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The Palaeo-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Tangjia–Sumdo accretionary complex belt, which separates the North and South Lhasa Terrane, remains controversial. Moreover, the lack of geological records restricts the understanding of the evolution of the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean from the middle Permian until the middle Triassic. Here we present zircon U–Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Yeqing gabbro. Zircon U–Pb geochronology yields ages from 254 ± 1 to 249 ± 1 Ma. In situ Hf isotopic analyses yield ϵHf(t) values of −0.2 to +6.3. These samples have high TiO2 (3.69 wt %) and P2O5 (0.78 wt %) contents, with typical patterns like ocean island basalt (OIB). Besides, they are classified as high-Nb basalts (HNBs) based on the high content of Nb (45.3–113.5 ppm). Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic compositions are similar to OIB, with initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7047–0.7054, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.512526–0.512647 and ϵNd(t) of 0.3–2.7. These signatures suggest that the Yeqing gabbro is mainly derived from low-degree melting of the garnet lherzolite mantle. Based on field observations of HNBs intruding into the continental margin and their geochemical characteristics, we infer that the Yeqing gabbro was generated in a subduction environment. Combined with the regional geology of the subduction environment and the evolution of oceanic islands in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, we propose that the Yeqing gabbro may represent a product of the asthenosphere upwelling through a slab window produced by subduction of seismic ridge in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, called plume – subduction-zone interaction, during the late Permian to early Triassic.
It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms and biological pathways underlying the relationship between obesity and serum lipid levels. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed to calculate heritability for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the genetic connections between BMI and the four classes of lipids using 1197 pairs of twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genomewide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genetic variants associated with BMI and lipids using the records of 457 individuals, and the results were further validated in 289 individuals. The genetic background affecting BMI may differ by gender, and the heritability of males and females was 71% (95% CI [.66, .75]) and 39% (95% CI [.15, .71]) respectively. BMI was positively correlated with TC, TG and LDL-C in phenotypic and genetic correlation, while negatively correlated with HDL-C. There were gender differences in the correlation between BMI and lipids. Bivariate GWAS analysis and validation stage found 7 genes (LOC105378740, LINC02506, CSMD1, MELK, FAM81A, ERAL1 and MIR144) that were possibly related to BMI and lipid levels. The significant biological pathways were the regulation of cholesterol reverse transport and the regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle clearance (p < .001). BMI and blood lipid levels were affected by genetic factors, and they were genetically correlated. There might be gender differences in their genetic correlation. Bivariate GWAS analysis found MIR144 gene and its related biological pathways may influence obesity and lipid levels.
Path planning is a key research issue in the field of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. In practical applications, multi-objective path planning is usually required for multi-UAVs, so this paper proposes the improved balanced artificial bee colony (IB-ABC) algorithm to optimize multi-objective path planning. The algorithm adopts the ABC algorithm that emphasizes the global search capability, which is based on iterative feedback information. It uses single-element points, multi-element points, and iteration constraints to optimize the strategies of employed bees, follower bees, and scout bees, respectively. In terms of time and priority, simulation experiments prove that the IB-ABC algorithm can balance local and global search capabilities, accelerate the speed of convergence, and realize multi-UAV path planning in complex mountain environments.
Liriomyza trifolii is a significant pest of vegetable and ornamental crops across the globe. Microwave radiation has been used for controlling pests in stored products; however, there are few reports on the use of microwaves for eradicating agricultural pests such as L. trifolii, and its effects on pests at the molecular level is unclear. In this study, we show that microwave radiation inhibited the emergence of L. trifolii pupae. Transcriptomic studies of L. trifolii indicated significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ‘post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones’, ‘sensory perception of pain/transcription repressor complex/zinc ion binding’ and ‘insulin signaling pathway’ when analyzed with the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, respectively. The top DEGs were related to reproduction, immunity and development and were significantly expressed after microwave radiation. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in the expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins or antioxidant enzymes in L. trifolii treated with microwave radiation as compared to the untreated control. The expression of DEGs encoding cuticular protein and protein takeout were silenced by RNA interference, and the results showed that knockdown of these two DEGs reduced the survival of L. trifolii exposed to microwave radiation. The results of this study help elucidate the molecular response of L. trifolii exposed to microwave radiation and provide novel ideas for control.
Phytoestrogens may have potential effects on hormone-related cancers (HRC) and cancer biomarkers, but the findings have been inconsistent so far. Participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 with information on the levels of urinary phytoestrogens, serum cancer biomarkers and cancer history were included. Sampling-weighted logistic regression models examined the association between urinary phytoestrogens concentrations (creatinine-standardised and log-transformed) and HRC, followed by stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, age and menopausal status for different gender. Correlation analyses between phytoestrogens and cancer biomarkers were performed. Of the total 8844 participants, there were 373 with HRC. We observed total isoflavone and enterodiol excretion were positively associated with HRC, especially in non-Hispanic white female subpopulations (Ptrend < 0·05). Similar association also existed in the total isoflavones and enterodiol levels with breast cancer. Whereas the highest concentration of total isoflavones was significantly linked to a reduced prevalence of HRC (OR = 0·40, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·84) in white males and of prostate cancer (OR = 0·40, 95 % CI: 0·18, 0·86). Among twenty-four participants with HRC, urinary equol concentration was positively correlated with CA15.3. Also, an inverse correlation of total prostate-specific antigens (PSA) and positive correlation of the PSA ratio with urinary enterolactone were detected in thirteen prostate cancer patients. Our findings indicated that higher concentrations of total isoflavones and enterodiol were positively associated with HRC. Urinary certain phytoestrogen excretion may affect serum cancer biomarker levels in cancer patients. But further prospective studies are needed to provide stronger evidence.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
One novel trend in reducing aero-engine noise is to utilize the silent flight mechanism of owls by applying perforations on fan stator vanes. Consequently, the establishment of relevant theoretical models is of particular interest. The current efforts made in this regard are just targeting the features based on two-dimensional models without including the three-dimensionality. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional solution for acoustic scattering by annular perforated cascades, and the dipole source corresponding to the unsteady pressure loading on the vanes is identified as the dominant sound source. By the singularity method, the acoustic response is obtained with the soft boundary condition applied on the vane surfaces. It is found that considerable noise reduction can be achieved for rotor–stator interaction with a modest uniform porosity, and accordingly two mechanisms are proposed to understand the effect of porosity on propagating sound. The first is that the perforations allowing a normal velocity across the vane reduce the unsteady loading induced by the incident disturbances. The second is that the three-dimensional interactions among the dipole sources at different positions are also dampened by the soft boundaries, thus the distribution of the unsteady pressure loading on the vanes will also change significantly compared to hard-vane cases. Non-uniform distributions of porosity are investigated further, indicating that perforations in the vane upstream area are more effective in reducing propagating noise. Our method is fully three-dimensional and capable of investigating non-uniform porosity, and thus is able to provide useful guidance for future soft vane designs.
Instrument delivery is critical part in vascular intervention surgery. Due to the soft-body structure of instruments, the relationship between manipulation commands and instrument motion is non-linear, making instrument delivery challenging and time-consuming. Reinforcement learning has the potential to learn manipulation skills and automate instrument delivery with enhanced success rates and reduced workload of physicians. However, due to the sample inefficiency when using high-dimensional images, existing reinforcement learning algorithms are limited on realistic vascular robotic systems. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes discrete soft actor-critic with auto-encoder (DSAC-AE) that augments SAC-discrete with an auxiliary reconstruction task. The algorithm is applied with distributed sample collection and parameter update in a robot-assisted preclinical environment. Experimental results indicate that guidewire delivery can be automatically implemented after 50k sampling steps in less than 15 h, demonstrating the proposed algorithm has the great potential to learn manipulation skill for vascular robotic systems.
To characterize factors associated with increased risk of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) complication.
Retrospective cohort study.
Four hospitals within NYU Langone Health (NYULH).
All patients aged ≥18 years with OPAT episodes who were admitted to an acute-care facility at NYULH between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020, who had an infectious diseases consultation during admission.
Overall, 8.45% of OPAT patients suffered a vascular complication and 6.04% suffered an antimicrobial complication. Among these patients, 19.95% had a 30-day readmission and 3.35% had OPAT-related readmission. Also, 1.58% of patients developed a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). After adjusting for key confounders, we found that patients discharged to a subacute rehabilitation center (SARC) were more likely to develop a CRBSI (odds ratio [OR], 4.75; P = .005) and to be readmitted for OPAT complications (OR, 2.89; P = .002). Loss to follow-up with the infectious diseases service was associated with increased risks of CRBSI (OR, 3.78; P = .007) and 30-day readmission (OR, 2.59; P < .001).
Discharge to an SARC is strongly associated with increased risks of readmission for OPAT-related complications and CRBSI. Loss to follow-up with the infectious diseases service is strongly associated with increased risk of readmission and CRBSI. CRBSI prevention during SARC admission is a critically needed public health intervention. Further work must be done for patients undergoing OPAT to improve their follow-up retention with the infectious diseases service.
We presented the first photometric and orbital period investigations for four W Ursae Majoris-type binaries: V473 And, V805 And, LQ Com, and EG CVn. The photometric solutions suggested that V805 And and LQ Com are two total-eclipse contact binaries, while V473 And and EG CVn are partial-eclipse ones. V473 And and LQ Com belong to the A-subtype contact binaries, while V805 And and EG CVn belong to the W subtype. The O’Connell effects found in the light curves of V805 And, LQ Com, and EG CVn can be interpreted as a result of a cool spot on the surface of their less massive and hotter primary components. Based on two different methods, the absolute physical parameters were properly determined. Combining the eclipse timings derived from our observations and survey’s data with those collected from literature, we investigated their orbital period variations. The results show that the orbital periods of V473 And, V805 And, and EG CVn are undergoing a secular decrease/increase superposed a periodic variation, while LQ Com exhibits a possible cyclic period variation with a small amplitude. The secular period changes are caused mainly by the mass transfer between two components, while the cyclic period oscillations may be interpreted as the results of either the light-time effect due to the third body or the cyclic magnetic activity. Finally, we made a statistical investigation for nearly 200 contact binaries with reliable physical parameters. The statistical results suggested that the W-subtype systems are more evolved than the A-subtype ones. Furthermore, the evolutionary direction of A-subtype into W-subtype systems is also discussed. The opposite evolutionary direction seems to be unlikely because it requires an increase of the total mass, the orbital angular momentum, and the temperature differences between two components of a binary system.
We report that vertical vibration with small amplitude and high frequency can tame convective heat transport in Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a turbulent regime. When vertical vibration is applied, a dynamically averaged ‘anti-gravity’ results that stabilizes the thermal boundary layer and inhibits the eruption of thermal plumes. This eventually leads to the attenuation of the intensity of large-scale mean flow and a significant suppression of turbulent heat transport. Accounting for both the thermally led buoyancy and the vibration-induced anti-gravitational effects, we propose an effective Rayleigh number that helps to extend the Grossmann–Lohse theory to thermal vibrational turbulence. The prediction of the reduction on both the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers obtained by the extended model is found to agree well with the numerical data. In addition, vibrational influences on the mean flow structure and the temporal evolution of Nusselt and Reynolds numbers are investigated. The non-uniform characteristic of vibration-induced ‘anti-gravity’ is discussed. The present findings provide a powerful basis for studying thermal vibrational turbulence and put forward a novel strategy for actively controlling thermal turbulence.
Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to examine whether the dysregulation of complement components contributes to brain structural defects in patients with mood disorders.
A total of 52 BD patients, 35 MDD patients, and 53 controls were recruited. The human complement immunology assay was used to measure the levels of complement factors. Whole brain-based analysis was performed to investigate differences in gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) among the BD, MDD, and control groups, and relationships were explored between neuroanatomical differences and levels of complement components.
GMV in the medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC) and middle cingulum was lower in both patient groups than in controls, while the CT of the left precentral gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus were affected differently in the two disorders. Concentrations of C1q, C4, factor B, factor H, and properdin were higher in both patient groups than in controls, while concentrations of C3, C4 and factor H were significantly higher in BD than in MDD. Concentrations of C1q, factor H, and properdin showed a significant negative correlation with GMV in the mOFC at the voxel-wise level.
BD and MDD are associated with shared and different alterations in levels of complement factors and structural impairment in the brain. Structural defects in mOFC may be associated with elevated levels of certain complement factors, providing insight into the shared neuro-inflammatory pathogenesis of mood disorders.
Whether starchy and nonstarchy vegetables have distinct impacts on health remains unknown. We prospectively investigated the intake of starchy and nonstarchy vegetables in relation to mortality risk in a nationwide cohort. Diet was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Deaths were identified via the record linkage to the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 4,904 deaths were documented among 40,074 participants aged 18 years or older. Compared to those with no consumption, participants with daily consumption of ≥ 1 serving of nonstarchy vegetables had a lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88, ptrend = 0.001). Dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99, ptrend = 0.023) and other nonstarchy vegetables (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.92, ptrend = 0.004) showed similar results. Total starchy vegetable intake exhibited a marginally weak inverse association with mortality risk (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-1.00, ptrend = 0.048), while potatoes showed a null association (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-1.06, ptrend = 0.186). Restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a linear dose‒response relationship between vegetable intake and death risk, with a plateau at over 300 and 200 grams/day for total and nonstarchy vegetables, respectively. Compared to starchy vegetables, nonstarchy vegetables might be more beneficial to health, although both showed a protective association with mortality risk. The risk reduction in mortality plateaued at approximately 200 grams/day for nonstarchy vegetables and 300 grams/day for total vegetables.
At the intersection of behavioral and institutional studies of policy making lie a series of questions about how elite choices affect mass public opinion. Scholars have considered how judicial decisions—especially US Supreme Court decisions—affect individuals’ support for specific policy positions. These studies yield a series of competing findings. Whereas past research uses opinion surveys to assess how individuals’ opinions are shaped, we believe that modern techniques for analyzing social media provide analytic leverage that traditional approaches do not offer. We present a framework for employing Twitter data to study mass opinion discourse. We find that the Supreme Court’s decisions relating to same-sex marriage in 2013 had significant effects on how the public discussed same-sex marriage and had a polarizing effect on mass opinion. We conclude by connecting these findings and our analyses to larger problems and debates in the area of democratic deliberation and big-data analysis.
This paper presents a novel method to improve the working bandwidth and radiation intensity of piezoelectric antenna by using external circuit. This method makes the piezoelectric antenna combined with roles of high radiation intensity and multiple resonant frequencies without changing the structural size of the piezoelectric antenna. The experimental results show that, compared with the original piezoelectric antenna, the tuning range of the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric antenna caused by the series capacitance and inductance is +13.6 and −24%, respectively. The series inductance will produce new resonance frequency, which provides a new method for the multi-band operation of the piezoelectric antenna. The LLC (series and parallel circuit) composite circuit can increase the number of resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric antenna from 1 to 3, and the S11 at the resonant frequencies are all lower than −10 dB, and the radiated magnetic field of the piezoelectric antenna is increased by 42.3% at least. This method makes the piezoelectric antenna have the dual functions of high radiation intensity and multi-band, which has great significance for broadening the application field of piezoelectric antenna.
Variations in pubertal timing and tempo have relevance to psychosocial development. Accounting for pubertal timing, tempo, and psychosocial development simultaneously in a model remains challenging. This study aimed to document the typology of pubertal development in a cohort of Taiwanese adolescent boys and then to examine how the associations between psychosocial variables across time vary by the patterns of pubertal development. A group of adolescent boys (n = 1,368) reported pubertal signs and psychosocial variables for 3 years since seventh grade. The growth mixture model revealed three major classes of pubertal transition: average pubertal growth, late-onset with rapid catch-up, and late-onset with slow catch-up. In a cross-lagged panel model, the multigroup analysis found the regression coefficients mostly invariant across all three classes, except those between deviant behavior and subsequent changes in depressive symptoms that were significantly positive only in the late-onset with slow catch-up group. Adolescent boys in this group were estimated to have the highest marginal level of depressive symptoms and deviant behavior in ninth grade among the three classes. Our study highlights the heterogeneity in boys’ pubertal development and the role of the pubertal development pattern in their psychosocial development.
The differential impact of depression across different periods in life on mortality remains inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association of depression that occurs at different age with all-cause mortality, and to explore the roles of dementia, as well as genetic and early-life environmental factors, in this association.
From the Swedish Twin Registry, 44,919 twin individuals were followed for up to 18 years. Depression was ascertained using the National Patient Registry and categorized as early-life (<45 years), midlife (45–64 years), and late-life (≥65 years) depression according to the age of the first diagnosis. Deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Register. Generalized estimating equation, generalized structural equation, and conditional logistic regression were used for unmatched, mediation, and co-twin matched analyses, respectively.
In unmatched analyses, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality were 1.71 (1.46–2.00) for depression at any age, 1.72 (1.36–2.17) for early-life, 1.51 (1.19–1.90) for midlife, and 4.10 (2.02–8.34) for late-life depression. Mortality was significantly higher in individuals with late-life depression than those with earlier-life depression (p < 0.05). The mediation analysis showed that 59.83% of the depression-mortality association was mediated by dementia. No significant difference in ORs between the unmatched and co-twin matched analyses was observed (p = 0.09).
Depression is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and dementia mediates approximately 60% of the impact of depression on mortality in late life. Genetic and early-life environmental factors may not play a significant role in the depression-mortality association.
COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses.
Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network.
At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly ‘motor abnormality’ and ‘sad mood’, respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak (‘appetite change’ and ‘trouble of relaxing’) were totally different from those at other pandemic phases (‘sad mood’).
This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.