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The hardware-in-the-loop docking simulators are significant ground test equipment for aerospace projects. The fidelity of docking simulation highly depends on the accuracy performance. This paper investigates the kinematic accuracy for the developed docking simulator. A novel kinematic calibration method which can reduce the number of parameters for error modeling is presented. The principle of parameters separation is studied. A simplified error model is derived based on Taylor series. This method can contribute to the simplification of the error model, fewer measurements, and easier convergence during the parameters identification. The calibration experiment validates this method for further accuracy enhancement.
This study introduces a new real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning method which is suitable for baselines of different lengths. The method merges carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free observation combinations (LWLC) instead of using pseudo-range, and carrier-phase ionosphere-free combination (PCLC), or single-frequency pseudo-range and phase combination (P1L1). In a first step, the double-differenced wide-lane ambiguities were calculated and fixed using the pseudo-range and carrier-phase wide-lane combination observations. Once the double-differenced wide-lane integer ambiguities were known, the wide-lane combined observations were regarded as accurate pseudo-range observations. Subsequently, the carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free combined observations were used to fix the double-differenced carrier-phase integer ambiguities, achieving the final RTK positioning. The RTK positioning analysis was performed for short, medium, and long baselines, using the P1L1, PCLC, and LWLC methods, respectively. For a short baseline, the LWLC method demonstrated positioning accuracy similar to the P1L1 method, and performed better than the PCLC method. For medium and long baselines, the positioning accuracy of the LWLC method was slightly higher than those of the PCLC and P1L1 methods. In conclusion, the LWLC method provided high-precision RTK positioning results for baselines with different lengths, as it used high-precision carrier-phase observations with fixed ambiguities instead of low-precision pseudo-range observations.
We undertook a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of Northern Hemisphere tree-ring datasets included in IntCal20 in order to evaluate their strategic fit with the demands of archaeological users. Case studies on wiggle-matching single tree rings from timbers in historic buildings and Bayesian modeling of series of results on archaeological samples from Neolithic long barrows in central-southern England exemplify the archaeological implications that arise when using IntCal20. The SWOT analysis provides an opportunity to think strategically about future radiocarbon (14C) calibration so as to maximize the utility of 14C dating in archaeology and safeguard its reputation in the discipline.
This chapter covers targeting law, which governs the ways in which weapons may be used in armed conflict. As integration of autonomous control into weapon systems necessarily affects the procedures to be followed in operating those weapons, it must be assessed with respect to the rules of targeting law. Specifically, autonomy in weapons relates to the ‘procedural’ side of targeting: questions of how the legal status of a potential target is to be assessed, what precautions must be taken in planning and conducting an attack, who is responsible for those tasks, and so forth. Accordingly, the first part of the chapter discusses the necessity for and general form of human involvement in planning and conducting autonomous attacks. It refutes the view that human involvement would or could be entirely missing from operations involving autonomous weapons. The second part steps through a model 6-step targeting process to explain the respective contributions of humans and autonomous systems at each stage.
This chapter focuses on model evaluation and selection in Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC). It starts by noting that even if there are automated procedures for model selection, the most important step is actually done by the ecologist when deciding what kind of models will be fitted. The chapter then discusses different ways of measuring model fit based on contrasting the model predictions with the observed data, as well as the use of information criteria as a method for evaluating model fit. The chapter first discusses general methods that can be used to compare models that differ either in their predictors or in their structure, e.g. models with different sets of environmental covariates, models with and without spatial random effects, models with and without traits or phylogenetic information or models that differ in their prior distributions. The chapter then presents specific methods for variable selection, aimed at comparing models that are structurally identical but differ in the included environmental covariates: variable selection by the spike and slab prior approach, and reduced rank regression that aims at combining predictors to reduce their dimensionality.
We aimed to assess the validity of maternal recall of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 3 months obtained 12 months after childbirth.
A population-based birth cohort study. The gold standard is maternal report of EBF at the age of 3 months (yes or no) and age of introduction of other foods in the infant’s diet. EBF was considered when the mother reported that no liquid, semi-solid or solid food was introduced up to that moment. The variable to be validated was obtained at 12 months after childbirth when the mother was asked about the age of food introduction. The prevalence of EBF at 3 months, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of 12-month recall with 95 % CI were calculated.
3700 mothers of participants of the Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort.
The prevalence of EBF at 3 months was 27·8 % (95 % CI 26·4, 29·3) and 49·0 % (95 % CI 47·4, 50·6) according to gold standard and maternal recall, respectively. The sensitivity of maternal recall at 12 months was 98·3 % (95 % CI 97·4, 99·0), specificity 70·0 % (95 % CI 68·2, 71·7), PPV 55·8 % (95 % CI 53·4, 58·1), NPV 99·1 % (95 % CI 98·6, 99·5) and accuracy 77·9 % (95 % CI 76·6, 79·2). When the analyses were stratified by maternal and infant characteristics, the sensitivity remained around 98 %, and the specificity ranged from 64·4 to 81·8 %.
EBF recalled at the end of the first year of infant’s life is a valid measure to be used in epidemiological investigations.
Chapter 20 discusses the importance of good speaking skills and strategies, and its authors present the findings about what a good language teacher does to draw on pedagogical content knowledge for speaking instruction.
In order to assess the accuracy of schizophrenia diagnoses for genetic studies, we identified all schizophrenia patients (n = 492) in an isolated community with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (HDR) between 1969-1991. For the accuracy study we identified a sample of 73 patients from registers with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R for schizophrenia (codes 295.10, 295.30, 295.60, 295.90) (n = 62) or “schizophrenia spectrum” diagnoses (295.40, 295.70, 297.10, 301.20, 301.22) (n = 11). When the operational criteria (DSM-III-R) were applied by two senior researchers using information from the original mental hospital records, 93% (68/73) of the cases fulfilled criteria for schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum. The results demonstrate that the schizophrenia diagnoses of the registers are accurate when a broad concept of schizophrenia is applied. When using operational DSM-III-R schizophrenia criteria, eight false positive cases were found among the 62 mental hospital schizophrenia diagnoses. Consequently, there may be a need to reassess schizophrenia diagnoses depending on the purpose of the study. We also found good agreement between DSM-III-R (kappa 0.93) and operational criteria (OPCRIT) diagnostic system (kappa 0.89) diagnoses, made by one researcher, compared with operational diagnoses. This indicates the possibility for the reliable use of one of these methods alone for diagnostic reassessment. The information in the HDR on primary diagnoses and on the dates of admission and discharge was accurately transferred from the hospital records.
Portable haemoglobinometers have been used in order to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in diverse settings. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate their performance in children of different age groups in distinct epidemiological contexts. To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of a portable haemoglobinometer for the diagnosis of anaemia in children <5 years Hb was measured in the venous blood of 351 children <5 years by an automated system (standard method) and in three capillary blood samples, using a portable haemoglobinometer (HemoCue®; test method). The reproducibility of the device and of the test method was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (Hb in its continuous form), κ and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) (categorised variable: anaemia: yes/no). For test method validation, Bland–Altman analyses were performed and sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. The haemoglobinometer presented good device reproducibility (ICC = 0·79) and reasonable method reproducibility (puncture, collection and reading) (ICC = 0·71). Superficial and fair agreement (κ) and good agreement (PABAK) were observed among the diagnoses obtained through the test method. The prevalence of anaemia was 19·1 and 19·7 % using the standard and the test method, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. The test method presented higher specificity (87·7 %) and NPV (88·3 %) than sensitivity (50·7 %) and PPV (49·3 %), and intermediary accuracy rate (57·8 %). HemoCue® showed good device reproducibility and reasonable method reproducibility, as well as good performance in estimating the prevalence of anaemia. Nevertheless, it showed a fair reliability and low individual diagnostic accuracy.
The main objective of the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS) is to improve the positioning accuracy by correcting several error sources affecting the Global Positioning System (GPS) and to provide integrity information to GPS signals for users in real time. This research presents analysis used to investigate improvement in the performance of single-frequency GPS positioning using EGNOS corrections in Algeria. In this study, we performed position measurements with two calculation approaches, the first based on GPS single-point positioning and the second using EGNOS differential corrections. Positioning accuracy was determined by comparison with the known precise coordinates of the sites; and then the improved ionospheric correction using EGNOS was investigated. The results revealed that GPS + EGNOS performance was significantly improved compared with GPS alone, when measurements of horizontal and vertical accuracy were taken into account, and that the EGNOS corrections improved east and north components slightly, and the up component significantly.
The Madaras profile found at the northernmost fringe of Bácska loess plateau is one of the thickest and best-developed last glacial loess sequences of Central Europe. The 10-m profile corresponds to a period between 29 and 12 b2k. To unravel feedback to small-scale centennial climatic fluctuations at our site, recorded in the Greenland ice and North Atlantic marine cores, construction of a reliable chronology is needed. Reliability is expressed in terms of best achievable chronological precision. Accuracy however is based on choosing the model best describing the sedimentological features of our profile. Five different age-depth models had constructed and compared relying on 15 14C dates using various statistical, probabilistic approaches to choose the model with the highest achievable precision. Accuracy was also evaluated using accumulation rates against stratigraphy. Models constructed using the computer program Bacon performed best in terms of achieving the best possible stratigraphic accuracy. Seven meters of the profile represents the period of the LGM. The average sedimentation time was 16.8 yr/cm with the highest confined to the period of the LGM. Calculated average sedimentation rates were 4 times higher than previously reported. The peak accumulation periods are dated to the nadir of the LGM.
The belief that a relationship partner values and promotes one’s welfare is central to many theories of interpersonal relationships. In this chapter, we review research on accuracy and bias in these perceptions of benevolence and their implications for relationship maintenance. A key conclusion emerging from this literature is that people’s perceptions of their relationship partners’ benevolence are both accurate and biased. Suggesting the operation of a confirmation bias, people’s chronic and generalized beliefs regarding other people’s benevolence appear to bias perceptions of partners’ benevolence within specific relationships. Suggesting the operation of a motivated wishful thinking bias, people’s desires to maintain close relationships with particular partners also bias perceptions of those partners’ benevolence. Despite these biases, there is also evidence for accuracy in perceptions of benevolence. Each of these processes, in turn, appears to shape people’s willingness to enact relationship maintenance behaviors. Suggested directions for future research are described.
To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of published versus sample-based norms to detect early dementia in the Uniform Data Set (UDS).
The UDS was administered to 526 nondemented participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Baseline scores were standardized using published norms and healthy control data from ADNI corrected for age, education, and sex. Subjects obtaining two scores < −1 SD (determined separately using published and sample norms) were labeled “at risk for dementia.” Both methods were compared on sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive value (PPV/NPV) for dementia at follow-up.
Risk scores derived from published data had 86.1% sensitivity, 62.0% specificity, 68.6% accuracy, 46.1% PPV, and 92.2% NPV. Those from sample norms were more sensitive (91.0%), less specific (52.9%), and less accurate (63.3%), with worse PPV (42.1%) and similar NPV (94.0%). Sample norms were better at identifying incident dementia cases with relatively lower education than those with higher education. Discrepancies between both methods were more common in women.
Sample norms are marginally more sensitive than published norms for predicting dementia, while published norms are slightly more accurate. Accuracy of risk estimates for women and those with lower education may be increased using locally generated norms.
Access has become a keyword of the twenty-first century. However, even in the 1960s, government data collection and growing computational power facilitated new forms of statistical analysis that people thought could become new ‘intelligence’ systems. The legislative response to these threats were new data protection and information privacy regimes that included ‘data subject rights’ – mechanisms by which individuals could obtain access to information about them held by others, and rectify any inaccuracy. This type of transparency gave individuals a way to participate in the profiling regime, by attempting to ensure that the data used by profilers was accurate and relevant. Informed by the German constitutional concept of informational self-determination, limitations to profiling in data protection are premised on the idea that a person’s self-image ought to be the primary determinant of their identity. However, it is argued here that this approach loses traction as the profiling environment becomes more sophisticated.
This chapter presents theory and research that examine tasks in relation to the cognitive processes involved in L2 production in what we have called the Psycholinguistic Perspective. The chapter explores and critiques two models of task-based performance - the Limited Attention Capacity Hypothesis and the Cognition Hypothesis - which have informed a large body of research. The chapter reviews studies that investigated how task design and implementation variables impact on the complexity, accuracy, lexis and fluency of the learners’ production. The chapter also considers a key issue for TBLT, namely the relationship between task performance and L2 acquisition.
Good research design includes choosing what to measure and how to measure it. We can’t measure everything. Fortunately, clear predictions dictate the measurements we need to make to test them. This chapter provides general advice on methods, then covers the importance of the validity, accuracy, sensitivity of the measures we use. I end with a reminder that methods must also be feasible.
Errors in data are a part of life for experimenters in science and engineering. This chapter considers the types of errors, including random and systematic error that can occur during an experiment and methods by which uncertainties arising from such errors can be combined. Many worked examples are included in this chapter, as well as exercises for the student to complete
Neuroprosthetic speech devices are an emerging technology that can offer the possibility of communication to those who are unable to speak. Patients with ‘locked in syndrome,’ aphasia, or other such pathologies can use covert speech—vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalization—to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesizing the speech they would have spoken, but for their impairment.
We provide an analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in speech mediated by neuroprosthetic devices. This analysis provides a framework for accounting for the ethical significance of accuracy, control, and pragmatic dimensions of prosthesis-mediated speech. We first examine what it means for the output of the device to be accurate, drawing a distinction between technical accuracy on the one hand and semantic accuracy on the other. These are conceptual notions of accuracy.
Both technical and semantic accuracy of the device will be necessary (but not yet sufficient) for the user to have sufficient control over the device. Sufficient control is an ethical consideration: we place high value on being able to express ourselves when we want and how we want. Sufficient control of a neural speech prosthesis requires that a speaker can reliably use their speech apparatus as they want to, and can expect their speech to authentically represent them. We draw a distinction between two relevant features which bear on the question of whether the user has sufficient control: voluntariness of the speech and the authenticity of the speech. These can come apart: the user might involuntarily produce an authentic output (perhaps revealing private thoughts) or might voluntarily produce an inauthentic output (e.g., when the output is not semantically accurate). Finally, we consider the role of the interlocutor in interpreting the content and purpose of the communication.
These three ethical dimensions raise philosophical questions about the nature of speech, the level of control required for communicative accuracy, and the nature of ‘accuracy’ with respect to both natural and prosthesis-mediated speech.
Routine psychiatric assessments tailored to older patients are often insufficient to identify the complexity of presentation in younger patients with dementia. Significant overlap between psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disease means that high rates of prior incorrect psychiatric diagnosis are common. Long delays to diagnosis, misdiagnosis and lack of knowledge from professionals are key concerns. No specific practice guidelines exist for diagnosis of young-onset dementia (YOD).
The review evaluates the current evidence about best practice in diagnosis to guide thorough assessment of the complex presentations of YOD with a view to upskilling professionals in the field.
A comprehensive search of the literature adopting a scoping review methodology was conducted regarding essential elements of diagnosis in YOD, over and above those in current diagnostic criteria for disease subtypes. This methodology was chosen because research in this area is sparse and not amenable to a traditional systematic review.
The quality of evidence identified is variable with the majority provided from expert opinion and evidence is lacking on some topics. Evidence appears weighted towards diagnosis in frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes and young-onset Alzheimer's disease.
The literature demonstrates that a clinically rigorous and systematic approach is necessary in order to avoid mis- or underdiagnosis for younger people. The advent of new disease-modifying treatments necessitates clinicians in the field to improve knowledge of new imaging techniques and genetics, with the goal of improving training and practice, and highlights the need for quality indicators and alignment of diagnostic procedures across clinical settings.