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Flavonoid-rich foods have shown a beneficial effect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in short-term randomized trials and animal experiments. It is uncertain whether the usual dietary intake of flavonoids may benefit patients with NAFLD. This study evaluated the association between the usual intake of total flavonoids and their subclasses and the risk of progression in NAFLD. The prospective study included 2694 adults from the Guangzhou Nutrition & Health Study. Face-to-face interviews using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire were administered to assess habitual dietary flavonoid intake, while abdominal ultrasonography was conducted to evaluate the presence and degree of NAFLD, with measurements conducted three years apart. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher flavonoid intakes were gradely associated with reduced risks of worsen NAFLD status. The relative risks (95% CI) of worsening (vs. non-worsening) NAFLD in the highest (vs. lowest) quintile were 0.71 (0.54, 0.93) for total flavonoids, 0.74 (0.57, 0.95) for flavanones, 0.74 (0.56, 0.96) for flavan-3-ols, 0.90 (0.68, 1.18) for flavonols, 0.73 (0.56, 0.93) for flavones, 0.79 (0.61, 1.02) for isoflavones and 0.74 (0.57, 0.96) for anthocyanins. Sub-group analysis found that the beneficial associations were evident only in overweight/obese participants (P-interactions=0.015). An L-shaped (non-linear) relationship was observed between total flavonoid intake and the risk of NAFLD progression. Path analyses showed that the association between flavonoids and NAFLD progression was mediated by decreases in serum cholesterol and HOMA-IR. This prospective study showed that higher flavonoids intake was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD progression in the elderly overweight/obese Chinese population.
To understand the complex relationships between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other frequently comorbid conditions, a growing number of studies have investigated the emergence of ASD during infancy. This research has suggested that symptoms of ASD and highly related comorbid conditions emerge from complex interactions between neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities and early environments, indicating that developing treatments to prevent ASD is highly challenging. However, it also suggests that attenuating the negative effects of ASD on future development once identified is possible. The present paper builds on this by conceptualizing developmental delays in nonsocial skills as the potential product of altered caregiver–infant interactions following the emergence of ASD during infancy. And, following emerging findings from caregiver–infant dyadic head-mounted eye-tracking (D-ET) research, it also suggests that a multiple pathway model of joint attention can provide mechanistic insights into how ASD alters the ability of caregiver and infant to create a context for infant learning. The potential for this view to inform early intervention is further discussed and illustrated through D-ET data collected prior to and following a brief, parent-mediated intervention for infant ASD. While promising, further research informing how a multiple pathway model of joint attention can inform ASD early intervention is needed.
From 21 January 2020 to 9 February 2020, three family clusters involving 31 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were identified in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the family cluster patients were analysed and compared with those of 43 contemporaneous sporadic cases. The three index cases transmitted the infection to 28 family members 2–10 days before illness onset. Overall, 28 of the 41 sporadic cases and three of 31 patients in the family clusters came back from Wuhan (65.12 vs. 9.68%, P< 0.001). In terms of epidemiological characters and clinical symptoms, no significant differences were observed between the family cluster and sporadic cases. However, the lymphocyte counts of sporadic cases were significantly lower than those of family cluster cases ((1.32 ± 0.55) × 109/l vs. (1.63 ± 0.70) × 109/l, P = 0.037), and the proportion of hypoalbuminaemia was higher in sporadic cases (18/43, 41.86%) than in the family clusters (6/31, 19.35%) (P < 0.05). Within the family cluster, the second- and third-generation cases had milder clinical manifestations, without severe conditions, compared with the index and first-generation cases, indicating that the virulence gradually decreased following passage through generations within the family clusters. Close surveillance, timely recognition and isolation of the suspected or latent patient is crucial in preventing family cluster infection.
A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 year in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41-60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (GNHS) 2011-2013 and 2014-2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e., percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs, and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3-year follow-up [β(SE): 0.322 (0.157), 0.309 (0.142), and 0.303 (0.145), respectively; P < 0.05]. The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all P-trend < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
We present a general simulation approach for fluid–solid interactions based on the fully Eulerian reference map technique. The approach permits the modelling of one or more finitely deformable continuum solid bodies interacting with a fluid and with each other. A key advantage of this approach is its ease of use, as the solid and fluid are discretized on the same fixed grid, which greatly simplifies the coupling between the phases. We use the method to study a number of illustrative examples involving an incompressible Navier–Stokes fluid interacting with multiple neo-Hookean solids. Our method has several useful features including the ability to model solids with sharp corners and the ability to model actuated solids. The latter permits the simulation of active media such as swimmers, which we demonstrate. The method is validated favourably in the flag-flapping geometry, for which a number of experimental, numerical and analytical studies have been performed. We extend the flapping analysis beyond the thin-flag limit, revealing an additional destabilization mechanism to induce flapping.
To overcome the steric effect of norbornene (NB), first-generation Grubbs’ catalyst (GC1) was used as the catalyst to graft NB onto the polypropylene (PP) chain by reactive extrusion. Instead of harsh reaction conditions, such as anhydrous, which was the general method to synthesize NB polymers, this convenient method would be easier to industrialize. The mechanism of grafting was studied by using Fourier Transform InfraRed spectra and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that GC1 could initiate the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB to obtain short NB chain-grafted PP-g-NB. The rheological behavior showed that the grafted NB short chains on PP-g-NB increase the shear thinning of the polymers and decrease the system viscosity.
In this study, the Ni/rGO hollow microspheres were synthesized and combined with epoxy foam to prepare structural absorbing materials. The diameter of obtained rGO hollow microspheres loaded with Ni nanoparticles was around 10 μm and the thickness of the spherical wall was about 70 nm. The Ni/rGO/EP composite foam exhibited better microwave absorption properties than that of rGO/EP and Ni/EP composite foam. The minimum reflection loss value (RLmin) could reach −58.23 dB at 8.4 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm, and the effective bandwidth with RLmin lower than −10 dB is 2.21 GHz ranging from 7.46 to 9.67 GHz. The porous structure of Ni/rGO hollow microspheres and their filled epoxy foam can refract and absorb the electromagnetic waves repeatedly, which equals to extend the propagation path of microwave, thus, electromagnetic loss capacity was improved obviously.
The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
The satellite constellation with automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast on-board is of great importance for air traffic surveillance due to its multiple advantages compared with traditional methods. Although some research has been conducted on satellite constellation design based on coverage performance, the findings cannot entirely satisfy all the requirements of air traffic surveillance owing to the lack of analysis on inter-satellite links and network transmission. This paper presents a novel design of a low earth orbit satellite constellation network to solve this problem. Based on the requirements of space-based surveillance, an evaluation model of constellation performance is proposed concerning coverage, link and transmission. The simulation results show that the evaluation model can reflect the performance of a satellite constellation network designed for a space-based surveillance system, and a 55-satellite constellation design scheme with fairly good performance can fulfil the function of global real-time air traffic surveillance.
In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The ‘Wuhan lockdown’ and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.
This study focuses on the process of the circulation deposition in the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). The growth rate of circulation and its sources are theoretically and numerically studied to reveal the physical mechanism of the viscosity in the circulation deposition process. We derive a predicting model of the circulation rate for RMI. More importantly, all the contributing sources are separately predicted. Particularly, the viscous source, which previously lacked theoretical or numerical investigations, is efficiently predicted. The RMI problems in a large range of initial conditions are simulated with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to verify our predicting model and further reveal the circulation deposition mechanism. The DSMC simulations provide reliable quantification of the circulation deposition (especially viscous contribution) for RMI due to its molecular nature. Our model predicts the circulation rate, baroclinic and viscous sources accurately for all the cases in comparison with the simulations. A new physical insight into the mechanism of viscosity in RMI is provided. Unlike the previous understandings that nearly all circulation deposition in RMI comes from the baroclinic source, this study reveals the hidden positive contribution of the viscous source, especially for high Mach number conditions (up to 11 % of total circulation rate). For RMI, the large viscosity gradient inside the shock waves plays a crucial role in the circulation deposition even under high Reynolds number conditions. Our study also provides exciting opportunities to further understand the viscous contribution to the vorticity dynamics in the reshocked RMI and shock wave–turbulence interactions.
A separately-designable diplexer with multiple transmission zeroes (TZs) using common stub-loaded stepped impedance resonator (SIR) is proposed. The common stub-loaded SIR operating in third harmonic (f3) and fifth harmonic (f5) is used for designing the two diplexer channels. The stub is loaded at the voltage-null point of f3 of the SIR. It can separately control f5 but has no effect on f3 so that the two channels can be separately designed. Meanwhile, the input port is tap-connected to the common stub-loaded SIR, which necessarily produces a TZ between f3 and f5, existing in both channel filtering responses. By properly choosing coupling schemes of the two channels, more TZs are realized at the desired locations. Thanks to the generation of the multiple TZs, both passband selectivity and isolation between the two channels are improved significantly. For demonstration, a diplexer operating at 2.22 and 2.95 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. The simulated and measured results are presented, showing good agreement.
The core toroidal plasma intrinsic rotation has been studied by experiments and simulations in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). The direction of core intrinsic rotation in the J-TEXT plasma is counter-current. As the plasma density ramps up, the rotation velocity increases in the counter-current direction. By comparing four different electron densities, linear local gyrokinetic simulations have been performed by the Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment code for the first time on J-TEXT. It is found that the most dominant turbulence is the ion temperature gradient at
is the minor radius of the plasma and this is unchanged during the plasma density ramp up. By scanning the radial wave vectors, it is found that the residual stress term reverses from negative to positive when the plasma density exceeds a certain threshold. The pinch term is larger than the residual stress term at all four electron densities, which means that the pinch term is always dominant in the core of a J-TEXT plasma.
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16–27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7–952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.
Indoor positioning systems have received increasing attention for supporting location-based services in indoor environments. Wi-Fi based indoor localisation has become attractive due to its extensive distribution and low cost properties. IEEE 802.11-2016 now includes a Wi-Fi Fine Time Measurement (FTM) protocol which can be used for Wi-Fi ranging between intelligent terminal and Wi-Fi access point. This paper introduces a framework of Wi-Fi FTM data acquisition and processing that can be used for indoor localisation. We analyse the main factors that affect the accuracy of Wi-Fi ranging and propose a calibration, filtering and modelling algorithm that can effectively reduce the ranging error caused by clock deviation, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and multipath propagation. Experimental results show that the proposed calibration and filtering method is able to achieve metre-level ranging accuracy in case of line-of-sight by using large bandwidth. Estimation results also show that the proposed Wi-Fi ranging model provides an accurate ranging performance in NLOS and multipath contained indoor environment; the final positioning error is less than 2·2 m with a stable output frequency of 3 Hz.
Dietary salt intake may vary depending on different lifestyles. We aimed to estimate the different salt intakes and evaluate the knowledge and self-awareness about salt among people speaking the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects in the Chaoshan region of southern China.
The study followed a cluster sampling of residents in Chaoshan region. General characteristics, lifestyles, health status as well as knowledge and self-awareness related to salt intake were investigated using a questionnaire. Anthropometric variables as well as Na and K excretion in a 24-h urine collection were measured.
Chaoshan region of China.
Four hundred fifteen adults who spoke only one of these three dialects.
The salt intake of adults who spoke the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects was 7·19 (interquartile range (IQR) 5·29–10·17), 9·03 (IQR 6·62–11·54) and 10·12 (IQR 7·61–12·82) g/d, respectively, with significant differences between Teochew and Teochew–Hakka speakers and between Teochew and Hakka speakers (both P < 0·05). The Na:K ratio for adults who spoke the three dialects was 3·00 (IQR 2·00–4·11), 3·50 (IQR 2·64–4·82) and 4·52 (IQR 3·35–5·97), respectively, and differed significantly among the groups (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed increased Na:K ratio associated with hypertension (β = 0·71, P = 0·043) in Hakka speakers. Knowledge and self-awareness about salt intake were poor in this population.
Salt intake was closely related to lifestyles and was higher than the upper limit (5 g/d) recommended by the WHO in adults of Chaoshan, especially those speaking the Hakka dialect.
Helicity, as one of only two inviscid invariants in three-dimensional turbulence, plays an important role in the generation and evolution of turbulent flows. Through theoretical analyses, we find that there are two channels in the helicity cascade process, which differs dramatically from the traditional viewpoint. In this paper, we have conducted important research on the newly proposed dual-channel helicity cascade theory, including vortex dynamic processes, intermittent discrepancies, tensor geometries, etc. The first channel mainly originates from the vortex twisting process, and the second channel mainly originates from the vortex stretching process. Antisymmetric tensors are introduced to the derivations of dual-channel helicity cascade theory, and a complex rotation frame leads to a higher helicity transfer efficiency. By analysing data from direct numerical simulations of typical turbulent flows, we find that these two channels behave differently. The ensemble averages of helicity flux in different channels are equal in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, while they are different in other types of turbulent flows. The intermittency of the second channel is stronger than that of the first channel. In addition, we find a novel mechanism of hindered or even inverse energy cascades, which could be attributed to the second-channel helicity flux.
Social isolation and loneliness have each been associated with cognitive decline, but most previous research is limited to Western populations. This study examined the relationships of social isolation and loneliness on cognitive function among Chinese older adults.
This study used two waves of data (2011 and 2015) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and analyses were restricted to those respondents aged 50 and older. Social isolation, loneliness, and cognitive function were measured at baseline. Follow-up measures on cognitive function were obtained for 7761 participants (mean age = 60.97, s.d. = 7.31; male, 50.8%). Lagged dependent variable models adjusted for confounding factors were used to evaluate the association between baseline isolation, loneliness, and cognitive function at follow-up.
Loneliness was significantly associated with the cognitive decline at follow-up (episodic memory: β = −0.03, p < 0.01; mental status: β = −0.03, p < 0.01) in the partially adjusted models. These associations became insignificant after additional confounding variables (chronic diseases, health behaviors, disabilities, and depressive symptoms) were taken into account (all p > 0.05). By contrast, social isolation was significantly associated with decreases in all cognitive function measures at follow-up (episodic memory: β = −0.05, p < 0.001; mental status: β = −0.03, p < 0.01) even after controlling for loneliness and all confounding variables.
Social isolation is associated with cognitive decline in Chinese older adults, and the relationships are independent of loneliness. These findings expand our knowledge about the links between social relationships and the cognitive function in non-Western populations.