To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study aimed to identify the important capacities that were most urgently needed during emergency response and factors associated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) professionals’ field coping-capacity for public health emergency.
Professional workers (N = 1854) from 40 CDC institutions were chosen using the stratified cluster random sampling method in all 13 municipalities of Heilongjiang Province, China. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used.
Of 10 key capacities, the 3 that were most urgently needed during emergency response fieldwork as identified by respondents were crisis communication capacity, personal protection capacity, and laboratory detection capacity. Overall, 38.1% of respondents self-rated as “poor” on their coping-capacity. The logistic regression found that proficiency in emergency preparedness planning, more practical experiences in emergency response, effectiveness in training and drills, a higher education level, and a higher professional position were significantly associated with the individual’s field coping-capacity.
This study identified CDC professionals’ most urgent capacity need and the obstructive factors and highlighted the importance of enhancing the capacity in crisis communication, personal protection, and laboratory detection. Intervention should be targeted at sufficient fund, formalized, and effective emergency training and drills, more operational technical guidance, and all-around supervision and evaluation.
The immobilization of cytochrome c (cyt c) on tea polyphenol functionalized and reduced graphene oxide (TPG) was carried out by a simple adsorption process. Intriguingly, TPG with large surface area exhibited excellent adsorption behaviors and good biocompatibility. The adsorbed materials were characterized by various methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). And the effects of adsorption behavior of cyt c were discussed in detail. The results showed the adsorption behavior was dependent on the pH value and showed a high adsorption capacity as high as 1.414 × 104 mg/g and was friendly to normal cells (mouse fibroblast cell line, L929). In conclusion, we proposed the introduction of TPG as novel material and used the adsorption method to immobilize cyt c, which would provide a novel material and simple method for the enrichment of protein.
The U genome of Aegilops umbellulata is an important basic genome of genus Aegilops. Direct gene transfer from Ae. umbellulata into wheat is feasible but not easy. Triticum turgidum–Ae. umbellulata amphidiploids can act as bridges to circumvent obstacles involving direct gene transfer. Seven T. turgidum–Ae. umbellulata amphidiploids were produced via unreduced gametes for spontaneous doubling of chromosomes of triploid T. turgidum–Ae. umbellulata F1 hybrid plants. Seven pairs of U chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata were distinguished by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes pSc119.2/(AAC)5 and pTa71. Polymorphic FISH signals were detected in three (1U, 6U and 7U) of seven U chromosomes of four Ae. umbellulata accessions. The chromosomes of the tetraploid wheat parents could be differentiated by probes pSc119.2 and pTa535, and identical FISH signals were observed among the three accessions. All the parental chromosomes of the amphidiploids could be precisely identified by probe combinations pSc119.2/pTa535 and pTa71/(AAC)5. The T. turgidum–Ae. umbellulata amphidiploids possess valuable traits for wheat improvement, such as strong tillering ability, stripe rust resistance and seed size-related traits. These materials can be used as media in gene transfers from Ae. umbellulata into wheat.
Si nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were combined using the simple, inexpensive, and scalable approach involving ultrasonication and positive-pressure filtration to generate binder-free freestanding flexible Si–MWNT (Si–MW) composite paper anodes for Li-ion batteries. Through controlling the Si/carbon nanotube (CNT) weight ratio, the composite with 3:2 Si/CNT ratio exhibited the optimal balance between the high capacity of SiNPs and high conductivity and structural stabilization quality of MWNTs, leading to high rate capability as well as specific capacity and cyclability surpassing the conventional slurry-cast SiNP electrode using binder and current collector and other complicated freestanding Si/carbon composite designs. After 100 cycles, our electrode retained a capacity of 1170 mA h/g at 100 mA/g and 750 mA h/g at 500 mA/g. Moreover, a different electrolyte composition enabled a reversible capacity of 1300 mA h/g at 100 mA/g after 100 cycles. The freestanding feature of our electrodes is promising for enhanced energy density of Li-ion cells.
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R. padi transcriptomes with a significantly similarity (E-value < 10−5) to known chemosensory genes in Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii. In addition, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to determine the expression profiles of obtained genes. Among these obtained genes, we selected 23 chemosensory genes to analyze their expression patterns in different tissues, wing morphs and host plants. We found that except RpOBP1, RpOBP3, RpOBP4 and RpOBP5, the rest of the selected genes were highly expressed in the head with antennae compared with body without head and antennae. Besides that, the stimulation and depression of chemosensory genes by plant switch indicated that chemosensory genes might be involved in the plant suitability assessment. These results not only provide insights for the potential roles of chemosensory genes in plant search and perception of R. padi but also provide initial background information for the further research on the molecular mechanism of the polyphagia and autumn migrants of it. Furthermore, these chemosensory genes are also the candidate targets for pest management control in future.
Glacier and lake variations in the Yamzhog Yumco basin in southern Tibet were studied by integrating series of spatial data from topographic maps and Landsat images at three different times: 1980, 1988/90 and 2000. The results indicate that the total glacier area has decreased from 218 km2 in 1980 to 215 km2 in 2000, a total reduction of 3 km2 (i.e. a 1.5% decrease). Glacier recession rates were clearly larger in the 1990s than the 1980s due to the warmer climate. The total lake area decreased by about 67 km2 during 1980–90 and increased by 32 km2 during 1990–2000. It is suggested that change of lake area in the basin was rapid and most likely caused primarily by the change in precipitation and evaporation in the basin, and secondarily by the increased water supply from melting glaciers.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
In light of government investment over the past decade, we explored the capacity for disaster response in Heilongjiang Province, identifying the factors that affect response capacity.
We surveyed 1257 medical staff in 65 secondary and tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang province to explore their perceptions of disaster management capacity using a cross-sectional multistage, stratified cluster sampling method.
All tertiary hospitals (100%) and most secondary hospitals (93%) have documented disaster management plans that are regularly reviewed. In secondary hospitals, drills were less prevalent (76.7%) but the occurrence of simulated training exercises was closer to tertiary hospitals (86.0%). We noted that 95.4% of all hospitals have leadership groups responsible for disaster preparedness capacity building, but only 10.8% have a stockpiled network of reserve supplies.
Although response capacity has improved in Heilongjiang Province, vulnerabilities remain. We recommend that priorities should be targeted at preparedness capacity building, in terms of reliable and relevant operational response plans, the expansion of existing response mechanisms to oversee local education and scenario training, and to ensure there is sufficient access to protective equipment and materials, either held in reserve, or alternatively by activating resilient supply chain mechanisms. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:176–183)
Based on the numerical evidences, an analytical expression of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping in the form of infinite product was first conjectured for the one-dimensional characteristic Schrödinger equation with a sinusoidal potential in [Commun. Comput. Phys., 3(3): 641-658, 2008]. It was later extended for the general second-order characteristic elliptic equations with symmetric periodic coefficients in [J. Comp. Phys., 227: 6877-6894, 2008]. In this paper, we present a proof for this Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping.
The relaxation behavior of neat PET and PET/Ti3N4 nanocomposites was investigated by means of internal friction. The temperature dependence of internal friction exhibit two relaxation peaks i.e. α and β peaks, and both heights of the peaks first increase and then decrease with increasing concentration of Ti3N4 nanoparticles. However, the peak temperature and activation energy for α and β peaks show different change trends with increasing concentration of Ti3N4 nanoparticles, which associated with the changes of nucleation and crystallization of the PET due to the addition of nanoparticles. Further increasing the concentration of Ti3N4 nanoparticles, a third peak, α′ located at the temperature between α and β peaks appears in the PET/Ti3N4 nanocomposites, which may be a physical aging peak.
We examine the development of stable bimetal interfaces in nanolayered composites in severe plastic deformation. Copper-niobium multilayers of varying layer thicknesses from several micrometers to 10 nanometers (nm) were fabricated via accumulative roll bonding (ARB). Investigation of their 5-parameter character and atomic scale structure finds that when layer thicknesses refine well below one micrometer, the interfaces self-organize to a few interface orientation relationships. With atomic scale and crystal plasticity modeling, we identify that the two controlling factors that determine whether an interface is stable under high strain rolling are orientation stability of the bicrystal and interface formation energy. A figure-of-merit is introduced that not only predicts the development of the prevailing interfaces but also explains why other interfaces did not develop. Through a suite of nanomechanical and bulk test results, we show that ARB composites containing these stable interfaces are found to have exceptional hardness (∼4.5 GPa) and strength (∼2 GPa).
Shockley-Queisser detailed balance theory predicts that under one sun a semiconductor with its bandgap in the range of 1.0 – 1.6 eV can potentially achieve an energy conversion efficiency > 30%. Therefore, the conversional wisdom would suggest looking for a semiconductor with a bandgap in this range for a single junction solar cell. Here we explore an alternative way of selecting the absorber material for PV, which allows using semiconductors with much larger bandgaps, in conjunction with new device architecture. Specifically, our device is based on an array of core-shell semiconductor nanowires, such as ZnO-ZnSe, where the two components exhibit type II band alignment. Our approach relies on the most basic property of a type II heterojunction, i.e., the staggered band alignment, that provides the function of charge separation, as in the case of dye-sensitized solar cell or (organic) bulk heterojunction solar cell. However, they differ in two important aspects: (1) the current structure is all inorganic, thus, expected to offer better chemical and photo- stability; and (2) In this approach, the interfacial transition provides an effective absorption or photo-response threshold that can be much lower than that of either component. In this work, using a ZnO-ZnSe core-shell nanowire array, we report the observation of the key signatures associated with the type II optical transition, and the demonstration of a solar cell based on the core-shell nanowire array.
Two kinds of type-II heterostructures (HSs) of ZnO (wurtzite)/ZnSe (wurtzite) [ZnO (WZ)/ZnSe (WZ)] and ZnO (wurtzite)/ZnSe (zinc blende) [ZnO (WZ)/ZnSe (ZB)] were designed for photovoltaic applications by first-principle calculations. The calculated effective bandgap of 1.51 eV for the ZnO (WZ)/ZnSe (WZ) HS is more favorable for solar cell applications compared to that of 1.69 eV for the ZnO (WZ)/ZnSe (ZB) HS. Furthermore, the electrons and holes are more effectively separated at the interface of ZnO (WZ)/ZnSe (WZ) HS due to the stronger misfit stress field. Finally, a strained ZB ZnSe layer was introduced to transport the separated holes from WZ ZnSe layer, and an optimal structure of ZnO (WZ)/ZnSe (WZ)/ZnSe (ZB) was proposed to realize a solar cell with near-infrared response.
We report on the excitation wavelength and power dependence of LPMOCVD grown GaN photoluminescence (PL). A mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser that is doubled to provide a tunable wavelength range of 350-500 nm is used to pump the GaN samples. Special attention has been paid to the “yellow” (∼567 nm) luminescence. Different power dependence characteristics of the yellow emission are observed when pumping above and below the bandgap. A measurement of the photoluminescence excitation spectrum of the yellow peak (∼567 nm) is also performed and this spectrum shows a peak at room temperature at 3.36 eV (369 nm), an additional broad peak at 77 K and only the broad peak at 7 K. An excitation model is used to explain the behavior of the yellow emission, suggesting the neutral donor serves as a key species for the yellow emission.
Oral administration of l-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (sem 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the two maize- and soyabean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 or 1 % l-arginine. After consuming the diets for 7 d, six pigs were randomly selected from each group to obtain various tissues. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 1 % l-arginine did not affect feed intake but enhanced (P < 0·05) the relative weight of the small intestine (+33 %), daily BW gain (+38 %) and feed efficiency (+28 %). The villus height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in arginine-supplemented piglets was 21, 28 and 25 % greater (P < 0·05) than in the non-supplemented control group. Arginine supplementation increased (P < 0·05) protein levels for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in duodenal, jejunal and ileal mucosae by 14, 39 and 35 %, respectively. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with 1 % l-arginine increased (P < 0·05) plasma concentrations of arginine and insulin (+36 %), and decreased (P < 0·05) plasma concentrations of cortisol ( − 33 %), NH3 ( − 21 %) and urea ( − 19 %). These results indicate that arginine supplementation enhances intestinal growth, development and expression of VEGF in early-weaned pigs fed a maize- and soyabean meal-based diet. The findings may have important implications for neonatal pigs under stressful or diseased conditions.
Type II ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanowire arrays were grown by a two-step chemical vapor deposition. The nanowire arrays with dense nanoislands on the surface are well aligned and normal to the substrate imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The core/shell structure of nanowires was identified by a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The structure and composition of the shell were confirmed to be wurtzite ZnSe by x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, an intense emission was observed at 1.89 eV smaller than the band gaps of core and shell materials by photoluminescence, indicating the achievement of the type II band alignment at the interface. This study is expected to contribute to the potential applications in novel photovoltaic devices.
The successful synthesis of ZnS hollow microspheres by a solvothermal route is reported. The synthesis was achieved by a proper selection of a sulfur source, i.e., Na2S2O3⋅5H2O or (NH2)2CS, to react with Zn(CH3COO)2⋅2H2O in mixed solvents of ethylene glycol and deionized water. The ZnS products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD identified the ZnS products to have either zinc blende or wurtzite structure. SEM images revealed hollow ZnS microspheres with 1 to 2 μm diameters and 100 to 200 nm shell thicknesses. TEM images confirmed that the hollow ZnS microspheres were assembled by ZnS crystalline nanocrystallites. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the zinc blende hollow microspheres showed a strong green emission at 514 nm and weak emission at 379 nm.
CdTe thin films were grown on indium tin oxide glass substrates by a closed-space sublimation method using a resistor heater. Crystalline structure, morphology, and band gaps of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical absorption, respectively. The XRD analysis showed that the textures of the films were found to depend on the rate of increase in the heating current. The CdTe thin film had an (111) texture when the heating current rate was 2.0 A/min. The SEM analysis revealed that the film is composed of polyhedral grains of microns size. However, the (111) texture of the CdTe thin film observed by XRD decreased with the appearance of (220), (311), (400), (331), (422), and (511) peaks of the fcc CdTe phase when the heating current rate increased to 4.5 A/min. The (111) texture disappeared when the heating current was increased immediately from 0 A to the target current of 70 A. SEM results revealed that the grains in the film are round and the grain size is smaller than 1 μm. Optical absorption analysis showed that there is no distinctive difference in the band gaps of the films.