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Flaxseed oil is rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the metabolic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study investigated the effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced muscle atrophy and carbohydrate oxidation impairment in a piglet model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment including dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs. 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs. LPS). On day 21 of treatment, the pigs were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/kg BW LPS, or sterile saline. At 4 h after injection, blood, gastrocnemius muscle and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were collected. Flaxseed oil supplementation increased ALA, EPA, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, protein/DNA ratio, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) quantity in muscles (p<0.05). In addition, flaxseed oil reduced mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) 2 and their downstream signaling molecules in muscles, and decreased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (p<0.05). Moreover, flaxseed oil inclusion increased the ratios of phosphorylated Akt 1/ total Akt 1 and phosphorylated forkhead Box O (FOXO) 1/ total FOXO1, and reduced mRNA expression of FOXO1, muscle RING finger (MuRF) 1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 in muscles (p<0.05). These results suggest that flaxseed oil might have a positive effect on alleviating muscle protein loss and carbohydrates oxidation impairment induced by LPS challenge through regulation of TLR4/NOD and Akt/FOXO signaling pathway.
The problem of the magnetic attitude tracking control is studied for a gravity gradient microsatellite in orbital transfer. The contributions of the work are mainly shown in two aspects: (1) the design of an expected attitude trajectory; (2) a method of the magnetic attitude tracking control. In orbital transfer, the gravity gradient microsatellite under a constant thrust shows complicated dynamic behaviours. In order to damp out the pendular motion, the gravity gradient microsatellite is subject to the the attitude tracking problem. An expected attitude trajectory is designed based on dynamic characteristics revealed in the paper, which not only ensures the flight safety of the system, but also reduces the energy consumption of the controller. Besides, the control torque produced by a magnetorquer is constrained to lie in a two-dimensional plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, so an auxiliary compensator is proposed to improve the control performance, which is different from existing magnetic control methods. In addition, a sliding mode control based on the compensator is presented, and the Lyapunov stability analysis is performed to show the global convergence of the tracking error. Finally, a numerical case of the gravity gradient microsatellite is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking control.
The BioCD is a spinning biochip that uses quadrature laser interferometry to detect captured protein on the disc surface. We describe the detection limits of protein binding on this optical biosensor. The fundamental metrology limit is 1 picometer for a single 100-micron diameter spot. Under assay conditions for prostate specific antigen, we can detect 25 pg/ml at 10 assays per disc.
Molecular interferometric imaging (MI2) is a label-free optical biosensor that combines common-path interferometry with shot-noise limited characteristics of a CCD array detector to detect protein binding to surfaces. In the metrology limit, it has achieved roughness-limited surface height resolution of 15 pm per 0.4 micron pixel, corresponding to a scaling mass sensitivity of 7 fg/mm, and a molecular resolution of about 15 IgG molecules per pixel. We have applied MI2 to detect cytokine interleukin-5 at a concentration detection limit of 50 pg/mL with a sandwich immunoassay. Real-time binding assays with MI2 enable the study of reaction kinetics, with a scaling mass sensitivity of 2 pg/mm under 7x magnification. Real-time MI2 measurements of anti-rabbit IgG against rabbit IgG were compared with results from surface plasmon resonance, with identical association rate constants at 5x103 M-1sec-1.
Radiocarbon (14C) has become a unique and powerful tracer in source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particles. In this study, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) held in Beijing in 2014 was used as a demonstration to research the source apportionment of atmosphere PM2.5. We used a 200 kV single stage accelerator mass spectrometer recently completed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PM2.5 samples related to above case were collected, and the characteristics of radiocarbon in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in samples were analyzed using the AMS. The results show that the Before-APEC pollution emission mode is different from the During-APEC and After-APEC pollution emission modes. For Before-APEC, During-APEC and After-APEC, the average values of fossil carbon fraction of OC are 0.463, 0.431 and 0.615, respectively, and those of EC are 0.644, 0.561 and 0.687. The fossil source contributions of traffic activities using fossil fuels to OC and EC are 15.8 % and 21.9 %, respectively. The fossil source contributions of industrial activities to OC and EC are 38.0 % and 8.2 %, respectively. It is about 7–10 days that is needed to take to regenerate the PM2.5 pollution caused by human activities.
The regeneration of human tissues with complex anatomy such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains greatly challenging since it requires appropriate cell microenvironments with well-defined structural and biochemical cues. In this investigation, bilayer scaffolds consisting of different polymer nanofibers with orthogonal fiber orientations were prepared, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were encapsulated separately. The bilayer scaffolds have similar architecture to the anatomy of the GI tract and can achieve dual releases of VEGF and PDGF in sequential and sustained manners, which hold promise as appropriate cell microenvironments for promoting the regeneration of the GI tract.
This study aimed to identify the important capacities that were most urgently needed during emergency response and factors associated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) professionals’ field coping-capacity for public health emergency.
Professional workers (N = 1854) from 40 CDC institutions were chosen using the stratified cluster random sampling method in all 13 municipalities of Heilongjiang Province, China. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used.
Of 10 key capacities, the 3 that were most urgently needed during emergency response fieldwork as identified by respondents were crisis communication capacity, personal protection capacity, and laboratory detection capacity. Overall, 38.1% of respondents self-rated as “poor” on their coping-capacity. The logistic regression found that proficiency in emergency preparedness planning, more practical experiences in emergency response, effectiveness in training and drills, a higher education level, and a higher professional position were significantly associated with the individual’s field coping-capacity.
This study identified CDC professionals’ most urgent capacity need and the obstructive factors and highlighted the importance of enhancing the capacity in crisis communication, personal protection, and laboratory detection. Intervention should be targeted at sufficient fund, formalized, and effective emergency training and drills, more operational technical guidance, and all-around supervision and evaluation.
To compare and validate neurocognitive tests in the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol (HCAP) for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and to identify appropriate tests to be administered in future waves of CHARLS.
We recruited 825 individuals from the CHARLS sample and 766 subjects from hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. All participants were administered the HCAP-neurocognitive tests, and their informants were interviewed regarding the respondents’ functional status. Trained clinicians administered the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) to assess the respondents’ cognitive status independently.
The testing protocol took an average of 58 minutes to complete. Refusal rates for tests of general cognition, episodic memory, and language were less than 10%. All neurocognitive test scores significantly correlated with the CDR global score (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.139 to 0.641). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) - telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS), community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) for respondent, episodic memory and language tests each accounted for more than 20% of the variance in global CDR score (p < 0.001) in bivariate tests. In the CHARLS subsample, age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance across most cognitive domains, and with functional status.
A brief set of the CHARLS-HCAP neurocognitive tests are feasible and valid to be used in the CHARLS sample and hospital samples. It could be applied in the future waves of the CHARLS study, and it allows estimating the prevalence of dementia in China through the population-based CHARLS.
Computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) is generally effective for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. However, there is much uncertainty about what factors mediate or moderate effectiveness and are therefore important to personalize treatment and boost its effects.
In total, 311 Chinese inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia were randomized to receive CCRT or Active control for 12 weeks with four to five sessions per week. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The outcomes were cognition, clinical symptoms and functional outcomes.
There was a significant benefit in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) total score for CCRT (F1,258 = 5.62; p = 0.02; effect size was 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). There were no specific moderators of CCRT improvements. However, across both groups, Wisconsin Card Sort Test improvement mediated a positive effect on functional capacity and Digit Span benefit mediated decreases in positive symptoms. In exploratory analyses younger and older participants showed cognitive improvements but on different tests (younger on Symbol Coding Test, while older on the Spatial Span Test). Only the older age group showed MSCEIT benefits at post-treatment. In addition, cognition at baseline negatively correlated with cognitive improvement and those whose MCCB baseline total score was around 31 seem to derive the most benefit.
CCRT can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia. Changes in cognitive outcomes also contributed to improvements in functional outcomes either directly or solely in the context of CCRT. Age and the basic cognitive level of the participants seem to affect the cognitive benefits from CCRT.
The production of abstract engravings is considered an indicator of modern human cognition and a means for the long-term recording and transmission of information. This article reports the discovery of two engraved bones from the Lingjing site in Henan Province, China, dated to 105–125 kya. The carefully engraved nature of the incisions, made on weathered rib fragments, precludes the possibility of unintentional or utilitarian origins. Residue analysis demonstrates the presence of ochre within the incised lines on one specimen. This research provides the first evidence for the deliberate use of ochred engravings for symbolic purposes by East Asian Late Pleistocene hominins.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
The research of high-performance flexible supercapacitors is urgent due to the rapid development of wearable and portable electronics. The key challenge is the preparation of flexible electrodes with high areal capacitance since electrodes are the most important part of supercapacitors. Compared to those conventional electrodes loading with typical flexible substrates such as textile, PET, paper et al, free-standing electrodes have many advantages such as more efficient capacity contribution, solidly embedded active materials and thinner thickness. Herein, we have successfully fabricated a novel sandwich-like structure free-standing MoO3-rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composite film electrode for flexible supercapacitors using simple vacuum filtration method followed by HI reduction process. The obtained MoO3-rGO composite film electrode shows excellent electrochemical performance, whose areal specific capacitance reaches 8972 mF·cm-2 (1.5 mA·cm-2). Here, MoO3 provides pseudocapacitance and rGO provides double-layer capacitance. After cycling for 2000 cycles, the capacity retention is 86.7%, showing good cycle stability. Besides, the as-prepared composite film has good flexibility and will not break easily during following bending, rolling, folding or twisting steps. This study has been approved to be an important step for the high-performance electrode design for free-standing flexible supercapacitors.
Japanese foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus Steud.) is an invasive grass weed that severely threatens the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) crops in eastern Asia. Mesosulfuron-methyl is a highly efficient acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide widely used for control of this species in China. However, in recent years, some A. japonicus populations have evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl by different amino acid substitutions (AASs) within the ALS gene. In the current study, 11 populations of A. japonicus were collected from Anhui Province, China, where the wheat fields were severely infested with this weed. Based on single-dose screening, eight of these populations evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl, and gene sequencing revealed three AASs located in codon 197 or 574 of the ALS gene in the different resistant populations. Subsequently, three typical populations, AH-1, AH-4, and AH-10 with Trp-574-Leu, Pro-197-Thr, and Pro-197-Ser mutations, respectively, in ALS genes were selected to characterize their cross-resistance patterns to ALS inhibitors. Compared with the susceptible population AH-S, AH-1 showed broad-spectrum cross-resistance to sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), and sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinones (SCTs); whereas AH-4 and AH-10 were resistant to SUs, TPs, and SCTs but sensitive to IMIs. Moreover, all three resistant populations were sensitive to both photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor QYM201 (1-(2-chloro-3-(3-cyclopropyl-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperidin-2-one). Based on the current state of knowledge, this study is the first report of A. japonicus evolving cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides due to a Pro-197-Ser mutation in the ALS gene.
While legal scholarship seeks mainly to assess the impact of climate change litigation (CCL) on the regulatory state and on climate change policy in common law countries, the potential influence of government climate policy on the judicial practices of jurisdictions with different legal traditions attracts much less attention. This article fills the gaps by exploring how courts in China, an authoritarian country with a civil law tradition, react to government climate policies and how this judicial response might affect relevant legal rules and eventually contribute to climate regulation. An empirical analysis of 177 Chinese judicial cases reveals that CCL in China consists mostly of contract-based civil actions steered by the government's low-carbon policies. Moreover, although the prospects of CCL against public authorities in China remain very bleak, there is scope for the emergence of tort-based CCL, backed by government policies. In this respect, recent tort-based public interest litigation on air pollution in China may serve as a substitute or, more promisingly, a gateway to the emergence of a tort-based branch of Chinese CCL.
In this study, a new ultra-wideband (UWB) band-edge selectivity antenna with a modified radiation slot using defected ground structure (DGS) is presented to obtain bandpass filtering reflection coefficient and gain performance. The well-designed DGS is designed on backside metallic of the substrate and can be seen as a low-pass filter that provides a good roll-off at a higher frequency. By connecting the DGS and the stepped slot and making them merge with each other, good cut-off property in the upper passband and better in-band impedance characteristics are obtained. Measured results show that the proposed design not only shows good band-edge selectivity in reflection coefficient and gain performance but also has a good impedance matching of −13.5 dB reflection coefficients and a good radiation efficiency of 90% in the operating frequencies. The measured bandwidth defined with the reflection coefficient less than −10 dB is from 3.1–11.2 GHz. Furthermore, the size of the filtering UWB antenna is 22 mm × 12 mm, which is smaller than many individual UWB antennas and UWB filters.
Dalian, China, is a city free of rabies in recent 20 years, but the annual cost for rabies vaccination still brings an economic burden on society and individuals. We did a retrospective descriptive analysis to analyse the reason for this and try to find some ways to resolve it. A total of 10 028 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) cases were recorded from January 2016 to December 2017. According to the exposure grades, 32 cases were grade I; 7712 cases were grade II; 2284 cases were grade III. All the patients in the cases were injured by pet dogs without abnormal clinical signs, and 80% of them were home pet dogs. Fifty-two per cent of the pet dogs were vaccinated. All the dogs survived during the PEP vaccination period. The data showed that a considerable proportion of people who did not have exposure risk for rabies had received vaccination. The underlying reasons included social, medical and personal factors. So here we proposed to replace the current ‘five-course’ intramuscular injection with intradermal injection method in the cities free of rabies in China, this can not only achieve effective vaccination but also save resources and eliminate the fear of rabies from victims. Meanwhile we should strengthen communication on rabies knowledge and make a routine evaluation of rabies surveillance system to improve understanding of the risk for rabies from biting animals.
The performance of immune system is vital for defending the body from pathogens, and it plays a crucial role in health homoeostasis. In a previous study, we have shown that LFP-20, a twenty-amino acid antimicrobial peptide in the N terminus of porcine lactoferrin, modulated inflammatory response in colitis. Here, we further investigated the effects of LFP-20 on immune homoeostasis to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammation action. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered systemic inflammatory response mice model was established. On the basis of observed mucosal lesions and apoptosis in small intestine, we found increased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in ileum after LPS stimulation. Expectedly, LFP-20 pre-treatment attenuated the LPS-mediated immune disorders in ileum. Moreover, the flow cytometry results indicated pre-treatment with LFP-20 sustained the balance of CD3+CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer cells in LPS-triggered immune disturbance. Simultaneously, we demonstrated LFP-20 modulated the secretion of both activated Th1-related IL-12p70, interferon-γ, TNF-α and Th2-related IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. Furthermore, we found LFP-20 facilitated a balanced Th1 and Th2 response, which triggered cellular defence mechanisms and induced B cells to produce opsonising antibodies belonging to certain IgG subclasses to defend against LPS stimulation. Collectively, our study indicated pre-treatment with LFP-20 could defend against LPS-triggered systemic inflammatory response in mice via modulating immune homoeostasis.