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The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
Oracle bone script developed into a sophisticated writing system in Shang Dynasty of China more than 3000 years ago. The systematic scientific dating of oracle bones had not been previously reported. Here we present radiocarbon (14C) dates measured from the sequential samples of oracle bones that pertain to the Shang kings. The results indicate that King Wu Ding (who is called Wu Ting in some literature) reigned during 1254 BC to 1197 BC, and the Shang Dynasty terminated around 1041 BC. It also points that the Li group in the sequence of oracle bones is most probably related to the time of King Wu Ding and Zu Geng.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and physical fitness among older Chinese (≥60 years) individuals.
Cross-sectional survey. Dietary data were collected by a simplified semi-quantitative FFQ. The 30-s Chair Stand test (30sCST), 30-s Arm Curl test (30sACT), 8-foot Time Up-and-Go test (8fTUAGT) and 6-min Walking test (6mWT) were used to assess physical fitness. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis. The association between dietary patterns and physical fitness was explored by multiple logistic regression.
Six communities (villages) of three districts in Liaocheng City (Shandong Province, China).
A total of 596 residents were recruited from April to May 2017.
Among 556 residents who were finally enrolled, 196 were men (35 %) and 360 were women (65 %). Three dietary patterns were identified: ‘Western’, ‘Vegetarian’ and ‘Modern’. The 30sACT revealed that men in the fourth quartile of the Western pattern were less likely to be classified in the ‘high-level’ group, but men in the fourth quartile of the Vegetarian pattern were classified in the high-level group. The 6mWT revealed that men in the fourth quartile of the Modern pattern were classified in the high-level group. These associations were independent of confounding factors.
Adherence to the Vegetarian pattern and Modern pattern may be protective factors for maintaining good physical fitness in older Chinese individuals. The Western pattern may lead to poor physical fitness in this population.
The aim of this study was to explore the application of the flipped classroom approach in the training of Mass Casualty Triage (MCT) to medical undergraduate students.
In this study, 103 fourth-year medical students were randomly divided into a Flipped Classroom (FC) group (n = 51) and a Traditional Lecture-based Classroom (TLC) group (n = 52). A post-class quiz, simulated field triage (SFT) and feedback questionnaires were performed to assess both groups of students for their learning of the course.
In the post-quiz, the median (IQR) scores achieved by students from the FC and TLC groups were 42(5) and 39(5.5), respectively. Significant differences were found between the two groups. In the SFT, overall triage accuracy was 67.06% for FC, and 64.23% for TLC students. Over-triage and under-triage errors occurred in 18.43% and 14.50% of the FC group, respectively. The TLC group had a similar pattern of 20.77% over-triage and 15.0% under-triage errors. No significant differences were found regarding overall triage accuracy or triage errors between the two groups.
The FC approach could enhance course grades reflected in the post-quiz and improve students’ satisfaction with the class. However, there was no significant difference of competency between the two groups demonstrated in the SFT exercise.
A one-dimensional steady-state model for stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) processes in laser-irradiated plasmas is presented. Based on a novel “predictor-corrector” method, the model is capable to deal with broadband scattered light and inhomogeneous plasmas, exhibiting robustness and high efficiency. Influences of the electron density and temperature on the linear gains of both SRS and SBS are investigated, which indicates that the SRS gain is more sensitive to the electron density and temperature than that of the SBS. For the low-density case, the SBS dominates the scattering process, while the SRS exhibits much higher reflectivity in the high-density case. The nonlinear saturation mechanisms and competition between SRS and SBS are included in our model by a phenomenological method. The typical anti-correlation between SRS and SBS versus electron density is reproduced in the model. Calculations of the reflectivities are qualitatively in agreement with the typical results of experiments and simulations.
The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs.
From March 2–13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI).
About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures.
About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.
Bile acids (BA) have emerged as signalling molecules regulating intestinal physiology. The importance of intestinal microbiota in production of secondary BA, for example, lithocholic acid (LCA) which impairs enterocyte proliferation and permeability, triggered us to determine the effects of oral probiotics on intestinal BA metabolism. Piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and allocated into control (CON, n 14) or probiotic (PRO, n 14) group fed 50 mg of Lactobacillus plantarum daily, and gut microbiota and BA profile were determined. To test the potential interaction of LCA with bacteria endotoxins in inducing damage of enterocytes, IPEC-J2 cells were treated with LCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LCA + LPS and expressions of genes related to inflammation, antioxidant capacity and nutrient transport were determined. Compared with the CON group, the PRO group showed lower total LCA level in the ileum and higher relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in faeces. In contrast, the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcus_1, important bacteria genera in BA biotransformation, were all lower in the PRO than in the CON group. Moreover, PRO piglets had lower postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 level, while higher glucose level than CON piglets. Co-administration of LPS and LCA led to down-regulated expression of glucose and peptide transporter genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, oral L. plantarum altered BA profile probably by modulating relative abundances of gut microbial genera that play key roles in BA metabolism and might consequently impact glucose homoeostasis. The detrimental effect of LCA on nutrient transport in enterocytes might be aggravated under LPS challenge.
Dysfunctions of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are two important hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Thus, genes in the pathway are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS), glutamine synthetase (GLUL), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GABA transaminase (ABAT) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH5A1) are five primary enzymes in glutamate and GABA synthetic and degradative pathway. In order to investigate the possible involvement of these genes in the development of paranoid schizophrenia, we genotyped 80 paranoid schizophrenics from northern China and 108 matched controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods or directly sequencing of PCR product. Seven SNPs were found to be polymorphic in the population investigated. No significant differences in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies between patients and controls were found. Therefore, we conclude the polymorphisms studied in the five genes do not play major roles in pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.
We genotyped six SNPs in the genes of p450 family among paranoid schizophrenics and normal controls. All subjects are unrelated Han Chinese. Three showed polymorphic, and no significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies were detected between patients and controls. Thus we obtained no evidence for the involvement of the polymorphisms in paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.
We performed an association study between three SNPs in the genes of 14-3-3 family and paranoid schizophrenia. SNP rs983583 G/A in the YWHAZ gene showed significant association with paranoid schizophrenia. Our study indicated that the YWHAZ gene was a potential susceptibility gene for paranoid schizophrenia in the population studied.
Varicella is an acute respiratory infectious diseases, with high transmissibility and quick dissemination. In this study, an SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) dynamic model was established to explore the optimal prevention and control measures according to the epidemiological characteristics about varicella outbreak in a school in a central city of China. Berkeley Madonna 8.3.18 and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software were employed for the model simulation and data management, respectively. The result showed that the simulated result of SEIR model agreed well with the reported data when β (infected rate) equal to 0.067. Models showed that the cumulative number of cases was only 13 when isolation adopted when the infected individuals were identified (assuming isolation rate was up to 100%); the cumulative number of cases was only two and the TAR (total attack rate) was 0.56% when the vaccination coefficient reached 50%. The cumulative number of cases did not change significantly with the change of efficiency of ventilation and disinfection, but the peak time was delayed; when δ (vaccination coefficient) = 0.1, m (ventilation efficiency) = 0.7 or δ = 0.2, m = 0.5 or δ = 0.3, m = 0.1 or δ = 0.4 and above, the cumulative number of cases would reduce to one case and TAR would reduce to 0.28% with combined interventions. Varicella outbreak in school could be controlled through strict isolation or vaccination singly; combined interventions have been adopted when the vaccination coefficient was low.
Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
This study aimed to examine the efficacy of combining paroxetine and mirtazapine v. switching to mirtazapine, for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have had an insufficient response to SSRI monotherapy (paroxetine) after the first 2 weeks of treatment.
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-arm study recruited participants from five hospitals in China. Eligible participants were aged 18–60 years with MDD of at least moderate severity. Participants received paroxetine during a 2-week open-label phase and patients who had not achieved early improvement were randomized to paroxetine, mirtazapine or paroxetine combined with mirtazapine for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was improvement on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 17-item (HAMD-17) scores 6 weeks after randomization.
A total of 204 patients who showed early non-response to paroxetine monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either mirtazapine and placebo (n = 68), paroxetine and placebo (n = 68) or mirtazapine and paroxetine (n = 68), with 164 patients completing the outcome assessment. At week 8, the least squares (LS) mean change of HAMD-17 scores did not significantly differ among the three groups, (12.98 points) in the mirtazapine group, (12.50 points) in the paroxetine group and (13.27 points) in the mirtazapine plus paroxetine combination group. Participants in the paroxetine monotherapy group were least likely to experience adverse effects.
After 8 weeks follow-up, paroxetine monotherapy, mirtazapine monotherapy and paroxetine/mirtazapine combination therapy were equally effective in non-improvers at 2 weeks. The results of this trial do not support a recommendation to routinely offer additional treatment or a switch in treatment strategies for MDD patients who do not show early improvement after 2 weeks of antidepressant treatment.
Dietary indices are widely used in diet quality measurement, and the index-based dietary patterns are related to gastric cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship between different kinds of index-based dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk, we systematically searched four English-language databases and four Chinese-language databases. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between gastric cancer incidence and different types of index-based dietary patterns. The OR and hazard ratios (HR) of gastric cancer incidence were calculated by regression models in case–control studies and prospective cohort studies, respectively. The studies were pooled in the random effects model to calculate the summarised risk estimate of the highest quantile interval of dietary indices, taking the lowest as the referent. The dietary indices included different versions of Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and dietary inflammatory index (DII), healthy eating index, Chinese Food Pagoda score and food index score. The meta-analysis was carried out for studies on MDS and DII. The combined OR of gastric cancer for the highest MDS v. the referent was 0·42 (95 % CI 0·2, 0·86), and the combined HR was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·17). The combined OR for DII was 2·11 (95 % CI 1·41, 3·15). Higher Mediterranean dietary pattern consumption might reduce gastric cancer risk, while higher inflammatory diet pattern consumption might increase gastric cancer risk.
Both short- and long-term effects of fertilizers on crops and soils are often studied only in arid or paddy soils, whereas less is known about the long-term effects in paddy-upland rotations, particularly with multiple crops and frequent tillage in subtropical areas. Therefore, an 18-year field experiment was initialized to assess the effects of different types of fertilization (no fertilizer; chemical fertilizer (CF); and manure in combination with CF (MCF)) on yield and soil chemical and microbial properties in a crop rotation involving rice (Oryza sativa L., summer), rapeseed (Brassica campestris L., winter), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., the following summer), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, the following winter). MCF caused higher yields of rapeseed grains and tobacco leaves than CF after 3 or 4 years of implementing the experiment, while rice yields varied little between MCF and CF, with one exception in 2011. Compared with the initial soil properties, providing soil with MCF increased organic matter (OM), while the opposite trend was found with CF. Higher microbial biomasses, enzyme activities, bacterial operational taxonomic units, and richness and diversity indexes of bacterial communities were found in soils receiving MCF, implying the improvement of soil microbial properties in the paddy-upland rotation system with multiple crops and frequent tillage. The experimental soils under varying fertilization were dominated by four bacterial phyla (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and unclassified groups), which accounted for approximately 70% of the 16S rDNA sequences. Among the top 20 predominant bacteria, 14 were commonly found in all soil samples irrespective of which fertilizer treatment was implemented. Thus, the presence of those bacteria was stable in the soil and to some extent was influenced by fertilization. Most of them were facultative anaerobic bacteria, which can adapt to both anaerobic paddy soil and aerobic drylands. The dominant bacteria at various taxonomic levels found in soils might reflect multiple soil processes such as OM turnover, nutrient cycling, physical structure formation, and xenobiotic detoxification.
The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a thirteen-item FFQ regarding identification of dietary conditions in a rural population in China.
A reproducibility study repeated the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately 4 weeks later (FFQ2). A validity study evaluated the mean of three consecutive 24 h diet recalls as the reference measure.
Residents of a rural area in Henan Province, which is located in the central region of China.
A total of 295 individuals participated in the reproducibility study. In addition, 123 people agreed to participate in the validity study. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two FFQ ranged from 0·06 (vegetables) to 0·58 (eggs). Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two methods of collection ranged from 0·01 for cereal to 0·49 for staple foods. The mean of the intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQ (FFQ1 v. FFQ2) was 0·19. Bland–Altman analysis indicated good agreement for most food groups across the range of intake for the two studies.
The study demonstrated that our FFQ design could be used as a representative tool to conduct a dietary evaluation of a rural population.
A novel and highly efficient Ag3VO4/C3N4/reduced TiO2 microsphere composite was obtained through a hydrothermal and depositional process. The microstructure, individual components with different proportions, and optical properties of the ternary nanocomposites were intensively studied. The prepared ternary composites exhibited superior photocatalytic performance of degradation of methylene blue compared with single component and S1 (C3N4/reduced TiO2) binary composites, demonstrating that the introduction of Ag3VO4 into g-C3N4/r-TiO2 can effectively improve the photocatalytic activity. Recycling experiments confirmed that the nanocomposites exhibited superior cycle performance. The enhanced capability could be attributed to a synergetic effect including the formation of heterojunction, large surface area, improved light absorption, matched energy band structure, and the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charges coming from dual Z-scheme structure. Particularly, the introduction of Ag3VO4 makes the dual Z-scheme charge transfer pathway completed with improved separation efficiency and stronger redox ability of photogenerated electrons and holes. The work provides a promising method to develop a new dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system to remove environmental pollutant.
AgNPs@g-C3N4 composite was synthesized from Ag-containing sol and g-C3N4 powder by the ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly method. The composite has hierarchical pore size distributions, which will be beneficial to the ion transport with different size. Ag nanoparticles with the size of 5 nm successfully adhere on the surface of g-C3N4. The AgNPs@g-C3N4 composite has excellent specific capacitance and specific power performance for the supercapacitors as an electrode material. The specific capacitance of composite is 4 times greater than that of g-C3N4. It can be ascribed to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles that the internal resistance of the composite is significantly decreased.
A compact reconfigurable filtering ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with switchable band-notched functions is proposed. The basic structure of the proposed design is a filtering slot antenna with good band-edge selectivity using stepped impedance resonator feeding line. The reconfigurability is achieved by using two microstrip lines paralleling to the feeding line and two PIN diodes. The reconfigurable structure and bias circuit of the antenna are relatively simple and are not connected to the radiation structure, so they have little negative influence on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Total four states could be achieved by using two PIN diodes to short the microstrip lines and ground. To verify the performance of the final design, multiple measured and simulated results in frequency and time domain are studied and analyzed. The measured results agreed very well with simulation. Compared with the traditional UWB antenna, the proposed antenna has advantages in size, filtering function in-band and out-of-band, and tunable states for multiple UWB applications.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.