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This innovative book models pollution mitigation as a negative externality whilst also providing desirable and useful solutions, such as establishing the triangular equivalence relationship among the Lindahl equilibrium without transfer, the Nash bargaining solution with the payoffs of the Cournot-Nash equilibrium as the status quo point, and the social optimum under the Lindahl weights. By introducing programming algorithms to validate these relationships numerically, Zili Yang bridges the gap between analytical results and empirical modelling, ultimately solving the Lindahl equilibrium and hybrid Nash equilibria in the influential RICE model. This text demonstrates the complexity and variety of environment externality problems, ranging from mixed externality to correlated externalities to environmental externality under IRS and policy applications. Integrating theory, algorithms and applications in a comprehensive framework, The Environment and Externality will benefit scholars and students working across environmental, resource and climate change economics.
Dominic Meng-Hsuan Yang examines one of the least understood migrations in modern East Asia - the human exodus from China to Taiwan when Chiang Kai-shek's regime collapsed in 1949. Peeling back layers of Cold War ideological constructs, he tells a very different story from the conventional Chinese civil war historiography that focuses on debating the reasons for Communist success and Nationalist failure. Yang lays bare the traumatic aftermath of the Chinese Communist Revolution for the hundreds of thousands of ordinary people who were forcibly displaced from their homes across the sea. Underscoring the displaced population's trauma of living in exile and their poignant 'homecomings' four decades later, he presents a multi-event trajectory of repeated traumatization with recurring searches for home, belonging, and identity. This thought-provoking study challenges established notions of trauma, memory, diaspora, and reconciliation.
Electronic skins are critical for many applications in human-machine-environment interactions. Tactile sensitivity over large areas can be especially applied to prosthetics. Moreover, the potential for wearables, interactive surfaces, and human robotics have propelled research in this area. In this Element, we provide an account and directional atlas of the progress in materials and devices for electronic skins, in the context of sensing principles and skin-like features. Additionally, we give an overview of essential electronic circuits and systems used in large-area tactile sensor arrays. Finally, we present the challenges and provide perspectives on future developments.
In 2017, the Onassis Cultural Center in New York hosted an exhibition called “A World of Emotions” (Levere, 2017). This exhibition was publicized as “Bringing to vivid life the emotions of the people of ancient Greece, and prompting questions about how we express, control, and manipulate feelings in our own society” (Onassis USA, 2017). The historical epoch covered was from 700 BC to AD 200, very roughly from a time near the end of the classical period to the middle of the Hellenistic period. One commentary on this exhibition suggested: “These objects provide a timely opportunity to think about the role of feelings in our personal, social and political lives and help advance the relatively new field of the history of emotions” (Levere, 2017).
Over the past few decades, researchers have made notable strides in understanding the processes underlying workplace affect. In particular, rigorous measures and new theoretical models for the study of workplace affect have been developed, validated, and updated with data gathered from employee samples across different industries, countries, and cultures (e.g. Bledow, Schmitt, Frese, & Kühnel, 2011; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Watson, 2000; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996; Yang, Simon, Wang, & Zheng, 2016). As shown in the array of chapters in this volume, exciting progress has been made on many fronts. Yet there are many separate streams of research that have been developed in a relatively independent fashion. This chapter will propose some directions for future research that could integrate different areas of research on emotional experiences at work. We propose and discuss the following ideas: integration of research on general and discrete emotions; research taking a broader view of emotional management; new research methods and new perspectives; and the implications of social changes for research on workplace affect and for the application of such research.
Building on past reviews on affect research (e.g. Akinola, 2010; Ashkanasy & Dorris, 2017; Larsen & Fredrickson, 1999; Mauss & Robinson, 2009; Peterson, Reina, Waldman, & Becker, 2015), in this chapter we review existing quantitative methods to measure workplace affect and affect regulation, and propose directions for future development in quantitative measurement of these processes. We endorse that affect is a multifaceted, dynamic process comprised of psychological and physiological experiences that informs thought and motivates action (Izard, 2009). Affect can be understood as a trait (general tendency to experience positive or negative feelings) or a state (momentary emotions in response to certain events). Consistent with the rest of this handbook, we use “affect” as an umbrella term that encompasses emotion, feeling, and other related terms.
Previous work led to the proposal that the precision feeding of a high-concentrate diet may represent a potential method with which to enhance feed efficiency (FE) when rearing dairy heifers. However, the physiological and metabolic mechanisms underlying this approach remain unclear. This study used metabolomics analysis to investigate the changes in plasma metabolites of heifers precision-fed diets containing a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios. Twenty-four half-sib Holstein heifers, with a similar body condition, were randomly assigned into four groups and precision fed with diets containing different proportions of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on DM). After 28 days of feeding, blood samples were collected 6 h after morning feeding and gas chromatography time-of-ﬂight/MS was used to analyze the plasma samples. Parameters of oxidative status were also determined in the plasma. The FE (after being corrected for gut fill) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing level of dietary concentrate. Significant changes were identified for 38 different metabolites in the plasma of heifers fed different dietary forage to concentrate ratios. The main pathways showing alterations were clustered into those relating to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism; all of which have been previously associated with FE changes in ruminants. Heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher (P < 0.01) plasma total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase but lower (P ≤ 0.02) hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide than heifers fed with a low-concentrate diet, which might indicate a lower plasma oxidative status in the heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Thus, heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher FE and antioxidant capacity but a lower plasma oxidative status as well as changed carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Our findings provide a better understanding of how forage to concentrate ratios affect FE and metabolism in the precision-fed growing heifers.