings to aid in developing clinical interventions.
The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry is one of the oldest, national population-based twin registries in the USA. It comprises 15,924 White male twin pairs born in the years 1917–1927 (N = 31.848), both of whom served in the armed forces, chiefly during World War II. This article updates activities in this registry since the most recent report in Twin Research and Human Genetics (Page, 2006). Records-based data include information from enlistment charts and Veterans Administration data linkages. There have been three major epidemiologic questionnaires and an education and earnings survey. Separate data collection efforts with the NAS-NRC registry include the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) subsample, the Duke Twins Study of Memory in Aging and a clinically based study of Parkinson’s disease. Progress has been made on consolidating the various data holdings of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry. Data that had been available through the National Academy of Sciences are now freely available through National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA).
Objectives: Individuals aged 90 or older (oldest-old), the fastest growing segment of the population, are at increased risk of developing cognitive impairment compared with younger old. Neuropsychological evaluation of the oldest-old is important yet challenging in part because of the scarcity of test norms for this group. We provide neuropsychological test norms for cognitively intact oldest-old. Methods: Test norms were derived from 403 cognitively intact participants of The 90+ Study, an ongoing study of aging and dementia in the oldest-old. Cognitive status of intact oldest-old was determined at baseline using cross-sectional approach. Individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia or dementia (according to DSM-IV criteria) were excluded. Participants ranged in age from 90 to 102 years (mean=94). The neuropsychological battery included 11 tests (Mini-Mental Status Examination, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Boston Naming Test – Short Form, Letter Fluency Test, Animal Fluency Test, California Verbal Learning Test-II Short Form, Trail Making Tests A/B/C, Digit Span Forward and Backwards Test, Clock Drawing Test, CERAD Construction Subtests), and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results: Data show significantly lower scores with increasing age on most tests. Education level, sex, and symptoms of depression were associated with performance on several tests after accounting for age. Conclusions: Provided test norms will help to distinguish cognitively intact oldest-old from those with cognitive impairment. (JINS, 2019, 25, 530–545)
The first aim of this study was to provide prevalence suicidal feelings over time (past week, past month, past year and lifetime) in a population-based sample of old to very old adults without dementia. Does prevalence change with rising age? The second aim was to examine the fluctuation of suicidal feelings over time. How does this coincide with depression status?
Data were derived from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) which are multidisciplinary longitudinal studies on ageing. A representative sample of adults in Gothenburg, Sweden with birth years 1901–1944 were invited to take part in a longitudinal health study on ageing and participated at one or more occasions during 1986–2014. The sample consisted of 6668 observations originating from 3972 participants without dementia between the ages of 70 and 108, including 1604 participants with multiple examination times. Suicidal feelings were examined during a psychiatric interview using the Paykel questions (life not worth living, death wishes, thoughts of taking own life, seriously considered taking life, attempted suicide).
Prevalence figures for suicidal feelings of any severity were as follows: past week 4.8%, past month 6.7%, past year 11.2% and lifetime 25.2%. Prevalence rates increased with age in the total group and in women but not in men. Suicidal feelings were common in participants with concurrent major or minor depression, but over a third of the participants who reported suicidal feelings did not fulfil criteria for these diagnoses nor did they present elevated mean depressive symptom scores. The majority of participants consistently reported no experience of suicidal feelings over multiple examination times, but fluctuation was more common in women compared with men.
Suicidal feelings in late-life are uncommon in individuals without depression indicating that such behaviour is not a widespread, normative phenomenon. However, such feelings may occur outside the context of depression.
This study aimed to investigate the rate of dizziness and occurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in the elderly by physical examination in those reporting dizziness symptoms when lying down or turning over in bed.
A total of 498 people, aged 70–85 years, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding dizziness symptoms. Subjects answering that they became dizzy in bed were asked to participate in a physical examination and diagnostic manoeuvres investigating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
A total of 324 participants (65 per cent) completed the questionnaire. More than one-quarter (29 per cent) reported dizziness and 32 (10 per cent) reported dizziness when turning in bed. Of these 32 persons, 22 (69 per cent) underwent a physical examination. Six participants tested positive for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Ten per cent of the elderly participants reported positional symptoms, and 6 out of 22 fulfilled diagnostic criteria for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Furthermore, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo was established despite a delay between questionnaire completion and investigation, emphasising that this type of dizziness may not be a self-limiting disorder.
Evidence suggests that the rate of glucose release following consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods, defined as the glycaemic index (GI), is inversely associated with cognitive function. To date, most of the evidence stems from either single-meal studies or highly heterogeneous cohort studies. We aimed to study the prospective associations of diet GI at age 53 years with outcomes of verbal memory and letter search tests at age 69 years and rate of decline between 53 and 69 years.
Longitudinal population-based birth cohort study.
MRC National Survey for Health and Development.
Cohort members (n 1252).
Using multivariable linear and logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders, associations of higher-GI diet with lower verbal memory, lower letter search speed and lower number of hits in a letter search test were attenuated after adjustments for cognitive ability at age 15 years, educational attainment, further training and occupational social class. No association was observed between diet GI at 53 years and letter search accuracy or speed–accuracy trade-off at 69 years, or between diet GI at 53 years and rate of decline between 53 and 69 years in any cognitive measure.
Diet GI does not appear to predict cognitive function or decline, which was mainly explained by childhood cognitive ability, education and occupational social class. Our findings confirm the need for further research on the association between diet and cognition from a life-course perspective.
To determine the relationship between falls and deficits in specific cognitive domains in older adults.
An analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort.
United Kingdom community-based.
5197 community-dwelling older adults recruited to a prospective longitudinal cohort study.
Data on the occurrence of falls and number of falls, which occurred during a 12-month follow-up period, were assessed against the specific cognitive domains of memory, numeracy skills, and executive function. Binomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between each cognitive domain and the dichotomous outcome of falls in the preceding 12 months using unadjusted and adjusted models.
Of the 5197 participants included in the analysis, 1308 (25%) reported a fall in the preceding 12 months. There was no significant association between the occurrence of a fall and specific forms of cognitive dysfunction after adjusting for self-reported hearing, self-reported eyesight, and functional performance. After adjustment, only orientation (odds ratio [OR]: 0.80; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.65–0.98, p = 0.03) and verbal fluency (adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96–1.00; p = 0.05) remained significant for predicting recurrent falls.
The cognitive phenotype rather than cognitive impairment per se may predict future falls in those presenting with more than one fall.
The Delirium Drug Scale (DDS) is an evaluation scale developed to assess a patient's drug burden for delirium. The primary goal is to validate the association between the DDS score and the incidence of delirium.
This study was an observational retrospective cross-sectional chart review study in patients aged 75 years and older. It was carried out in three emergency departments of a tertiary care university health center. Patients were included if a medication list was available. Delirium present upon admission was assessed during the first five days of admission.
A total of 1,205 subjects were included in the analysis. The mean age was of 83.4 years, and 62.4% were female. The prevalence of delirium was 19.1%. A total of 745 patients (62%) were exposed to DDS medication. The relative risk for the low (1–2) and high (>2) exposure group according to the DDS score was of 1.26 (CI: 0.95; 1.66) and 2.18 (CI: 1.61; 2.96) compared to a score of 0. In the multivariate analysis, dementia, anxiety, insomnia, history of delirium, infection, and acute kidney failure were significantly associated to delirium. When adjusted for confounding variables, the DDS score was associated with the incidence of delirium with an odd ratio (OR) of 1.29 (CI: 1.16; 1.44).
This study found that DDS score was associated with delirium incidence. The association persisted in the multivariate analysis adjusted for 26 known risks and precipitating factors for delirium.
Necrotising otitis externa can be a devastating form of otitis externa. It typically tends to affect patients who are immunocompromised or diabetic. To date, there is very little in the literature about necrotising otitis externa in the immunocompetent patient population.
The present paper discusses both the clinical and radiological findings in three cases of necrotising otitis externa in an immunocompetent patient cohort. The common factor among all three patients was their advanced age.
Diagnosing necrotising otitis externa can be challenging because of the potentially non-specific symptoms and the absence of early radiological signs, particularly if patients are neither immunocompromised nor diabetic. Elderly patients should be considered in the same light as immunocompromised and diabetic patients in the context of necrotising otitis externa.
Loneliness is a risk factor for morbidity as well as mortality. Older people are more vulnerable to feeling alone due to age-associated changes and losses they might experience. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic, psychosocial, and mental health variables related to loneliness in the elderly. A random sample of 419 people over 65 years old from the Community of Madrid was used. The UCLA Loneliness Scale, the CIDI65+ Diagnostic Interview, and the WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Measure were administered. A regression p model was estimated to identify the variables that best predict loneliness associated with old age. Loneliness-associated variables included living alone t(161.41) = 2.07; p < .040, marital status F(5, 404) = 4.52; p < .001, frequency of economic problems F(1, 408 ) = 4.86; p < .028, quality of life F(4, 405) = 7.36; p < .001, satisfaction with life F(4, 405) = 3.80; p < .005, satisfaction with social relationships F(4, 405) = 19.50; p < .001, presence of a mental disorder (t(98.70) = 2.92; p < .004), and having an anxiety disorder (t(51.11) = 2.19; p < .033). The results presented in this paper highlight some predictors of loneliness in older people that could be useful in intervention, to minimize harmful conditions that can lead to loneliness in people over 65.
To evaluate the possibility of determining predictors of falls in the active community-dwelling elderly from the routine medical records of the general practitioners (GPs).
Time constraints and competing demands in the clinical encounters frequently undermine fall-risk evaluation. In the context of proactive primary healthcare, quick, and efficient tools for a preliminary fall-risk assessment are needed in order to overcome these barriers.
The study included 1220 subjects of 65 years of age or older. Data were extracted from the GPs’ patient records. For each subject, the following variables were considered: age, gender, diseases, and pharmacotherapy. Univariate and multivariable analyses have been conducted to identify the independent predictors of falls.
The mean age of the study population was 77.8±8.7 years for women and 74.9±7.3 years for men. Of the sample, 11.6% had experienced one or more falls in the previous year. The risk of falling was found to increase significantly (P<0.05) with age (OR=1.03; 95% CI=1.01–1.05), generalized osteoarthritis (OR=2.01; 95% CI=1.23–3.30), tinnitus (OR=4.14; 95% CI=1.25–13.74), cognitive impairment (OR=4.12; 95% CI=2.18–7.80), and two or more co-existing diseases (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.68–17.39). Results suggest that it is possible to identify patients at higher risk of falling by going through the current medical records, without adding extra workload on the health personnel. In the context of proactive primary healthcare, the analysis of fall predictors from routine medical records may allow the identification of which of the several known and hypothesized risk factors may be more relevant for developing quick and efficient tools for a preliminary fall-risk assessment.
The CASP-19 is an age-specific measure of quality of life. It comprises four domains: control, autonomy, self-realisation and pleasure, and is widely used in large cohort studies in temperate climates. Our objective was to translate the CASP-19 into Bahasa Malaysia and validate it for use in older Malaysians in their three commonly used languages of English, Bahasa Malaysia and Traditional Chinese. CASP-19 showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability with acceptable construct validity compared with the 12-item short-form health survey. Factor analysis found the best fit for the Taiwanese five-domain model. The validity of CASP-19 may be limited by cultural differences.
Invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections cause severe disease and death, especially in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In order to inform iGAS prevention, we compared the risk of iGAS in LTCF residents and community residents. We identified LTCF residents among cases of iGAS from national surveillance (2009–2010) using postcode matching, and cases of hospital-acquired infections via hospital admission records. We used Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and logistic regression to explore factors associated with case fatality rate (CFR). A total of 2741 laboratory-confirmed iGAS cases were matched to a hospital admission: 156 (6%) were defined as hospital-acquired. Out of the total cases, 96 (3·5%) were LTCF residents. Compared with community residents, LTCF residents over 75 years of age had a higher risk of iGAS infection (IRR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·3–2·1) and CFR (OR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·3–3·8). Amongst community-acquired cases, the risk of iGAS in LTCF residents between 75 and 84 years of age doubled (IRR = 2·7; 95% CI 1·8–3·9) compared with their community counterparts. The CFR among community-acquired cases was higher in LTCF residents than community residents (21% vs. 11%). Age remained associated with death in our final model. Our study showed that, even controlling for age, LTCF residents have a higher risk of acquiring and dying from iGAS. Whilst existing co-morbidities may explain this, it is reasonable to assume that the institutional setting may facilitate transmission. Therefore, cases in LTCF require prompt investigation together with a better understanding of factors contributing to the acquisition of infection.
Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness.
The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40–90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms.
Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60, there was an accelerating increase in depressive symptom scores with age, but this did not appreciably affect genetic and environmental variances. Overlap in genetic influences between physical illness and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women. Additionally, in men extent of overlap was greater with worse physical illness (the genetic correlation ranged from near 0.00 for the least physical illness to nearly 0.60 with physical illness 2 s.d. above the mean). For men and women, the same environmental factors that influenced depressive symptoms also influenced physical illness.
Findings suggested that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.
The MentDis_ICF65+ Project is an epidemiological study of mental disorders in people 65 to 85 years old in several European cities, including Madrid. Its aim is to determine the lifetime, 12-month, and 1-month prevalence of the main mental disorders in the elderly. The relationship of age and sex with each mental disorder was examined. The sample was collected through random sampling of people over 65 in Madrid, and consisted of 555 persons between 65 and 85 years old. The CIDI65+ was administered. Estimates of prevalence and odds ratios (OR) were made using sample frequencies and according to sex and age. Excluding nicotine dependence, 40.12% of the sample was found to have suffered a mental disorder at some time in their lives, 29.89% in the past year, and 17.70% were currently suffering from a mental disorder. The disorders with the highest prevalence rates were anxiety disorders, alcohol-related disorders, and mood disorders. Elderly women had a higher risk of suffering an anxiety disorder (OR men/women 0.42; CI 0.25–0.68) with a significance level of p < .001, while elderly men were more affected by any substance-related disorder (OR men/women 3.96; CI 1.62–11.07) with a significance level of p < .001. Each disorder’s prevalence decreased with age (OR 65–74/75–85, 1.85; CI 1.25–2.75) with a significance level of p < .01. Results show higher prevalence rates than previous studies reported. The main implications of this study, and the need to adapt mental health services for people over 65, are highlighted.
To compare the effectiveness of non-surgical versus surgical therapy in elderly patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
The study cohort included 2323 elderly patients (aged 65 years and over) diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma between 1988 and 2009, identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database of the National Cancer Institute.
The five-year overall survival rate was 23 per cent for non-surgical patients compared with 91 per cent for surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Unadjusted analysis revealed significantly improved survival in surgical patients compared with non-surgical patients (hazard ratio = 0.06; p < 0.0001). Propensity score analysis also revealed significantly improved survival in surgical patients compared with non-surgical patients (hazard ratio = 0.11; p < 0.0001).
Thyroidectomy appears to provide a survival benefit for elderly patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. High-quality prospective studies are needed to better evaluate the comparative effectiveness of immediate thyroidectomy versus observation for elderly patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium.
The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment.
The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62–0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20–9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication.
Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.
The provision of prescribed vitamin D to all aged-care residents has been implemented in New Zealand as part of a government-led falls prevention programme. To our knowledge, there has been no evaluation of this universal programme on vitamin D status and functional and health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and their predictors in aged-care residents across the country and to investigate whether the government-funded programme was associated with adequate vitamin D status.
Cross-sectional survey of sociodemographic, biochemical, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics. Blood samples were analysed for serum 25(OH)D and other biochemical measures. Multiple regression was used to examine predictors of vitamin D status.
Sixteen residential aged-care facilities throughout New Zealand.
Residents aged ≥60 years with residency duration >12 weeks (n 309).
Mean serum 25(OH)D was 89·9 (95 % CI 85·2, 94·5) nmol/l and monthly supplements (1250 µg (50 000 IU)) were taken by 75 % of all residents. Of those not taking a funded supplement, 65·3 % had serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l compared with only 1·5 % of supplement users. Being female, residing at lower latitude, increasing duration of aged-care residency and raised serum α1-acid glycoprotein were positively associated with higher 25(OH)D concentrations. Supplemental vitamin D from all sources was the strongest predictor, increasing serum 25(OH)D levels by more than 70 nmol/l. Furthermore, 25 % of participants had serum 25(OH)D levels >125 nmol/l.
Residents taking supplemental vitamin D had adequate vitamin D status; however monitoring of long-term supplementation should be considered, due to the high proportion of participants with high serum 25(OH)D levels.
Cochlear implantation is the standard of care for treating severe to profound hearing loss in all age groups. There is limited data on long-term results in elderly implantees and the effect of ageing on outcomes. This study compared the stability of cochlear implantation outcome in elderly and younger patients.
A retrospective chart review of cochlear implant patients with a minimum follow up of five years was conducted.
The study included 87 patients with a mean follow up of 6.8 years. Of these, 22 patients were older than 70 years at the time of implantation. Hearing in Noise Test scores at one year after implantation were worse in the elderly: 85.3 (aged under 61 years), 80.5 (61–70 years) and 73.6 (aged over 70 years; p = 0.039). The respective scores at the last follow up were 84.8, 85.1 and 76.5 (p = 0.054). Most patients had a stable outcome during follow up. Of the elderly patients, 13.6 per cent improved and none had a reduction in score of more than 20 per cent. Similar to younger patients, elderly patients had improved Short Form 36 Health Survey scores during follow up.
Cochlear implantation improves both audiometric outcome and quality of life in elderly patients. These benefits are stable over time.