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Disaster literacy, which is a concept involved in moral quality, knowledge, and ability, impacts the disaster response. This study aimed to evaluate disaster education needs and to determine the affecting factors of disaster literacy among college students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted through questionnaires. A total of 7200 college students from 10 colleges and universities in 5 provinces and cities in China were investigated.
Disaster education needs were urgently. For the participants, 79.43% stated that their families were not prepared for disaster prevention items, 96.36% suggested a campus emergency rescue team, and 88.64% obtained disaster knowledge through TV or Internet, and only 12.89% had offered relevant courses in their disciplines. The total scores of college students’ disaster literacy were 87.85 ± 19.86, which was at a low level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, major, grade, place of residence, parental education, mother’s occupation, disaster experience, disaster training experience, and family disaster preparedness significantly affected college students’ disaster literacy, especially grade, family disaster preparedness, and place of residence.
College students’ disaster literacy education is urgently needed. Families, communities, colleges and the government should attach importance to disaster literacy education for college students.
A simple, compact, double-pass pumped Nd:YVO4 thin disk laser is demonstrated. Its continuous-wave performance with different Nd doping concentrations and thicknesses is investigated experimentally. The maximum output power of 17.7 W is achieved by employing a 0.5 at.% doped sample, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 46% with respect to the absorbed pump power. In addition, a numerical analysis and an experimental study of the temperature distribution, and thermal lens effect of the Nd:YVO4 thin disk, are presented considering the influence of the energy transfer upconversion effect and the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity tensor. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Improving the production traits and resistance against mastitis in dairy cattle is a challenge for animal scientists across the globe. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) genes with production and mastitis-related traits. Four SNPs in JAK2 and one in DGAT1 were analyzed through Chinese Cow's SNPs Chip-I (CCSC-I) and genotyped in a population of 312 Chinese Holsteins. Our findings demonstrated that milk fat percentage, somatic cell count (SCC), somatic cell score (SCS), serum cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) showed significant associations (P < 0.05) with at least one or more identified SNPs. Consequently, the analysis based on haplotypes amongst the SNPs in JAK2 revealed noteworthy (P < 0.05) association with SCC and IL-6. Collectively, our results verified the pleiotropic ability of detected SNPs in bovine JAK2 and DGAT1 for milk fat percentage as well as mastitis-related traits. The significant SNPs in both the genes could serve as powerful genetic markers to minimize mastitis risk. In addition, besides SCC and SCS, the IFN-γ and IL-6 could also be used as indicators of improved genetic resistance against mastitis.
The present paper presents a novel method to cope with the difficulty that an N-order filter can introduce a maximum number of transmission zeros (TZs) – no more than N. The method is described by a coupling topology and realized by a regular fully canonical filter structure to increase one more TZ for an N-order filter without any filter size increase. Besides, the TZ shift property, as another advantage of the proposed topology, is investigated. The coupling topology consists of a group of fully canonical coupling nodes with the harmonic node (non-resonating node (NRN)) excited by a λ/4 resonator. Owing to the unique coupling topology and coupling node distribution as well as the inclusion of an NRN, N + 1 TZs are generated by an N-order bandpass filter, while all the TZs are close to the passband and far away from the harmonic passband resulting the highly selective passbands. For demonstration, two-, three-, and four-order filters are designed and measured with the experimental results that confirm the proposed technique.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
In this paper, a compact dual-band bandpass filter (DB-BPF) using new dual-mode resonator-loaded resonators (DM-RLRs) is presented and investigated to simultaneously achieve controllable return loss (RL), bandwidth (BW) and transmission zeros (TZs), and the simple strategy for this type of filter design is proposed. The DB-BPF consists of two high-flexibility DM-RLRs with separated electric and magnetic coupling (SEMC). Specifically, the proposed DM-RLR provides the DB-BPF with center frequency control as well as RL control, and SEMC is utilized for the BW and TZ control. To facilitate the design, a simple optimization-based design strategy is proposed and employed, resulting in an example layout. Finally, the example filter, with center frequencies of 1.57 GHz (channel 1 for GPS) and 3.5 GHz (channel 2 for WiMAX), is fabricated and measured. The measurement insertion loss and RL are 0.9/0.9 and 17/20 dB. The fabricated DB-BPF also exhibits a compact size of 0.12λg × 0.08λg at 1.57 GHz.
In this letter, a passive high-selectivity dual-band filter with two controllable transmission zero (TZ) pairs is proposed, while synthesis method and control mechanism of the two TZ pairs are investigated. Specifically, by employing the magnetic/electric mixed coupling (MEMC), source–load coupling (S–L coupling) and stepped-impedance resonators, a dual-band bandpass filter with two pairs of controllable TZs is constructed. Two controllable TZ pairs can be independently adjusted by re-modifying the associated coupling structures. To validate the synthesizability and controllability of the TZ pairs, mathematical synthesis, and EM simulations are carried out. Two demonstrative filters with identical passband performance and different central TZ distributions for GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz) are designed and measured. The analysis and experimental results show that the synthesis-controllable TZ pair (fz2, fz3) introduced by MEMC can be synthesized and controlled using inline mixed coupling synthesis, and the optimization-controllable TZ pair (fz1, fz4) because of S–L coupling is controlled by S–L coupling strength optimization procedure.
A compact microstrip multi-stub loaded bandpass filter (BPF) with ultra-wide stopband is introduced and investigated. Lumped-equivalent circuit (LEC) method is adopted to analyze the characteristics of the in-band response based upon the low frequency LEC and even-odd mode analytical method. Besides, equivalent transmission line circuit method with even-odd mode analytical method are adopted to discuss the mechanism of the out-band rejection based upon the transmission poles and the transmission zeros analysis of the even-/odd-mode equivalent circuits. Accordingly, the design and the optimization procedures of this type of filters are summarized. To experimentally validate the proposed method, the filter is fabricated and measured. The measured results illustrate this BPF centered at f0 = 2.8 GHz, with −3 dB fractional bandwidth of 109.3%, the insert loss (IL) of less than 1 dB from 1.4 to 4 GHz, and the rejection level of 20 dB from 5.1 to 33.5 GHz(1.82f0 to 11.96f0).
We present experimental evidence that a minute amount of polymer additives can significantly enhance heat transport in the bulk region of turbulent thermal convection. The effects of polymer additives are found to be the enhancement of coherent heat fluxes and suppression of incoherent heat fluxes. The enhanced heat transport is associated with the increased coherency of thermal plumes, as a result of the suppression of small-scale turbulent fluctuations by polymers. The incoherent heat flux, arising from turbulent background fluctuations, makes no net contribution to heat transport. The fact that polymer additives can increase the coherency of thermal plumes is supported by the measurements of a number of local quantities, such as the extracted plume amplitude and width, the velocity autocorrelation functions and the velocity–temperature cross-correlation coefficient. The results from local measurements also suggest the existence of a threshold value for the polymer concentration, only above which significant modification of the plume coherent properties and enhancement of the local heat flux can be observed. Estimation of the plume emission rate suggests a stabilization of the thermal boundary layer by polymer additives.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for calcium(II)–naproxen complex, C28H26CaO6·2H2O, are reported [a = 36.918(2) Å, b = 5.655(6) Å, c = 12.505(6) Å, β = 91.263(2)°, cell volume V = 2610.47 Å3, Z = 4, and space group C2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the C2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
An epigenetic mechanism has been suggested to explain the effects of the maternal diet on the development of disease in offspring. The present study aimed to observe the effects of a maternal high-lipid, high-energy (HLE) diet on the DNA methylation pattern of male offspring in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed an HLE diet during gestation and lactation. The genomic DNA methylations at promoter sites of genes in the liver, mRNA and protein levels of selected genes related to lipid and glucose metabolism were measured by microarray, real-time PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that the percentage of methylated DNA in offspring from dams that were fed an HLE diet was significantly higher than that from dams that were fed a chow diet, and most of these genes were hypermethylated in promoter regions. The nuclear protein content and mRNA levels of hypermethylated genes, such as PPARγ and liver X receptor α (LXRα), were decreased significantly in offspring in the HLE group. The results suggested that the DNA methylation profile in adult offspring livers was changed by the maternal HLE diet during gestation and lactation.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters and space group for gemcitabine, C9H11F2N3O4, are reported [a = 17.641(8) Å, b = 6.985(1) Å, c = 18.653(2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 2298.61 Å3, Z = 8 and space group Pmna]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the Pmna space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for loratadine (C22H23ClN2O2) are reported [a = 28.302(18) Å, b = 4.996(3) Å, c = 29.154(19) Å, β = 109.158(2)°, unit-cell volume V = 3894.25 Å3, Z = 8, and space group C2/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the C2/c space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcriptional factor activated during cerebral ischemia, which regulates a great number of downstream genes, including those associated with cell death. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that post-ischemic HIF-1α up-regulation might promote autophagy activation; thereby, HIF-1α inhibitor 2ME2 might prevent neurons from ischemic injury through inhibiting autophagy.
Global ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion model (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 250-280g). 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, 5mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to down-regulate HIF-1α expression. Post-ischemic beclin-1 and LC3 protein expression was determined at different time points through Western blot assay. Neuronal injury was determined by cresyl violet staining and TUNEL staining in coronal histological sections.
The expression of beclin-1 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I increased significantly at 12 and 24 h after ischemia. 2ME2 could remarkably inhibit the up-regulation of beclin-1 and the increase of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio during reperfusion. Moreover, 2ME2 and 3-MA exhibited powerful protective effects against ischemic/reperfusion induced neuronal injury.
This study confirmed that autophagy participated in post-ischemic neuronal injury. 2ME2, a HIF-1α inhibitor, might significantly decrease autophagy activation after cerebral ischemia and relieve post-ischemic neuronal injury. Our findings demonstrate that autophagy could be a potential target for neuronal protection after cerebral ischemia.
Using vinyl-silsesquioxane modified with various amounts of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium tetrabutoxide (TTB), two kinds of hybrid films, film-vinyl-silsesquioxane-TEOS (f-VSTE) and film-vinyl-silsesquioxane-TTB (f-VSTT), were prepared. The average transparency (AT) of the modified films was measured in the ranges of the visible light region (400–750 nm) and in the near-infrared region (750–2500 nm). The AT values in these ranges are about 88% to 94%, indicating that these high-AT films can provide crops with growth energy and improvement of the photosynthetic process efficiency. The TEOS additions result in a hybrid structure (containing SiO2); an adequate addition can cause an increase in the AT radiation from sunlight. On the other hand, the TTB additions result in a hybrid structure (containing TiO2) that causes a decrease in the AT. These results were validated using molecular dynamic simulation and were calculated (with Materials Stutio software) using the density of states and the energy-band structure of the vinyl-SSO, SiO2, and TiO2 building blocks.
To predict success of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, we evaluated pre- and post- operative phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance images (PC MRI) on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cine flow in basal cisterns around the brain stem, and cervical medullar junction (CMJ) retrospectively.
The study involved 102 patients with mean age of 36.74±23.25, and F/M = 1.55. All patients had PC MRI taken both pre- and post-operatively. A dynamic MRI video of PC MRI was reviewed at sagittal, axial, and coronal sections to determine cistern flows around the brain stem and CMJ. For quantitative analysis, quadrants were divided around midbrain axially to evaluate interpeduncular, quadrageminal, and ambient cisterns of both sides using scores of 0 to 60. Pre- and post- pontine and CMJ flows were shown in sagittal view and scored 0 to 20, and lateral cerebellopontine cisterns of both sides were measured on coronal image and scored 0 to 20.
No significant difference in CSF flow was seen from three individual views and total cine score, or between ETV success and failure groups by multivariate analysis of variance. Kaplan-Meier Analysis and Spearman's Correlation Test produced no relationship between MRI cine flow scores and interval period after surgery to ETV failure.
PC MRI cine flow failed to demonstrate significant differences between successful and failed ETV groups. This indicates in addition to achieving an adequate fenestration, CSF pathways beyond the basal cisterns around the brain stem and CMJ may play an essential role in achieving ETV success.
High-temperature titanium matrix composites reinforced with hybrid reinforcements are synthesized by common casting and hot working technologies. Tensile properties are tested at different temperatures and strain rates. Ultimate strengths of the composites are significantly enhanced under all conditions and decrease when the strain rate is lower. Equicohesive temperature of the matrix is around 873 K at the strain rate 10−3s−1 and well below 873 K at 10−5s−1. At higher temperature or lower strain rate, interfacial debonding is more drastic and reduces the strengths of composites. The materials are embrittled under creep-rupture conditions. Strict reinforcement morphology is required for more complex service conditions at high temperatures in metal matrix composites.