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'Non-finiteness' is a phenomenon that occurs in most natural languages, whereby a verb is not inflected by grammatical tense, and does not possess the grammatical features of aspect, mood or voice. Various theories have been developed to explain their distribution and their role in clause structure, but many instances of non-finiteness remain unaccounted for. Taking a functional approach, this study proposes a 'process relation framework' to explain the more complex, previously unaccounted for, instances of non-finiteness in clause structure. It applies the framework comparatively to non-finiteness in English and Chinese, showing how it can be applied across typologically distinct languages. Drawing on corpus-based instances and observations, it introduces numerous thought-provoking cases, in which constructional (or combining) types and the predictability of non-finiteness co-occur. In terms of application, non-finiteness is decisive in categorising language types, and it is critical in processing natural languages, text segmentation and annotation in particular.
Presenting students with a comprehensive and efficient approach to the modelling, simulation, and analysis of dynamic systems, this textbook addresses mechanical, electrical, thermal and fluid systems, feedback control systems, and their combinations. It features a robust introduction to fundamental mathematical prerequisites, suitable for students from a range of backgrounds; clearly established three-key procedures – fundamental principles, basic elements, and ways of analysis – for students to build on in confidence as they explore new topics; over 300 end-of-chapter problems, with solutions available for instructors, to solidify a hands-on understanding; and clear and uncomplicated examples using MATLAB®/Simulink® and Mathematica®, to introduce students to computational approaches. With a capstone chapter focused on the application of these techniques to real-world engineering problems, this is an ideal resource for a single-semester course in dynamic systems for students in mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering.
Written for use in teaching and for self-study, this book provides a comprehensive and pedagogical introduction to groups, algebras, and topology in physics. It assimilates modern applications of these concepts, assuming only an advanced undergraduate preparation in either mathematics or specialized fields of physics. It provides a balanced view of group theory, Lie algebras, and topological concepts, while emphasizing a broad range of modern applications such as Lorentz and Poincaré invariance, coherent states, quantum phase transitions, the quantum Hall effect, and Chern numbers, among many others. An example-based approach is adopted from the outset, and the book includes worked examples and informational boxes to illustrate and expand on key concepts. 344 homework problems are included, with full solutions available to instructors, and a subset of 172 of these problems have full solutions available to students.
The Silurian and Devonian plant fossil record is the basis for our understanding of the early evolution of land plants, yet our appreciation of early global phytogeographic evolution has been constrained by the focus of most studies on deposits from Europe, North America, and, more recently, South China. Devonian plants have been recorded rarely from northeastern China, and among previous records, few plants have been illustrated and formally described. In this article, megafossil plants representing a Late Devonian-aged (probably Famennian) flora are described from a locality at northern Sonid Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia, NE China. The flora includes Melvillipteris sonidia new species, Archaeopteris sp., and fragments of some other plants. The new plant shows main axes and two orders of lateral branches. The first-order branches of this plant show a typical zigzag appearance and are borne in pairs on main axes. Second-order branches are straight or slightly flexed, and are borne helically or alternately on first-order branches. Sterile ultimate appendages and fertile structures of M. sonidia n. sp. are borne alternately on second-order branches. An associated palynological assemblage, as well as U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains from adjacent horizons, are also reported, indicating a Late Devonian age in accord with the megafossil plants. The present study contributes to our appreciation of the Devonian floristic diversity of the Xing'an Block, and, through our review of the record of early vascular plants from NE China, more broadly to the understanding of the mid-latitude vegetation of the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Devonian.
After Cage and Tudor visited Japan in 1962, the term ‘Cage Shock’ circulated widely among the Japanese public. My interviews with Japanese composers suggest that the term ‘Cage Shock’ oversimplifies the reception of Cage's debut in Japan. Composer Yūji Takahashi stated that Cage would have met Japanese audiences well prepared for his visit by musical trends present in Japan as early as the late 1940s. Building on the statement that the Japanese avant-garde was thriving before Cage visited Japan in 1962, this article aims to deconstruct the term ‘Cage Shock’ by restoring the complexity of the reception of Cage in Japan and by analysing the reasons why critics adopted the term ‘Cage Shock’. I argue that ‘Cage Shock’ has functioned more as a media buzzword that sensationalizes the story of Cage's impact on Japan than as an objective description of Japanese reaction to Cage.
Methomyl is a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide that has a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. However, there have been no studies on the toxicity of methomyl in female mammalian oocytes. This study investigated the toxic effects of environmental oestrogen methomyl exposure on mouse oocyte maturation and its possible mechanisms. Our results indicated that methomyl exposure inhibited polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes. Compared with that in the control group, in the methomyl treatment group, superoxide anion free radicals in oocytes were significantly increased. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of metaphase II stage oocytes in the methomyl treatment group was significantly decreased, resulting in reduced mouse oocyte quality. After 8.5 h of exposure to methomyl, metaphase I stage mouse oocytes displayed an abnormal spindle morphology. mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Caspase-3 in methomyl-treated oocytes increased, which confirmed the apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicated that mouse oocyte maturation is defective after methomyl treatment at least through disruption of spindle morphology, mitochondrial function and by induction of oxidative stress.
The Ediacaran tubular fossils Cloudina, Sinotubulites, and Conotubus are taxonomically revised with type materials. It is proposed that Aulophycus lucianoi Beurlen and Sommer, 1957, is not a senior synonym of Cloudina hartmannae Germs, 1972. Instead, most of its syntypes may be assigned to Sinotubulites or other taxa. Lectotypes of Sinotubulites baimatuoensis Chen et al., 1981, and Conotubus hemiannulatus Zhang and Lin in Lin et al., 1986, are designated from rediscovered syntypes. Sinotubulites baimatuoensis Chen et al., 1981, is reported from the Mooifontein Member of Nama Group at Aar Farm, Namibia. Cloudina waldei Hahn and Pflug, 1985, is assigned to Sinotubulites baimatuoensis, and thus its occurrence range is extended to Brazil. The lectotype of Conotubus hemiannulatus shows corrugations and annulations on the surface distinguishing it from Cloudina and other collared Ediacaran tubular fossils. Based on the taxonomic revision, we propose a Cloudina hartmannae Interval Zone for the terminal Ediacaran with the upper boundary defined by the first appearance datum of Protohertzina anabarica (i.e., the index fossil of the early Cambrian Anabarites trisulcatus-Protohertzina anabarica Assemblage Zone).
Research on identity threat has predominantly focused on the consequences of threat to some ascribed or involuntary identities, while overlooking individuals' responses to occupational identity threat. Integrating identity theory with identity threat literature, we argue that encountering occupational identity threat promotes negative emotion and feedback-seeking behavior, and negative emotion further mediates the relationship between occupational identity threat and feedback-seeking behavior. Moreover, individuals' performance self-esteem strengthens both the direct effect of occupational identity threat on negative emotion, and the indirect effect of occupational identity threat on feedback-seeking behavior through negative emotion. The results from two experimental studies and one field study provide support for these predictions. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major challenge in prehospital bleeding control and is associated with high mortality. This study was performed to estimate medical knowledge and the perceived barriers to information acquisition among health-care workers (HCWs) regarding NCTH in China.
A self-administered and validated questionnaire was distributed among 11 WeChat groups consisting of HCWs engaged in trauma, emergency, and disaster rescue.
A total of 575 HCWs participated in this study. In the knowledge section, the majority (87.1%) denied that successful hemostasis could be obtained by external compression. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of HCWs exhibited positive attitudes toward the important role of NCTH in reducing prehospital preventable death (90.4%) and enthusiasm for continuous learning (99.7%). For practice, fewer than half of HCWs (45.7%) had heard of NCTH beforehand, only a minority (14.3%) confirmed they had attended relevant continuing education, and 16.3% HCWs had no access to updated medical information. The most predominant barrier to information acquisition was the lack of continuing training (79.8%).
Knowledge and practice deficiencies do exist among HCWs. Obstacles to update medical information warrant further attention. Furthermore, education program redesign is also needed.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12,237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007-2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013-2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6.01 (5.09-6.06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest METS-VF quartile was 5.97 (4.28-8.32), with a per 1-standard deviation increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0.0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age, or body mass index.
This study investigates the influence of managerial cognition and attention allocation on firms’ responses to negative performance feedback. We explore how managerial cognition, as shaped by managers’ experiences, connections, positions, and industry environments, affects underperforming firms’ attention allocation and, consequently, their decisions to invest in innovation. Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Chinese high-tech firms from 2009 to 2017, we find that firms increase investment in research and development (R&D) when performance falls below aspiration levels. We also document that underperforming firms are associated with an even larger R&D investment increase when their CEOs have an R&D or engineering background, serve simultaneously as the board chair, or are not politically connected. In addition, we highlight the moderating effects of industry competition and industry norms on the relationship between firm underperformance and R&D intensity. We conclude that managerial cognition affects firms’ allocation of attention to innovation as a solution for closing performance gaps and shapes corporate responses to negative performance feedback.
In 2015, an international outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infections among patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgeries was associated with exposure to contaminated LivaNova 3T heater-cooler devices (HCDs). From June 2017 to October 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of 18 patients with M. chimaera infections who had undergone cardiothoracic surgeries at 2 hospitals in Kansas (14 patients) and California (4 patients); 17 had exposure to 3T HCDs. Whole-genome sequencing of the clinical and environmental isolates matched the global outbreak strain identified in 2015.
Investigations were conducted at each hospital to determine the cause of ongoing infections. Investigative methods included query of microbiologic records to identify additional cases, medical chart review, observations of operating room setup, HCD use and maintenance practices, and collection of HCD and environmental samples.
Onsite observations identified deviations in the positioning and maintenance of the 3T HCDs from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations and the manufacturer’s updated cleaning and disinfection protocols. Additionally, most 3T HCDs had not undergone the recommended vacuum and sealing upgrades by the manufacturer to decrease the dispersal of M. chimaera–containing aerosols into the operating room, despite hospital requests to the manufacturer.
These findings highlight the need for continued awareness of the risk of M. chimaera infections associated with 3T HCDs, even if the devices are newly manufactured. Hospitals should maintain vigilance in adhering to FDA recommendations and the manufacturer’s protocols and in identifying patients with potential M. chimaera infections with exposure to these devices.
The problem of interaction of a uniform current with a submerged horizontal circular cylinder in an ice-covered channel is considered. The fluid flow is described by linearized velocity potential theory and the ice sheet is treated as a thin elastic plate. The potential due to a source or the Green function satisfying all boundary conditions apart from that on the body surface is first derived. This can be used to derive the boundary integral equation for a body of arbitrary shape. It can also be used to obtain the solution due to multipoles by differentiating the Green function with its position directly. For a transverse circular cylinder, through distributing multipoles along its centre line, the velocity potential can be written in an infinite series with unknown coefficients, which can be determined from the impermeable condition on a body surface. A major feature here is that different from the free surface problem, or a channel without the ice sheet cover, this problem is fully three-dimensional because of the constraints along the intersection of the ice sheet with the channel wall. It has been also confirmed that there is an infinite number of critical speeds. Whenever the current speed passes a critical value, the force on the body and wave pattern change rapidly, and two more wave components are generated at the far-field. Extensive results are provided for hydroelastic waves and hydrodynamic forces when the ice sheet is under different edge conditions, and the insight of their physical features is discussed.
In this note, by introducing a new variant of the resonator function, we give an explicit version of the lower bound for
$\log |L(\sigma ,\chi )|$
in the strip
, which improves the result of Aistleitner et al. [‘On large values of
$L(\sigma ,\chi )$
’, Q. J. Math.70 (2019), 831–848].
The influences of different plants on herbivores have recently attracted research interest; however, little is known regarding the effects of wild, local and cultivated varieties of the same plant from the same origin on herbivores. This study aimed to examine the effects of different tobacco varieties from the same origin on the oviposition preference and offspring performance of Spodoptera litura. We selected two wild (‘Bishan wild tobacco’ and ‘Badan wild tobacco’), two local (‘Liangqiao sun-cured tobacco’ and ‘Shuangguan sun-cured tobacco’) and two cultivated (‘Xiangyan No. 5’ and ‘Cunsanpi’) tobacco varieties from Hunan Province, China. We found that female S. litura varied in oviposition preferences across the tobacco varieties. They preferred to lay eggs on the cultivated varieties, followed by the local varieties, with the wild varieties being the least preferred. Furthermore, different tobacco varieties significantly influenced the life history parameters of S. litura. Survival rate, pupal weight, emergence rate and adult dry weight decreased in the following order: cultivated varieties > local varieties > wild varieties. Conversely, the pupal stage and development period decreased in the following order: wild varieties > local varieties > cultivated varieties. Therefore, we conclude that wild tobacco varieties have higher resistance to S. litura than cultivated and local varieties, reflecting the evolutionary advantages of wild tobacco varieties.
Motivated by the industrial manufacture of organic light-emitting-diode displays, we formulate and analyse a mathematical model for the evolution of a thin droplet in a shallow axisymmetric well of rather general shape both before and after touchdown that accounts for the spatially non-uniform evaporation of the fluid, perform physical experiments using three cylindrical wells with different small aspect ratios, and validate the mathematical model by comparing the present experimental results with the corresponding theoretical predictions for a cylindrical well.
Modelling semantic similarity plays a fundamental role in lexical semantic applications. A natural way of calculating semantic similarity is to access handcrafted semantic networks, but similarity prediction can also be anticipated in a distributional vector space. Similarity calculation continues to be a challenging task, even with the latest breakthroughs in deep neural language models. We first examined popular methodologies in measuring taxonomic similarity, including edge-counting that solely employs semantic relations in a taxonomy, as well as the complex methods that estimate concept specificity. We further extrapolated three weighting factors in modelling taxonomic similarity. To study the distinct mechanisms between taxonomic and distributional similarity measures, we ran head-to-head comparisons of each measure with human similarity judgements from the perspectives of word frequency, polysemy degree and similarity intensity. Our findings suggest that without fine-tuning the uniform distance, taxonomic similarity measures can depend on the shortest path length as a prime factor to predict semantic similarity; in contrast to distributional semantics, edge-counting is free from sense distribution bias in use and can measure word similarity both literally and metaphorically; the synergy of retrofitting neural embeddings with concept relations in similarity prediction may indicate a new trend to leverage knowledge bases on transfer learning. It appears that a large gap still exists on computing semantic similarity among different ranges of word frequency, polysemous degree and similarity intensity.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the shunted single-ventricle population is associated with poor outcomes. Interposed abdominal compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or IAC-CPR, is an adjunct to standard CPR in which pressure is applied to the abdomen during the recoil phase of chest compressions.
A lumped parameter model that represents heart chambers and blood vessels as resistors and capacitors was used to simulate blood flow in both Blalock-Taussig-Thomas and Sano circulations. For standard CPR, a prescribed external pressure waveform was applied to the heart chambers and great vessels to simulate chest compressions. IAC-CPR was modelled by adding phasic compression pressure to the abdominal aorta. Differential equations for the model were solved by a Runge-Kutta method.
In the Blalock-Taussig-Thomas model, mean pulmonary blood flow during IAC-CPR was 30% higher than during standard CPR; cardiac output increased 21%, diastolic blood pressure 16%, systolic blood pressure 8%, coronary perfusion pressure 17%, and coronary blood flow 17%. In the Sano model, pulmonary blood flow during IAC-CPR increased 150%, whereas cardiac output was improved by 13%, diastolic blood pressure 18%, systolic blood pressure 8%, coronary perfusion pressure 15%, and coronary blood flow 14%.
In this model, IAC-CPR confers significant advantage over standard CPR with respect to pulmonary blood flow, cardiac output, blood pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, and coronary blood flow. These results support the notion that single-ventricle paediatric patients may benefit from adjunctive resuscitation techniques, and underscores the need for an in-vivo trial of IAC-CPR in children.