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Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
There is a dearth of data on the iodine balance studies of Chinese population. In the present study, we aimed to explore the appropriate recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iodine based on healthy Chinese women. A 4-week study was conducted in twenty-five Chinese euthyroid women. Uniform diets with different iodine contents were provided in two different periods, in which non-iodised salt was given in the first 3 weeks, followed by 1 week of iodised salt administration. The total iodine intake from diet, water and air as well as the total iodine excretion through urine, faeces and respiration were monitored and determined. The sweat iodine loss was also considered. Moreover, the regression curve model was established between the 24 h iodine intake and 24 h iodine excretion. The 24 h iodine intake in the two periods was 194·8 (sd 62·9) and 487·1 (sd 177·3) μg/d, respectively. The 24 h iodine excretion was 130·9 (sd 39·5) and 265·4 (sd 71·8) μg/d, respectively. Both 24 h iodine intake and 24 h iodine excretion of the two periods were significantly different (all P<0·05). The iodised salt contributed approximately 62·7 % of the total daily iodine intake. Moreover, 92·3 % (277/300) of samples were in positive balance, while twenty-three cases were in negative balance. Our data show that the estimated average requirement for iodine was 110·5 μg/d. Therefore, the RNI for iodine to non-pregnant, non-lactating Chinese women was 154·7 μg/d.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
In this paper, we mainly provide a categorical view on the braided structures appearing in the Hom-quantum groups. Let
be a monoidal category on which F is a bimonad, G is a bicomonad, and ϕ is a distributive law, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for
, the category of mixed bimodules to be monoidal and braided. As applications, we discuss the Hom-type (co)quasitriangular structures, the Hom–Yetter–Drinfeld modules, and the Hom–Long dimodules.
Cancer patients with depression or anxiety have poor survival, and the interaction between mental and physical problems in older patients may exacerbate this problem. K-ras oncogene (KRAS) mutation may play a role in the development of psychosocial distress and may be associated with poor survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. This study investigated the association between KRAS gene mutations and psychosocial morbidity to explore the possible cancer/psychosis relationship in older mCRC patients.
In this study, 62 newly diagnosed mCRC patients were recruited and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Demographic data were also collected, and clinicopathological data were retrieved from medical records. KRAS mutations were assessed via PCR analysis of tissue specimens from the patients.
The results showed that 28 of the 62 participants (45.2%) had positive screens for possible depression, and 45 of the 62 participants (72.6%) had positive screens for anxiety. The KRAS mutation rate was 40.3% (25/62), and 19 of the 25 patients with KRAS mutations (76.0%) had probable depression, whereas only 24.3% of the patients with wild-type KRAS were probably depressed (p < 0.05). The KRAS mutation was associated with higher HADS depression scores, independent of gender and performance status (p < 0.05), but not with higher HADS anxiety or total scores.
KRAS mutations were associated with depression severity and higher rates of probable depression in older mCRC patients. Depression should be assessed and treated as early as possible in older mCRC patients with the KRAS mutation. Further studies are needed to verify our current findings using a larger sample size.
Silicone Rubber (SR) filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon black (CB) is prepared for high performance flexible pressure sensor. Due to the synergetic effect of mixed GNPs and CB, the percolation threshold of GNPs/CB/SR is lower than that of CB/SR, which indicates the addition of GNPs is contributed to enhance the electrical conductivity of GNPs/CB/SR. Moreover, the GNPs/CB/SR has a higher electrical stability and weaker resistance creep than that of GNPs/SR. That is to say, the addition of CB can promote the electrical and mechanical performance of GNPs/CB/SR, simultaneously. The pressure sensor array based on GNPs/CB/SR with weight on different sensing element is tested, and the results show that the size of applied loading on the pressure-sensitivity array can be recognized accurately.
We address a queueing control problem considering service times and conversion times
following normal distributions. We formulate the multi-server queueing control problem by
constructing a semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) model. The mechanism of state
transitions is developed through mathematical derivation of the transition probabilities
and transition times. We also study the property of the queueing control system and show
that optimizing the objective function of the addressed queueing control problem is
equivalent to maximizing the time-average reward.
Titanium carbide (TiC) twins are believed to be extremely unstable because of their high twin boundary energy. Here, we report that TiC twins are always presented in platelets with dimensions of 2–3 μm in length and less than 300 nm in width. In-depth microstructural characterizations by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that Al atoms at the twin boundary play a decisive role in stabilizing TiC twins. With different amounts of Al, perfect and defective TiC twins are formed. For perfect twins, three types of twin boundaries can be formed depending on the amount of remaining Al at the twin boundary. With inadequate Al, the TiC twins become defective with certain degrees of deviation from the perfect twin orientation. Based on a detailed analysis of the microstructure of the twin boundaries, a mechanism for the formation and stabilization of TiC twins is proposed.
Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus, grapefruits and tomatoes, has been used as a traditional anti-inflammatory agent for centuries. However, the molecular mechanism of naringenin in intestinal inflammation remains unknown so far. The present study investigated a molecular basis for the protective effect of naringenin in dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Pre-administration of naringenin significantly reduced the severity of colitis and resulted in down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (inducible NO synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA) in the colon mucosa. The decline in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-α and IL-6, correlated with a decrease in mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein. Phospho-NF-κB p65 protein was significantly decreased, which correlated with a similar decrease in phospho-IκBα protein. Consistent with the in vivo results, naringenin exposure blocked lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. In addition, in vitro NF-κB reporter assays performed on human colonic HT-29 cells exposed to naringenin demonstrated a significant inhibition of TNF-α-induced NF-κB luciferase expression. Thus, for the first time, the present study indicates that targeted inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signalling pathway might be an important mechanism for naringenin in abrogating experimental colitis.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were routinely cultured on tissue-culture polystyrene (TCPS) to investigate the in vitro aging and cell stiffening. hMSCs were also cultured on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), which is a biocompatible polymer with an elastic modulus of approximately 12.9MPa, to investigate the impact of substrate elastic modulus on cell stiffening and differentiation potential. Cells were passaged over several generations on each material. At each passage, cells were subjected to osteogenic and myogenic differentiation. Local cell elastic modulus was measured at every passage using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation. Gene and protein expression was examined using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining, respectively, for osteogenic and myogenic markers. Results show that the success of myogenic differentiation is highly reliant on the elastic modulus of the undifferentiated cells. The success of osteogenic differentiations is most likely somewhat dependent on the cell elastic modulus, as differentiations were more successful in earlier passages, when cells were softer.
Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28 857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8–10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6·3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150–300 μg/l and 11·0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3·69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100–199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.
Zircon U–Pb dating, whole-rock major oxide, trace element and Sr–Nd isotopic data are presented for the Late Mesozoic mafic intrusive rocks from Yiwulüshan of western Liaoning along the eastern segment of the Yanshan belt, North China craton, with two episodes of magmatism documented. Middle Jurassic hornblende-rich gabbros show enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and light REE, and prominent depletion in high field strength elements, and possess moderately enriched isotopic compositions with (87Sr/86Sr)i ranging from 0.7056 to 0.7065 and ɛNd(t) from −5.0 to −7.1. These features suggest that the gabbros were derived from an amphibole-bearing harzburgitic lithospheric mantle source metasomatized recently by slab-derived fluids. By contrast, Early Cretaceous mafic dykes are gabbroic dioritic to dioritic in composition, with comparable trace element characteristics to continental crust and depleted isotopic signatures ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7048–0.7055, ɛNd(t) = 0 to −3.0). They probably originated from partial melting of a relatively fertile asthenospheric mantle in the spinel stability field, with subsequent lower crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. These two contrasting mafic intrusive suites, together with multiple Mesozoic mafic volcanic rocks from western Liaoning, documented a localized lithospheric thinning process, mainly through prolonged hydro-weakening or melt–rock interaction and triggered by gravitational collapse, possibly within an evolved post-collisional to within-plate extensional regime.
We study the monotonicity for certain combinations of generalized elliptic integrals, thus generalizing analogous well-known results for classical complete elliptic integrals, and prove a conjecture put forward by Heikkala, Vamanamurthy and Vuorinen.
The Xiaofangshen mafic stock is a hornblende gabbroic body emplaced in the Faku dome of northern Liaoning within the continental interior of the North China–Mongolian plate. Zircon U–Pb SHRIMP dating yields an emplacement age of 241 ± 6 Ma. These gabbroic rocks exhibit strong enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (e.g. Th, U) and light REE, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and pronounced depletion in high field strength elements (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Ti). They show a relatively narrow range of isotopic compositions with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7053 to 0.7055, ϵNd(t) values of +0.40 to +0.68 and zircon ϵHf(T) values from +5.0 to +7.4. These geochemical features suggest that they might have been derived from partial melting of a subduction-related metasomatized lithospheric mantle source, which is tectonically affiliated to the Xing-Meng orogenic belt. Combined with our previous geochronological dating on the predominantly granitic intrusions from the Faku dome, it is inferred that the northern Liaoning block has a tectonic affinity with the Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic belt. This revelation further leads to the proposition that the Chifeng–Kaiyuan fault likely represents the Mesozoic lithospheric boundary between the North China craton and the Xing-Meng orogenic belt in northern Liaoning. The Xiaofangshen gabbros, together with the Triassic mafic–ultramafic cumulates and granulite xenoliths and the Triassic alkaline intrusions within the continental interior of the newly amalgamated North China–Mongolian Plate, constitute an important post-orogenic to within-plate anorogenic magmatic province, in response to the continued magmatic underplating caused by lithospheric delamination and hot asthenosphere upwelling.
For $a\in(0,\tfrac12]$ and $r\in(0,1)$, let $\mu_a(r)$ be the so-called generalized Grötzsch function which appears in Ramanujan's generalized modular equations. In this paper, several sharp inequalities for $\mu_a(r)$ are obtained and a conjecture on $\mu_a(r)$, which was presented by Qiu and Vuorinen in 1999, is proved.
The lightness (L*) and concentrations of Rb, Sr and organic carbon (Corg) have been measured in the age-constrained lake sediment cores recovered from Co Ngoin in the central Tibetan Plateau. Dissolved Sr flux is a dominant control on the variation of Rb/Sr ratios in the sediments. Variations in color and geochemical proxies of Co Ngoin sediments display a continuous history of late glacial to mid-Holocene chemical versus physical weathering intensity in response to past climatic changes between approximately 13,500 and 4500 cal yr B.P. A lower chemical weathering under a late glacial climate was followed by a higher weathering during the Holocene Optimum. Weathering intensity in the central Tibetan Plateau catchment also responds to well-known climatic events, such as the Younger Dryas (YD), and possibly the Holocene Event 5 (HE-5). Although there are differences in time or duration of the climatic events, many of the well-known late glacial to mid-Holocene events occurred in high-elevation Co Ngoin where atmospheric circulation might play a hemispherical role in climatic forcing. The sediment hiatus since c. 4200 14C yr B.P. in the Co Ngoin indicates a period of desiccation that was probably associated with a sharp decrease in summer monsoon strength. Our lascustrine results not only imply catchment weathering variations in response to late glacial to mid-Holocene climatic conditions in the central plateau, but also provide further evidence for global connections between regional climates.
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