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Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
We report first results from a multiwavelength campaign to measure the simultaneous spectrum of Sgr A* from cm to mm wavelengths. The observations confirm that the previously detected submm-excess is not due to variability; the presence of an ultracompact component with a size of a few Schwarzschild radii is inferred. In a VLA survey of LINER galaxies, we found Sgr A*-like nuclei in one quarter of the galaxies searched, suggesting a link between those low-power AGN and the Galactic Center.
GaN was grown by supersonic jet epitaxy(SSJE), seeding triethylgallium in helium carrier gas. Activated nitrogen was supplied by a microwave plasma source. Single crystalline GaN films were deposited on the Si-face 6H-SiC and the c-plane sapphire substrates at 600–670°C. A cubic SiC buffer layer was grown onSi(111) at 800°C by SSJE using dichlorosilane, acetylene, and a high quality GaN crystal was grown on this template at 630°C. The materials high quality was proved by hard rectifying characteristics of a diode with an N-GaN/β-SiC/P-Si(111) structure.
Cubic SiC thin films have been grown by supersonic jet epitaxy of single molecular precursors on Si(100), Si(111) and Separation by IMplanted OXygen (SIMOX) silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates at temperatures in the range 780 - 1000 °C. Real-time, in situ optical reflectivity was used to monitor the film growth. Films were characterized by ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Monocrystalline, crack-free epitaxial cubic SiC thin films were successfully grown at 830 °C on carbonized Si(111) substrates using supersonic molecular jets of dimethylisopropylsilane, (CH3)2CHSiH(CH3)2, and diethylmethylsilane, (CH3CH2)2SiHCH3. Highly oriented cubic SiC thin films in the  direction were obtained on SIMOX(100) at 900 °C with dimethylisopropylsilane and on Si(100) at 1000 °C with diethylmethylsilane. A carbonized Si(100) surface was found to enhance SiC deposition from diethylmethylsilane at a growth temperature of 950 °C.
An alternative three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo (MC) dynamic simulation model for phosphorus implant into (100) single-crystal silicon has been developed which incorporates the effects of channeling and damage. This model calculates the trajectories of both implanted ions and recoiled silicons and concurrently and explicitly affects both ions and recoils due to the presence of accumulative damage. In addition, the model for room-temperature implant accounts for the self-annealing effect using our defined recombination probabilities for vacancies and interstitials saved on the unit volumes. Our model has been verified by the comparison with the previously published SIMS data over commonly used energy range between 10 and 180 keV, using our proposed empirical electronic energy loss model. The 3D formations of the amorphous region and the ultra-shallow junction around the implanted region could be predicted by using our model, TRICSI (TRansport Ions into Crystal-Silicon).
OLEDs are an ideal technology for electronic display applications. They are fabricated by depositing very thin films of organic materials at low temperatures (<100°C) to form bright, vivid power efficient self-emissive light producing elements with fast response times that can be grown on a variety of large area substrates such as glass, plastic or metal foil. These properties make OLEDs ideally suited to enable high information content flexible displays. In particular, the application of phosphorescent OLEDs leads to very low power consumption displays – a key requirement for mobile applications. In this paper we outline our progress towards developing low power consumption, active-matrix flexible OLED (FOLED™) displays. Our work is focused on integrating three critical enabling technologies: high efficiency long-lived top emission phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) device technology, flexible active-matrix backplanes, and thin film encapsulation.
The focus of this paper is the electrical characterization of coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines that are printed onto nonwoven textile substrates using conductive inks, to determine their suitability for wide-band applications, e.g. digital signaling. The conductive ink line characterization tests included the defining of DC and Time-Domain Reflectometry metrics. The transmission line test samples were screen printed onto two different types of nonwoven textile substrates using two different conductive inks, i.e. inks with different viscosities. Tests showed that the variations in the continuity of the transmission lines varied, giving rise to geometrical variations in the CPW structure; and in the characterization of the same.
We present interferometric CO(3-2), HCO+(4-3) and 870 micron continuum images of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 obtained at the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our spatially resolved CO (3–2) and HCO+(4–3) emission peaks between the two nuclear components that are known to both harbor AGNs. The kinematical information provided by the CO (3–2) emission shows a rotating disk centered around the northern AGN and a possible face-on disk around the southern AGN, but the kinematics of gas between the two nuclei is extremely turbulent.
A new virus that infects the harmful algal bloom-forming microalga Phaeocystis globosa was isolated from surface water in the English Channel off the coast of Plymouth, UK, in May 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA polymerase gene revealed the virus isolate, designated PgV-102P, belongs to the family Phycodnaviridae, a group of large double-stranded DNA viruses known to infect algae. Basic characterization of PgV-102P revealed it was a lytic virus with a relatively slow culture lysis period of 10-days. The genome size (176 kbp) and capsid diameter (98 nm) of PgV-102P fall at the bottom end of the range expected for phycodnaviruses. Interestingly, PgV-102P did not cluster with other P. globosa viruses; instead, it was more closely related to other prymnesioviruses that infect the marine prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina brevifilum. We discuss the effectiveness of DNA polymerase as a diagnostic marker. Although it is ideal for determining what family or even genus an algal virus belongs to, it is clear that the DNA polymerase gene does not have sufficient resolution when looking for relationships within algal virus genera.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
Torrentispora fibrosa gen. sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Annulatascaceae) is described based on specimens from submerged wood collected from
streams in Tai Po Kau Forest Reserve, Hong Kong. T. fibrosa is characterized by immersed to superficial ascomata with a peridium of
black cells arranged in irregular rows, wide septate paraphyses, long cylindrical asci with a relatively massive refractive apical ring,
and unicellular ascospores with a fibrillar sheath. Illustrations from light and scanning electron microscopy are provided. It is
compared with species in the genus Annulatascus, from which it differs in ascoma peridium and ascospore sheath morphology, and
with other aquatic ascomycetes possessing ascospores with a similar fibrillar sheath structure.
Foreign investment is an important vehicle to development, and Thailand, like most developing countries, has been keen to attract more of it. The virtues supposedly associated with foreign investment are many: foreign investment can help generate new jobs which is important in developing countries where unemployment is often a seemingly intractable problem; foreign investment can serve as a useful medium to help raise the technological levels and the management skills of the host country; foreign investment can make a positive contribution to the balance of payments of the host country because export-oriented investments can help earn much needed foreign exchange while investments for import substitution purposes can help save what little foreign exchange reserves there are in most developing countries. Deficits in the balance of trade have become particularly acute in the case of Thailand. In 1970, the deficit in the balance of trade was close to 10 billion baht and increased more than three times to nearly 38 billion baht in 1979. It is not the purpose of this paper to present all the arguments in favour of or against foreign investments. The point to be made is that most developing countries are convinced that foreign investment is good and every effort is made to attract as much investment as possible. Thailand is no exception. The setting up of the Board of Investment in 1959 and the promulgation of the Investment Promotion Act of 1977 – the latest in a series of laws designed to attract foreign investment to Thailand – all manifest the importance attached to foreign investment by the Thai Government.
EEC INVESTMENT IN ASEAN AND THAILAND
Using share in total registered capital of all promoted firms as an indicator, Japan has led all other countries in investing in Thailand in the two decades from 1960-80. During this period, about 77 per cent of total registered capital were from local sources while close to 8 per cent were held by Japanese investors.
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