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Human innate immune plays an essential role in the spontaneous clearance of acute infection and therapy of HCV. We investigated whether the SNPs in retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor family were associated with HCV spontaneous clearance and response to treatment. To evaluate the clinical value of DDX58 rs3824456, rs10813831 and rs10738889 genotypes on HCV spontaneous clearance and treatment response in Chinese Han population, we genotyped 1001 HCV persistent infectors, 599 participants with HCV natural clearance and 354 patients with PEGylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. People carrying rs10813831-G allele genotype were more liable to achieve spontaneous clearance than the carriage of the T allele (dominant model: adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08–1.71, P = 0.008). In rs10738889, the rate of persistent infection was significantly lower in patients with the TC genotype compared to those with TT genotype (dominant model: adjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.06–1.74, P = 0.015). Multivariate stepwise analysis indicated that rs10738889, age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were independent predictors for HCV spontaneous clearance. However, there were no significant differences in the three selection SNPs between the non-SVR group and the SVR group. These results suggest the DDX58 rs10813831 and rs10738889 are associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV, which may be identified as a predictive marker in the Chinese Han population of HCV.
This study presents an experimental investigation on the internal flow of a ventilated supercavity using fog flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The ventilated supercavity is generated on a backward-facing cavitator and studied in the high-speed water tunnel at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. Fog particles are introduced into the supercavity through the ventilation line, and then illuminated by a laser sheet for flow visualizations and PIV measurements. The experiments are performed on the supercavities with two closure types, i.e. the re-entrant jet (RJ) and the twin vortex (TV), under the same water tunnel flow condition but different ventilation rates. The flow visualization revealed three distinct regions within the supercavity, including the ventilation influence region near the cavitator, the extended internal boundary layer along the liquid–gas interface and the reverse flow region occupying a large centre portion of the supercavity. The streamwise and vertical extent of the ventilation influence region, the streamwise growth of the internal boundary layer and the reverse flow within the supercavity are then quantified through PIV flow measurements. Compared to the RJ case, the results indicate that the TV supercavity yields a longer vertical extent of the ventilation influence region, a thinner internal boundary layer and a stronger reverse flow. The internal flow results suggest that at the upstream of the location of the maximum cavity diameter, the gas enters the forward flow (including the internal boundary layer and the forward moving portion of the ventilation influence region) from the reverse flow, while at the downstream of that location, the gas is stripped from the internal boundary layer and enters the reverse flow due to the increasing adverse pressure gradient in the streamwise direction. The above results are combined with visualization results of the supercavity geometry and closure patterns to further explain the influence of gas leakage mechanisms on cavity growth and closure transition. Specifically, visualization of the cavity geometry change during the RJ to TV supercavity transition indicates external flow separation associated with a critical incline angle of the bottom liquid–gas interface at the closure contributes to the onset of RJ closure. The closure visualization shows the coexistence of the toroidal vortex and twin-vortex tubes for the RJ supercavity leads to two gas leakage mechanisms: one associated with the shedding of toroidal vortices (
) and the other due to the gas entrained by the internal boundary layer and leaking from the twin-vortex tubes (
). For the RJ supercavity, with increasing ventilation input, due to the reduction of
, the supercavity needs to elongate to increase the gas entrained by the internal boundary layer (i.e.
) to balance the ventilation increase. The elongation of the supercavity leads to reduced flow separation, and eventually a transition to the TV supercavity with ventilation above a critical value. For the TV supercavity,
is absent. An increase of ventilation input can be balanced by the increase of
associated with the widening of the twin-vortex tubes, and therefore, no appreciable elongation of cavity length is observed.
Conotruncal heart defects are considered to be one of the most common types of birth defect worldwide. Genetic disturbances in folate metabolism such as Thymidylate synthase may increase risk for conotruncal heart defects. We evaluated two common Thymidylate synthase polymorphisms, including the 28 bp tandem repeat in the promoter enhancer region of the 5′-untranslated region and the 6 bp deletion in the 3′-untranslated region, as risk factors of conotruncal heart defects including various subtypes of malformations, in a total of 193 mothers with conotruncal heart defect in offspring and 234 healthy controls in the Chinese population. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mothers who were homozygotes with deletion (−/−) had a 1.8-fold (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.0, p = 0.040) increased risk for conotruncal heart defect in offspring, respectively, when compared with mothers carrying the wild type (+/+) genotype. Consistently, individuals carrying the genotype −/− of the Thymidylate synthase 6 bp deletion also had higher plasma homocysteine levels compared to the mothers carrying the genotype +/+ in the control and conotruncal heart defect groups (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively). However, our results showed that Thymidylate synthase 28 bp tandem repeat polymorphism was not associated with risk for conotruncal heart defect and plasma homocysteine level. In conclusion, our data suggest that the maternal Thymidylate synthase 6 bp deletion polymorphism might be associated with plasma homocysteine level and risk for conotruncal heart defect in offspring.
Li[Lix/3Mn2x/3M1−x]O2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) (HE-NMC) materials, which can be expressed as a combination of trigonal LiTMO2 (TM = transition metal) and monoclinic Li2MnO3 phases, are of great interest as high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, structural stability prevents their commercial adoption. To address this, Si doping was applied, resulting in improved stability. Raman and differential capacity analyses suggest that silicon doping improves the structural stability during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, the doped material exhibits a 10% higher capacity relative to the control. The superior capacity likely results from the increased lattice parameters as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the lower resistance during the first cycle found by impedance and direct current resistance (DCR) measurements. Density functional theory (DFT) predictions suggest that the observed lattice expansion is an indication of increased oxygen vacancy concentration and may be due to the Si doping.
Super-large-scale particle image velocimetry (SLPIV) and the associated flow visualization technique using natural snowfall have been shown to be effective tools to probe the turbulent velocity field and coherent structures around utility-scale wind turbines (Hong et al.Nat. Commun., vol. 5, 2014, article 4216). Here, we present a follow-up study using the data collected during multiple deployments from 2014 to 2016 around the 2.5 MW turbine at the EOLOS field station. These data include SLPIV measurements in the near wake of the turbine in a field of view of 115 m (vertical)
66 m (streamwise), and the visualization of tip vortex behaviour near the elevation corresponding to the bottom blade tip over a broad range of turbine operational conditions. The SLPIV measurements provide velocity deficit and turbulent kinetic energy assessments over the entire rotor span. The instantaneous velocity fields from SLPIV indicate the presence of intermittent wake contraction states which are in clear contrast with the expansion states typically associated with wind turbine wakes. These contraction states feature a pronounced upsurge of velocity in the central portion of the wake. The wake velocity ratio
, defined as the ratio of the spatially averaged velocity of the inner wake to that of the outer wake, is introduced to categorize the instantaneous near wake into expansion (
) and contraction states (
). Based on the
criterion, the wake contraction occurs 25 % of the time during a 30 min time duration of SLPIV measurements. The contraction states are found to be correlated with the rate of change of blade pitch by examining the distribution and samples of time sequences of wake states with different turbine operation parameters. Moreover, blade pitch change is shown to be strongly correlated to the tower and blade strains measured on the turbine, and the result suggests that the flexing of the turbine tower and the blades could indeed lead to the interaction of the rotor with the turbine wake, causing wake contraction. The visualization of tip vortex behaviour demonstrates the presence of a state of consistent vortex formation as well as various types of disturbed vortex states. The histograms corresponding to the consistent and disturbed states are examined over a number of turbine operation/response parameters, including turbine power and tower strain as well as the fluctuation of these quantities, with different conditional sampling restrictions. This analysis establishes a clear statistical correspondence between these turbine parameters and tip vortex behaviours under different turbine operation conditions, which is further substantiated by examining samples of time series of these turbine parameters and tip vortex patterns. This study not only offers benchmark datasets for comparison with the-state-of-the-art numerical simulation, laboratory and field measurements, but also sheds light on understanding wake characteristics and the downstream development of the wake, turbine performance and regulation, as well as developing novel turbine or wind farm control strategies.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), such as MoS2, WS2 have attracted attention due to their mechanical and electronic properties in their two dimensional (2D) structures. Here, we report a facile growth of monolayer TMDC using oxide source materials with the assistant of NaCl. The addition of NaCl can enhance the lateral growth and widen the growth window of TMDC. Through carefully controlling the growth parameters, large area growth of TMDC can be achieved. Two steps E-beam lithography was utilized to fabricate electrodes of TMDC. The phototransistors made from the CVD grown TMDC show strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC). It was finally shown that TMDC device capping with h-BN could have suppressed PPC effects.
We develop and validate a high-order reconstruction (HOR) method for the phase-resolved reconstruction of a nonlinear wave field given a set of wave measurements. HOR optimizes the amplitude and phase of
free wave components of the wave field, accounting for nonlinear wave interactions up to order
in the evolution, to obtain a wave field that minimizes the reconstruction error between the reconstructed wave field and the given measurements. For a given reconstruction tolerance,
are provided in the HOR scheme itself. To demonstrate the validity and efficacy of HOR, we perform extensive tests of general two- and three-dimensional wave fields specified by theoretical Stokes waves, nonlinear simulations and physical wave fields in tank experiments which we conduct. The necessary
, for general broad-banded wave fields, is shown to be substantially less than the free and locked modes needed for the nonlinear evolution. We find that, even for relatively small wave steepness, the inclusion of high-order effects in HOR is important for prediction of wave kinematics not in the measurements. For all the cases we consider, HOR converges to the underlying wave field within a nonlinear spatial-temporal predictable zone
which depends on the measurements and wave nonlinearity. For infinitesimal waves,
matches the linear predictable zone
, verifying the analytic solution presented in Qi et al. (Wave Motion, vol. 77, 2018, pp. 195–213). With increasing wave nonlinearity, we find that
contains and is generally greater than
provides a (conservative) estimate of
when the underlying wave field is not known.
Salt, promoting oxidative stress, contributes to insulin resistance, whereas K, inhibiting oxidative stress, improves insulin sensitivity. Oxidative stress activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is a central player in the induction of insulin resistance. Therefore, we hypothesised that NLRP3 inflammasome may mediate the effects of salt and K on insulin resistance. In all, fifty normotensive subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. The protocol included a low-salt diet for 7 d, then a high-salt diet for 7 d and a high-salt diet with K supplementation for another 7 d. In addition, THP-1 cells were cultured in different levels of Na with and without K. The results showed that salt loading elevated fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels, as well as insulin resistance, whereas K supplementation reversed them. Meanwhile, additional K reversed the active effects of high salt on NLRP3 inflammasome in both the subjects and THP-1 cells, and the change of insulin resistance index notably related with the alteration of plasma IL-1β, the index of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, during intervention in the subjects. Additional K ameliorated oxidative stress induced by high salt in both the subjects and cultured THP-1 cells, and the change of oxidative stress related with the alteration of plasma IL-1β during intervention in the subjects. In vitro, antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly prevented the active effects of high Na or oxidant Rosup on NLRP3 inflammasome, so did K. Our study indicates that oxidative stress modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the impacts of Na and K on insulin resistance.
Essentially all biological processes are highly dependent on the nanoscale architecture of the cellular components where these processes take place. Statistical measures, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the three-dimensional (3D) mass–density distribution, are widely used to characterize cellular nanostructure. However, conventional methods of reconstruction of the deterministic 3D mass–density distribution, from which these statistical measures can be calculated, have been inadequate for thick biological structures, such as whole cells, due to the conflict between the need for nanoscale resolution and its inverse relationship with thickness after conventional tomographic reconstruction. To tackle the problem, we have developed a robust method to calculate the ACF of the 3D mass–density distribution without tomography. Assuming the biological mass distribution is isotropic, our method allows for accurate statistical characterization of the 3D mass–density distribution by ACF with two data sets: a single projection image by scanning transmission electron microscopy and a thickness map by atomic force microscopy. Here we present validation of the ACF reconstruction algorithm, as well as its application to calculate the statistics of the 3D distribution of mass–density in a region containing the nucleus of an entire mammalian cell. This method may provide important insights into architectural changes that accompany cellular processes.
The TiO2 hollow spheres (TiO2HS) were successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method and added to Vulcan XC-72 carbon black as the support materials for Pd nanoparticles. A facile approach to promote ethylene glycol (EG) electrooxidation in alkaline medium was carried out by the PdBi/TiO2HS-C catalyst. The results show that Pd and Bi nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of carbon-doped TiO2 hollow spheres, the appropriate amount of Bi modification into Pd/TiO2HS-C catalyst can enhance remarkably the electrocatalytic activity for EG oxidation, in which the PdBi/TiO2HS-C (Pd:Bi = 1:0.1) catalyst exhibits excellent stability. The high electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique structure and high surface area of the TiO2HS, metal nanoparticles uniform distribution, the electronic effect between Pd and Bi as well as the bifunctional effect between metal nanoparticles and the support TiO2HS-C. The results obtained are significant for the development of new Pd-based TiO2HS-C electrocatalysts for alcohol fuel cells.
Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat–soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of GPCs. Results show that dietary GPCs decrease the feed conversion ratio and average daily gain from day 21 to day 42, increase breast muscle yield by day 42 and improve jejunum morphology between day 21 and day 42. Chicks fed 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of GPCs show increased breast muscle yield and exhibit improved jejunum morphologies than birds in the control group. Dietary GPCs fed at a level of 15 mg/kg markedly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity between day 21 and day 42, whereas a supplement of GPCs at 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased T-SOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde content by day 42. A supplement of 30 mg/kg of GPCs has no effect on antioxidant status but adversely affects the blood biochemical indices, as evidenced by increased creatinine content, increased alkaline phosphatase by day 21 and increased alanine aminotransferase by day 42 in plasma. GPC levels caused quadratic effect on growth, jejunum morphology and plasma antioxidant capacity. The predicted optimal GPC levels for best plasma antioxidant capacity at 42 days was 13 to 15 mg/kg, for best feed efficiency during grower phase was 16 mg/kg, for best jejunum morphology at 42 days was 17 mg/kg. In conclusion, GPCs (fed at a level of 13 to 17 mg/kg) have the potential to be a promising feed additive for broiler chicks.
Currently large sky area spectral surveys like SDSS, 2dF, and LAMOST, using the new generation of telescopes and observatories, have provided massive spectral data sets for astronomical research. Most of the data can be automatically handled with pipelines, but visually inspection by human eyes is still necessary in several situations, like low SNR spectra, QSO recognition and peculiar spectra mining. Using ASERA, A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant, we can set up a team spectral inspection platform. On a preselected spectral data set, members of a team can individually view spectra one by one, find the best match template and estimate the redshift. Results from different members will be gathered and merged to raise the team work efficiency. ASERA mainly targets the spectra of SDSS and LAMOST fits data formats. Other formats can be supported with some conversion. Spectral templates from SDSS and LAMOST pipelines are embedded and users can easily add their own templates. Convenient cross identification interfaces with SDSS, SIMBAD, VIZIER, NED and DSS are also provided. An application example targeting finding strong emission line spectra from LAMOST DR2 is presented.
For the vast amounts of spectra produced by LAMOST, the pipeline basing on PCAZ method is limited by the bad flux calibration and low S/N data. This work focuses on the study of the efficient recognition methods of galaxy spectra of LAMOST basing on spectral lines information. The new method searches spectral lines and extracts the information of spectral lines (position, height, and width et al.) automatically. Using the spectral lines information which are less influenced by the quality of flux calibration and the S/N ratio, galaxy spectra are recognized with the redshift measured through spectral lines matching method. The experiment verified it is feasible for the LAMOST galaxy spectra: the correct recognition rate > 80% for the data with SNR_g > 5, and > 90% for the data with SNR_r > 5. Compared with the redshift of SDSS, the systematic error of our method is 0, and the standard deviation of the error is 0.0002.
This study investigated the effects of L2 learning experience in relation to L1 background on hemispheric processing of Japanese pitch accent. Native Mandarin Chinese (tonal L1) and English (non-tonal L1) learners of Japanese were tested using dichotic listening. These listener groups were compared with those recruited in Wu, Tu & Wang (2012), including native Mandarin and English listeners without Japanese experience and native Japanese listeners. Results revealed an overall right-hemisphere preference across groups, suggesting acoustically oriented processing. Individual pitch accent patterns also revealed pattern-specific laterality differences, further reflecting acoustic-level processing. However, listener group differences indicated L1 effects, with the Chinese but not English listeners approximating the Japanese patterns. Furthermore, English learners but not naïve listeners exhibited a shift towards the native direction, revealing effects of L2 learning. These findings imply integrated effects of acoustic and linguistic aspects on Japanese pitch accent processing as a function of L1 and L2 experience.
X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and thermodynamic calculation were used to investigate the effect of microstructural condition of austenite on the microstructural characteristics of the nanoscale bainite ferrite in a high carbon steel. As austenization temperature increases to 950 °C, there are a higher vacancy concentration and homogenized distribution level of the interstitial carbon atom in the austenite grains. The movement of more di-vacancies combination could encourage the generation of the γ → α embryo nucleus. The interstitial carbon atoms have a stronger inhibitory effect on the formation of the γ → α embryo nucleus and homogenized distribution of the interstitial carbon atoms are able to make the inhibitory effect exist everywhere in the austenite grains. In consequence, the bainite ferrite could only nucleate in a smaller area (several nanometers), and grow into slender laths in a smaller width and a larger length.
Alkaline rock and carbonatite complexes, including the Prairie Lake complex (NW Ontario), are widely distributed in the Canadian region of the Midcontinent Rift in North America. It has been suggested that these complexes were emplaced during the main stage of rifting magmatism and are related to a mantle plume. The Prairie Lake complex is composed of carbonatite, ijolite and potassic nepheline syenite. Two samples of baddeleyite from the carbonatite yield U–Pb ages of 1157.2±2.3 and 1158.2±3.8 Ma, identical to the age of 1163.6±3.6 Ma obtained for baddeleyite from the ijolite. Apatite from the carbonatite yields the same U–Pb age of ~1160 Ma using TIMS, SIMS and laser ablation techniques. These ages indicate that the various rocks within the complex were synchronously emplaced at about 1160 Ma. The carbonatite, ijolite and syenite have identical Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions with a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ~0.70254, and positive εNd(t)1160 and εHf(t)1160 values of ~+3.5 and ~+4.6, respectively, indicating that the silicate and carbonatitic rocks are co-genetic and related by simple fractional crystallization from a magma derived from a weakly depleted mantle. These age determinations extend the period of magmatism in the Midcontinent Rift in the Lake Superior area to 1160 Ma, but do not indicate whether the magmatism is associated with passive continental rifting or the initial stages of plume-induced rifting.
Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curved
-quartz (10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and 17–100 keV, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.