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Cardiac fibroma is a rare benign primary tumour of the heart. In the paediatric population, it has been reported as the second most common benign cardiac tumour following rhabdomyoma. However, the prevalence of cardiac fibroma is rarely reported in the adult population. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific, including palpitations, cardiac murmur, arrhythmias, dyspnoea, cyanosis, chest pain, and sudden mortality, whereas, a number of patients with cardiac fibroma are asymptomatic. Surgical resection should be considered as the best option in symptomatic patients. This study reported four surgical cases of adults with cardiac fibroma arising from the left ventricle and a literature review regarding the clinical and pathological features, diagnostic modalities, therapeutic aspects, and prognosis of this rare entity.
To identify the association of the glucokinase gene (GCK) rs4607517 polymorphism with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine whether sweets consumption could interact with the polymorphism on GDM in Chinese women.
We conducted a case–control study at a hospital including 1015 participants (562 GDM cases and 453 controls). We collected the data of pre-pregnancy BMI, sweets consumption and performed genotyping of the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism. Logistic regression was performed to test the association between the rs4607517 polymorphism and GDM, and the stratified analyses by sweets consumption were conducted, using an additive genetic model.
A case–control study of women at a hospital in Beijing, China.
One thousand and fifteen Chinese women.
The GCK rs4607517 A allele was significantly associated with GDM (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·77; P = 0·028). Furthermore, stratified analyses showed that the A allele increased the risk of GDM only in women who had a habitual consumption of sweet foods (sweets consumption ≥ once per week) (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·21; P = 0·003). Significant interaction on GDM was found between the rs4607517 A allele and sweets consumption (P = 0·004).
This study for the first time reported the interaction between the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism and sweets consumption on GDM. The results provided novel evidence for risk assessment and personalised prevention of GDM.
Rational construction of Z-scheme photocatalysts and exploration of the Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism have drawn much attention in the field of CO2 reduction because of its great potential to alleviate energy crisis and environmental problems. In this study, a series of Z-scheme CdS/BiOI composites were constructed by depositing CdS nanoparticles on the surface of BiOI nanosheets. The synthesized materials were characterized comprehensively, and their photoreduction CO2 activities were evaluated. The results show that the composites exhibit higher photoreduction CO2 activity under visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm) than pure CdS and BiOI. The yields of CO and CH4 for the optimal composite after 3 h irradiation are 3.32 and 0.54 μmol/g, respectively. The improved photocatalytic activity is attributed to Z-scheme transfer mode of the photogenerated charges in the composites. The mechanism of CO2 reduction is proposed and verified experimentally.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
The antennal sensilla of female Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) were observed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy in this study. The antenna of Q. mendeli was geniculate, and the flagellum was composed of seven subsegments. Six distinct types of sensory receptors were observed, including sensilla basiconic capitate peg, sensilla böhm, sensilla chaetica, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla placodea and sensilla trichodea. Sensilla basiconic capitate pegs were found on the flagellomeres, and Böhm sensilla were found on the basal part of scape and the pedicel. Two morphological subtypes of sensilla chaetica were found on the antennae, and sensilla campaniformia were only found on the pedicel. Sensilla placodea were divided into two morphological subtypes that were found on the flagellomeres. Sensilla trichodea were found on the 2nd–6th flagellomere. By comparison to existing antennal sensilla, it was found that sensilla basiconic capitate peg, sensilla chaetica, sensilla placodea and sensilla trichodea were the most common sensilla of the parasitoids of Eulophidae. The external and internal morphology, types, number, distribution, length, and width of these sensilla were described, and their possible functions are discussed in conjunction with the host-detection behavior. Future studies on the host location mechanisms in Q. mendeli will be facilitated by these observations.
Two phases of diabase-sill-forming magmatism are recorded within the Badu anticline where magmas were emplaced into upper Palaeozoic carbonates and clastic rocks of the Youjiang fold-and-thrust belt in the SW South China Block, China. Zircons from these diabase units yield weighted mean U–Pb ages of 249.2±2.0 Ma and 187.1±3.3 Ma, and magmatic oxygen fugacity values from ‒20 to ‒6 (average of ‒12, equating to FMQ +5) and ‒20 to ‒10 (average of ‒15, equating to FMQ +2), respectively. These data indicate that the sills were emplaced during Early Triassic and Early Jurassic times. The discovery of c. 250 Ma mafic magmatism in this area was probably related to post-flood-basalt extension associated with the Emeishan mantle plume or rollback of the subducting Palaeo-Tethys slab. The c. 190 Ma diabase sills indicate that the southwestern South China Block records Early Jurassic mafic magmatism and lithospheric extension that was likely associated with a transition from post-collisional to within-plate tectonic regimes. The emplacement of diabase intrusions at depth may have driven hydrothermal systems, enabling the mobilization of elements from sedimentary rocks and causing the formation of a giant epigenetic metallogenic domain. The results indicate that high-oxygen-fugacity materials within basement rocks caused crustal contamination of the magmas, contributing to the wide range of oxygen fugacity conditions recorded by the Au-bearing Badu diabase. In addition, data from inherited xenocrystic zircons within the Badu diabase and detrital zircons from basement rocks suggest that the Neoproterozoic Jiangshao suture extends to the south of the Badu anticline.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal malnutrition on offspring glucose tolerance and the epigenetic mechanisms involved. In total, twelve primiparous Landrace×Yorkshire gilts were fed rations providing either 100 % (control (CON)) or 75 % (undernutrition (UN)) nutritional requirements according to the National Research Council recommendations, throughout gestation. Muscle samples of offspring were collected at birth (dpn1), weaning (dpn28) and adulthood (dpn189). Compared with CON pigs, UN pigs showed lower serum glucose concentrations at birth, but showed higher serum glucose and insulin concentrations as well as increased area under the blood glucose curve during intravenous glucose tolerance test at dpn189 (P<0·05). Compared with CON pigs, GLUT-4 gene and protein expressions were decreased at dpn1 and dpn189 in the muscle of UN pigs, which was accompanied by increased methylation at the GLUT4 promoter (P<0·05). These alterations in methylation concurred with increased mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 at dpn1 and dpn28, DNMT3a at dpn189 and DNMT3b at dpn1 in UN pigs compared with CON pigs (P<0·05). Interestingly, although the average methylation levels at the muscle GLUT4 promoter were decreased at dpn189 compared with dpn1 in pigs exposed to a poor maternal diet (P<0·05), the methylation differences in individual CpG sites were more pronounced with age. Our results indicate that in utero undernutrition persists to silence muscle GLUT4 likely through DNA methylation during the ageing process, which may lead to the amplification of age-associated glucose intolerance.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for letrozole, C17H11N5, are reported [a = 7.034(0) Å, b = 16.177(5) Å, c = 13.411(3) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 105.71(9)°, unit-cell volume V = 1469.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
We probe many kinds of approaches used for photometric redshift estimation of quasars, including KNN (K-nearest neighbor algorithm), Lasso (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Square regression), ridge regression, SGD (Stochastic Gradient Descent) and Extra-Trees.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known to protect boar sperm during freezing–thawing, but little information is known about the effects of LDL extracted from different avian egg yolks on post-thaw boar semen quality. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the effects of LDL at various concentrations and different species on boar sperm quality after freezing–thawing. LDL extracted from the yolk of hen egg, duck egg, quail egg, pigeon egg or ostrich egg was added to the extender at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1 g/ml, respectively, and their effects on frozen–thawed boar sperm quality were assessed. According to all measured parameters, the results showed that sperm motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity were 43.20%, 52.57% and 48.13%, respectively, after being frozen–thawed with 0.09 g/ml LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk. All these quality parameters were higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results confirmed that LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk had the best cryoprotective effects on frozen–thawed boar sperm among all of the groups supplemented with LDL from five kinds of avian egg in extender. The optimum concentration of LDL extracted from pigeon egg in boar semen freezing extender was 0.09 g/ml.
Introduction. The Chinese jujube
tree always presents some unfavorable performances because its vegetative
growth is very vigorous. Our study was conducted to apply root pruning to
test whether it can effectively inhibit the vigorous vegetative growth
by regulating the competitive ability of the root system for water
and nutrients. Materials and methods. For our experiment,
roots were cut at three different distances from the trunk (light,
moderate and severe root pruning) on both inter-row sides of jujube
trees to the depth of 20 cm. Roots of control jujube trees were
not pruned. Then we determined for three years the competitive indicators
of Chinese jujube trees including the length, number and thickness
of primary branches; photosynthetic characteristics and nutrient
concentrations of leaves; hormone contents in the jujube head, flower
number and fruiting percentage, yield, and fruit quality. Results
and discussion. In the early stage after root treatment,
root pruning decreased lots of indicators such as concentrations
of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in leaves, photosynthesis, transpiration,
stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration
of leaves, relative to the same indicators as the control group. With
the gradual emergence of new roots, these indexes appeared to have adverse
patterns with respect to those in the early stage after root pruning. Compared
with the control, root pruning significantly decreased the length
and number of primary branches and flower number, but thickened
primary branches, enhanced fruiting percentage and increased the amount
of ethylene release of the jujube head in the whole experiment.
Fruit quality was improved with root pruning, as indicated by increases
in vitamin C and total sugar and a decrease in titrable acidity.
No effects of root pruning were noticed on yield. From our results,
we conclude that the removal of the root system at a distance of
three times the trunk diameter (severe pruning) from the trunk is
the most effective in regulating the competitive ability of the
Chinese jujube tree.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that neprilysin (NEP) may be the major degrading enzyme of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain and the NEP gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Association results between the NEP gene and AD are still preliminary. This study investigates the effect of the polymorphisms of −204G/C and 159C/T in the NEP gene on the development of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) in a southern Chinese community.
Method: 236 sporadic late-onset AD patients were recruited from Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital in southern China, and 332 healthy elderly controls were enrolled from three old age homes in suburban Guangzhou. NEP and ApoE genotype were determined by PCR–RFLP.
Results: No differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies of −204G/C and 159C/T polymorphisms in NEP were found between AD and control group (for −204G/C genotype: χ2 = 2.34, P > 0.05; for allele: χ2 = 2.31, P > 0.05; for 159C/T genotype: χ2 = 1.34, P > 0.05; for allele: χ2 = 0.88, P > 0.05). Neither was any difference found in genotypic and allelic frequency when stratified by sex or by ApoE ε4 allele (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that −204G/C and 159C/T polymorphisms of the NEP gene may not be associated with SAD. Moreover, both sex and ApoE ε4 allele do not affect the distribution of NEP gene polymorphisms.
Total body fat mass (TBFM) and total body lean mass (TBLM) are the major components of the human body. Although these highly correlated phenotypic traits are frequently used to characterize obesity, the specific shared genetic factors that influence both traits remain largely unknown. Our study was aimed at identifying common quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to both TBFM and TBLM. We performed a whole genome-linkage scan study in a large sample of 3255 subjects from 420 Caucasian pedigrees. Bivariate linkage analysis was carried out in both the entire sample and gender-specific subsamples. Several potentially important genomic regions that may harbour QTLs important for TBFM and TBLM were identified. For example, 20p12-11 achieved a LOD score of 2·04 in the entire sample and, in the male subsample, two genomic regions, 20p12 (LOD=2·08) and 3p26-25 (LOD=1·92), showed suggestive linkage. In addition, two-point linkage analyses for chromosome X showed suggestive linkages on Xp22 in the entire sample (LOD=2·14) and significant linkage on Xp22 in the female subsample (LOD=3·05). Complete pleiotropy was suggested for 20p12 and 3p26-25 in males. Our results suggest that QTLs on chromosomes 20p12, 3p26-25 and Xp22 may jointly influence TBFM and TBLM. Further fine mapping and gene identification studies for these pleiotropic effects are needed.
Adopting small-world neural networks of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model, the stimulation parameters in desynchronisation and its possible implications for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) are numerically investigated. With the synchronisation status of networks to represent epilepsy, then, adding pulse to stimulations to 10% of neurons to simulate the VNS, we obtain the desynchronisation status of networks (representing antiepileptic effects). The simulations show that synchronisation evolves into desynchronisation in the HH neural networks when a part (10%) of neurons are stimulated with a pulse current signal. The network desynchronisation appears to be sensitive to the stimulation parameters. For the case of the same stimulation intensity, weakly coupled networks reach desynchronisation more easily than strongly coupled networks. The network desynchronisation reduced by short-stimulation interval is more distinct than that of induced by long stimulation interval. We find that there exist the optimal stimulation interval and optimal stimulation intensity when the other stimulation parameters remain certain.
The structural gene encoding ApxII toxin (apxIIA) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) strain HB08 (serotype 2) and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the apxIIA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the expressed products could react with ApxII antibodies. The recombinant ApxIIA was purified from the inclusion bodies. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally vaccinated twice, with an interval of 2 weeks, using unfolded/refolded recombinant proteins, the native ApxII toxin extracted from the cultural supernatant of a strain of APP serotype 7 (APP-7) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Serum antibody was examined by ApxIIA-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 2 weeks after every vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of APP-7 (1.08 × 108 cfu per mouse). The protection rate reached 91.7% in the native ApxII group, 83.3% in the refolded recombinant protein group and 58.3% in the unfolded recombinant protein group, while all mice in the PBS group died within 36 h after challenge. Our data revealed that the refolded recombinant ApxIIA had excellent immunogenicity and could elicit protection against a lethal challenge of APP.