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Dietary intake of ω-3 fatty acids has been associated with a decreased lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal phospholipids metabolism in the brain has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, mood disorder. This study was conducted to determine whether essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) levels in the erythrocyte membrane are correlate with severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as cognitive function, in subjects with AD.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Toyama School of Medicine.
Thirty out-patients (male/female = 6/24) with AD (n = 23) or amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 7) participated in the study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to assess cognitive function and severity of BPSD respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Fatty acids levels were analyzed using a gas chromatography system.
Concentrations of EPUFAs and ω-3 fatty acids were positively correlated with MMSE score. Also, EPUFAs levels were negatively correlated with the NPI Global and caregiver scores. Specifically, EPUFAs levels predicted dysphoria, euphoria and apathy scores of NPI.
These results suggest that abnormal phospholipids metabolism provided a biological basis for BPSD and cognitive impairments of AD.
The purpose of this study was to determine if perospirone, a second generation antipsychotic drug and partial agonist at serotonin-5-HT1A receptors, enhances electrophysiological activity, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), in frontal brain regions, as well as cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia. P300 current source images were obtained by means of standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) before and after treatment with perospirone for 6 months. Perospirone significantly increased P300 current source density in the left superior frontal gyrus, and improved positive symptoms and performance on the script tasks, a measure of verbal social cognition. Perospirone also tended to enhance verbal learning memory in patients with schizophrenia. There was a significant correlation between the changes in P300 amplitudes on the left frontal lead and those in social cognition. These results suggest the changes in three-dimensional distribution of cortical activity, as demonstrated by sLORETA, may mediate some of the actions of antipsychotic drugs. the distinct cognition-enhancing profile of perospirone may be related to its actions on 5-HT1A receptors.
We studied a suitable procedure for preparing of water samples used in radiocarbon intercomparisons involving dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The water samples must have inter-batch consistency and stable 14C concentrations and no sterilizing agent (e.g., HgCl2) should be added, in order to avoid the production of hazardous material. Six water samples, containing widely different amounts and types of salts, DIC, and 14C concentrations (1–100 pMC), were prepared in order to assess the procedure. Sample consistency was investigated through δ13C and chemical compositions; their low variabilities indicate that our procedure can be applied to radiocarbon intercomparison. A specific sample preparation protocol was developed for this kind of applications.
We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, −0.121 to −0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.
Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of ‘ordinary’ adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by ‘immune-resistant’ adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5–7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.
Higher manganese silicide (HMS) is a low-cost and eco-friendly thermoelectric material available for recovering waste heat of 500 to 900 K. In this research, we tried to uniformly disperse the alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) in the HMS matrix to reduce the thermal conductivity and to improve the thermoelectric performance. Influence of addition of ANPs on the thermoelectric properties was investigated. It was confirmed that ANPs were uniformly dispersed in the HMS grain boundary. The lattice thermal conductivity was reduced by adding ANPs. As a result, the maximum thermoelectric performance of ZT=0.58 was achieved at about 800 K by adding 1 vol% of ANPs. The performance of ANPs-added HMS was improved about 25 %.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
Results of our experimental investigation on the ozone zero phenomenon
suggested us the importance of the electrode surface condition. This means
that the main cause of the phenomenon, that is, temporal decrease of ozone
concentration at the outlet of DBD type ozone generator and the recovery
characteristics from the phenomenon are considered as the surface reaction
process, which are influenced strongly by the surface condition. The surface
condition is never constant during the ozone generation and varies gradually
or remarkably with time depending on the experimental conditions. Therefore
we have been continued to make clear the cause of the phenomenon, for
example, the reproducibility of the phenomenon, using new electrodes and
together with the surface analysis technique etc. In this paper, we describe
on the above results and discussion.
Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands ‘worm expulsion’, which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.
Cobalt triantimonide compounds are well known as materials with good thermoelectric properties over temperature range of 550-900 K. For further improving thermoelectric performance, reduction of thermal conductivity is required. In this study, we attempted to disperse carbon nanotubes (CNTs) homogeneously into the n-type CoSb3 compound for lowering lattice thermal conductivity by the phonon scattering. Powders of Co, Ni, Sb and Te were blended with molar ratios of n-type Co0.92Ni0.08Sb2.96Te0.04 compound, and the compound was synthesized through a pulse discharge sintering (PDS) process. After coarsely grinding the synthesized compound, CNTs were mixed with the compound powder at different mass% (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mass%). Then, the mixture was mechanically ground with a planetary ball milling equipment. The ground composite powder was compacted and sintered by PDS. Thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity) of the sintered samples were measured. It was confirmed that the fibrous CNTs existed homogeneously in the compound matrix. The absolute value of Seebeck coefficient slightly decreased with increase of CNT content. The minimum thermal conductivity was obtained at addition of 0.01mass%CNT, and the electrical resistivity was a little increased with CNT content. The maximum ZT of 0.98 was achieved at 853 K in the 0.01mass%CNT-added sample.
An experimental study is carried out to clarify the mechanism of the ozone zero phenomenon. Temporal variations of both the discharge characteristics and the metallic electrode surface in the ozone generator are investigated by the Lissajous figure method and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), respectively. The AES results suggest that a number of oxygen atoms penetrate into the stainless-steel electrode owing to the exposure to ozone. Such a surface change would result in the temporal variation of the discharge characteristics of the generator.
Propagation of electrostatic electron waves whose frequency is smaller than the electron plasma frequency in a large unmagnetized plasma is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. When a receiver is close to a transmitter, free-streaming electrons are detected owing to their large capacity for excitation. When the distance between the receiver and the transmitter becomes large, the third-order Landau mode is observed due to its smaller damping than that of free-streaming electrons. Finally, a dip in amplitude of the wave, caused by interference by the higher-order Landau modes, is seen. The results are in reasonable agreement with numerical calculation assuming a dipole excitation for the wave.
The reciprocity theorem for monopole antennas, a gridded parallel plate, parallel-plane grids and a plane plate, which radiate and receive an electron plasma wave in an unbounded plasma, is introduced theoretically, based on the electron fluid model. The theorem holds experimentally if the d.c. bias potential of antennas is lower than about the floating potential. The measured reception pattern of an antenna is equal to its radiation pattern. The wave amplitude and the impedance between the antenna and the plasma are measured experimentally.
The poloidal eigenmode of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is studied in the limit of high safety factor. In this limit, the poloidal gyroradius cannot be treated as a perturbation or as an expansion parameter. Analytical expressions for the poloidal structure of the GAM potential, the radial wavenumber dependence of the frequency, the phase velocity, and the group velocity are obtained. The spatial structure of the poloidal eigenmode including the higher-order gyroradius effect is revealed theoretically.
Skutterudite CoSb3 compounds are of increasing interest as materials with good thermoelectric performance over the temperature range of 600 to 800 K, but the thermal conductivity of the materials is relatively high. Nanostructured materials have been shown to enhance phonon scattering and lower the thermal conductivity of the thermoelectric materials. Partial substitution of Ni or Fe on the Co site of CoSb3 is a hopeful route for improving thermoelectric performance of the CoSb3 compounds. In the present work, synthesis of Ni-doped and Fe-doped CoSb3 nanoparticles through the modified polyol process was attempted and the optimum synthesizing condition was investigated. Co(OOCH3)2·4H2O, Ni(OOCH3)2·4H2O, FeCl3·6H2O and SbCl3, were prepared as precursors. The precursors were reduced by NaBH4 in tetraethyleneglycol at 513 K in an argon atmosphere, for different reaction times (holding times). The reaction products were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles with about 20 to 30 nm in size mainly existed in the reaction products regardless of the chemical composition and the reaction time. The skutterudite phase was identified as a main phase in the sample synthesized for long reaction time, but the other phases of Sb and MSb2 (M=Co, Ni, Fe) were also detected. The lattice parameter of the synthesized skutterudite phase linearly increased with increasing the doping agent concentration, following Vegard’s law.
We examined the effect of supplementing the culture medium with follicular fluid (FF) on the growth of porcine preantral follicles and oocytes. Firstly, preantral follicles were retrieved from ovaries and then FF was collected from all antral follicles that were 2–7 mm in diameter (AFF), which included large follicles of 4–7 mm in diameter (LFF) and small follicles of 2–3 mm in diameter (SFF). When preantral follicles with a diameter of 250 μm were cultured in medium containing AFF, the growth of follicles and oocytes was greater than when follicles were cultured in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS). When this growth-promoting effect in AFF was compared for LFF and SFF, the LFF were shown to be significantly more effective than SFF. This LFF effect was lost, however, when the concentration of LFF in the medium was decreased from 5% to 0.5% or when LFF were heat treated (60 °C for 30 min) or trypsin was added. In contrast, a decrease in SFF concentration from 5% to 0.5% and heat treatment of the SFF enhanced preantral follicle growth. Furthermore, proteins obtained from LFF that had molecular weights greater than 10 kDa (LFF > 10 kDa) had similar, but relatively reduced, growth-promoting properties. The remaining three LFF protein fractions (<10 kDa or <100 kDa or >100 kDa), however, did not have these growth-promoting properties. In conclusion, the supplementation of medium with LFF, rather than serum, enhanced preantral follicle and oocyte growth. Factors that enhanced follicle development in LFF and factors that suppressed follicle development in SFF were proteins and these LFF factors ranged in size from 10 kDa to over 100 kDa.
We have recently identified 2 surface proteins in Entamoeba histolytica as intermediate subunits of galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (EhIgl1 and EhIgl2); these proteins both contain multiple CXXC motifs. Here, we report the molecular characterization of the corresponding proteins in Entamoeba dispar, which is neither pathogenic nor invasive. Two Igl genes encoding 1110 and 1106 amino acids (EdIgl1 and EdIgl2) were cloned from 2 strains of E. dispar. The amino acid sequence identities were 79% between EdIgl1 and EdIgl2, 75–76% between EdIgl1 and EhIgl1, and 73–74% between EdIgl2 and EhIgl2. However, all the CXXC motifs were conserved in the EdIgl proteins, suggesting that the fold conferred by this motif is important for function. Comparison of the expression level of the Igl genes by real-time RT-PCR showed 3–5 times higher expression of EdIgl1 compared to EdIgl2. Most EdIgl1 and EdIgl2 proteins were co-localized on the surface and in the cytoplasm of trophozoites, based on confocal microscopy. However, a different localization of EdIgl1 and EdIgl2 in intracellular vacuoles and a different level of phenotypic expression of the two Igls were also observed. These results demonstrate that Igls are important proteins even in non-pathogenic amoeba and that Igl1 and Igl2 may possess different functions.