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William Tecumseh Sherman’s capture of Atlanta on September 2, 1864 delivered a massive blow to the rapidly diminishing hopes of the Confederacy. The city’s fall practically ensured Lincoln’s reelection, who maintained a vigorous war against the Confederacy. In the wake of the city’s fall, its defenders, the Confederate Army of Tennessee, withdrew to the railhead of the West Point railroad at Palmetto Station, Georgia, about 25 miles south west of Atlanta. There, its controversial commander, the one-legged Lieutenant General John Bell Hood, took stock of the situation. He rested, restructured, and repaired his army, which had been engaged almost constantly since the beginning of the campaign in May. Conditions were bleak, the army’s officer corps was decimated, and heavy losses in the ranks made many of his regiments mere shadows of their former selves. Morale was at an all-time low. With this poor outlook, he decided on a new plan of action, proposing to strike at Sherman’s supply lines in north Georgia. With this in mind he learned that President Jefferson Davis was on his way to inspect the army and confer with him and his corps commanders about future operations, as well as to inspire the army and the civilian population. Davis also came to investigate allegations about failures in Hood’s leadership, notably from one of his corps commanders, General William J. Hardee. Upon his arrival he met with Hardee, who leveled an ultimatum that either he or Hood had to go, so Davis transferred Hardee to departmental command, giving command of his corps to General Frank Cheatham. Davis also met with other officers and delivered several encouraging speeches while inspecting the army. Finally, Davis met with Hood to talk about the army’s future course of action.
To assess whether disparities in energy consumption and insufficient energy intake in India have changed over time across socio-economic status (SES).
This cross-sectional, population-based survey study examines the relationship between several SES indicators (i.e. wealth, education, caste, occupation) and energy consumption in India at two time points almost 20 years apart. Household food intake in the last 30 d was assessed in 1993–94 and in 2011–12. Average dietary energy intake per person in the household (e.g. kilocalories) and whether the household consumed less than 80 % of the recommended energy intake (i.e. insufficient energy intake) were calculated. Linear and relative risk regression models were used to estimate the relationship between SES and average energy consumed per day per person and the relative risk of consuming an insufficient amount of energy.
Rural and urban areas across India.
A nationally representative sample of households.
Among rural households, there was a positive association between SES and energy intake across all four SES indicators during both survey years. Similar results were seen for energy insufficiency vis-à-vis recommended energy intake levels. Among urban households, wealth was associated with energy intake and insufficiency at both time points, but there was no educational patterning of energy insufficiency in 2011–12.
Results suggest little overall change in the SES patterning of energy consumption and percentage of households with insufficient energy intake from 1993–94 to 2011–12 in India. Policies in India need to improve energy intake among low-SES households, particularly in rural areas.
We present an account of why we decided to retract a paper. We discovered a lack of adherence to conventional trials registration, execution, interpretation and reporting, and consequently, with the authors, needed to correct the scientific record. We set out our responses in general to strengthen research integrity.
Declaration of interest
K.S.B. is Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Psychiatry. W.L., K.R.K. and S.M.L. are members of the senior editorial committee and the research integrity committee for the journal. In the past three years, S.M.L. has received research support from Janssen and Lundbeck, and personal support from Janssen, Otsuka and Sunovion.
The effect of temperature change on LiF, ADP, and EDDT analyzing crystals was studied by measuring the change In intensity of a selected X-ray spectral line while maintaining a constant 2θ position on the spectrometer. A change in interplanar spacing due to thermal expansion and contraction satisfactorily account for experimentally observed line shifts for LiF and ADP. EDDT showed a large unexplained decrease in reflectivity with increasing ambient temperature.
An equation was developed to express the change in intensity at a constant 2θ position as an exponential function of temperature. In this equation the thermal expansion coefficients of the principal axes of the crystal, the width of the spectral line at half-height, and the Bragg angle appear as factors. Intensity changes due to peak shift were tabulated for LiF, ADP, NaCl, silicon, germanium, quartz, calcite, fiuorite, and topaz.
Characteristic x rays have been produced for a variety of samples by bombardment with protons in the energy range from 75 keV to 5 MeV. The experiments were performed with two accelerators. For the low-energy studies (less than 150 keV), a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was used. The higher-energy studies were done with a 5 MV Van de Graaff. The x rays were measured with high-resolution Si(Li) and Ge(Li) detectors. Yields for the cross section of characteristic K- and L-shell ionizations were measured for titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganeses iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, bismuth, and uranium. The experimental cross-sections have been compared to the theoretical predictions of the Born approximation for an interaction of this type.
Trace element analysis by 4-MeV proton bombardment of samples in the 10-12 gm range has also been performed. Some comments with regard to analysis with these sensitivities will be made.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Objectives and goals of this study are to (i) determine whether IBS-D patients randomized to either rifaximin or low FODMAP diet show improvement in IBS-related symptoms; and (2) identify using longitudinal analyses how SIBO status and fecal microbiota features associate with response to either rifaximin or low FODMAP dietary intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 42 patients ≥ 18 years of age who meet Rome IV criteria for IBS-D will be randomized to receive either rifaximin or low FODMAP diet intervention. The primary outcome will be the proportion of responders to intervention which is defined as ≥ 30% reduction in mean daily abdominal pain or bloating by visual analog scale compared with baseline. Exclusion criteria will include: (a) history of microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, or other organic disease that could explain symptoms, (b) prior gastrointestinal surgery, other than appendectomy or cholecystectomy > 6 months prior to study initiation, (c) prior use of rifaximin or formal dietary interventions for IBS-D, (d) use of antibiotics within the past 3 months, or (e) use of probiotics within 1 month of study entry. Glucose hydrogen breath tests will be performed at the beginning and end of the trial to evaluate for SIBO. Fecal samples will be collected at 0, 2, and 6 weeks to determine changes in fecal microbial composition and structure. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study seeks to examine whether longitudinal analyses of small intestinal and colonic microbiota can subtype IBS-D subjects into clinically relevant phenotypes. A total of 18 subjects have been enrolled into the study. Clinical variables, hydrogen breath test results, and fecal microbiota data are being collected for ongoing analysis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results from this study may help move treatment of IBS from a purely symptom based approach to a more individualized approach by stratifying IBS-D patients into distinct clinical phenotypes which are amenable to targeted therapeutic approaches.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) affects 15-35% of breast cancer survivors and constitutes a significant challenge for survivor quality of life. Among older breast cancer survivors who received chemotherapy treatment, carriers of at least one ɛ4 allele of the APOE gene, which encodes apolipoprotein E, are at higher risk for developing CRCI than non-carriers. APOE4 is well characterized as the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, but how it contributes to CRCI is not yet understood, and no animal models of APOE genotype and CRCI have yet been established. To better understand how APOE4 acts as a risk factor for CRCI, we used APOE targeted replacement (TR) mice to develop a model of its effects on cognition following treatment with doxorubicin, a chemotherapy drug commonly used in breast cancer treatment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Twelve-to-thirteen month old APOE3 and APOE4 targeted replacement mice expressing human APOE3 or human APOE4 under control of the endogenous murine promoter were treated with 10 mg/kg doxorubicin or equivolume saline given via two IP injections spaced one week apart. One week post-treatment, mice were tested using Open Field and Elevated Zero apparatuses to assess baseline locomotive activity and anxiety and exploratory behaviors. Five weeks post-treatment, mice were assessed using the Barnes Maze over four days of training trials and one 72 hour memory probe. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found no differences in Open Field and Elevated Zero behavior, indicating limited influence of doxorubicin treatment on locomotive and anxiety behaviors in both genotypes. During Barnes Maze training, APOE4 mice treated with doxorubicin showed increased latency compared to untreated APOE4 mice as well as treated and untreated APOE3 mice, indicating deficiencies in spatial learning. In APOE3 mice, no differences in performance were seen between doxorubicin-treated and untreated mice (n = 15-16/group, p <.0001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results indicate that APOE4 targeted replacement mice have specific cognitive vulnerabilities to doxorubicin treatment that can be reliably detected using the Barnes Maze assessment. Future directions include experiments to determine how other chemotherapy drugs or drug combinations impact cognition of APOE4 mice. Ultimately this model may be used to assess preventive measures or therapies for CRCI in the vulnerable APOE4 carrier population with the ability to validate cognitive impacts of these interventions.
Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak.
We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011–2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates. We determined (1) the ability of data mining of the EHR to identify the correct route of transmission, (2) how early the correct route was identified during the timeline of the outbreak, and (3) how many cases in the outbreaks could have been prevented had the system been running in real time.
Correct routes were identified for all outbreaks at the second patient, except for one outbreak involving >1 transmission route that was detected at the eighth patient. Up to 40 or 34 infections (78% or 66% of possible preventable infections, respectively) could have been prevented if data mining had been implemented in real time, assuming the initiation of an effective intervention within 7 or 14 days of identification of the transmission route, respectively.
Data mining of the EHR was accurate for identifying routes of transmission among patients who were part of the outbreak. Prospective validation of this approach using routine whole-genome sequencing and data mining of the EHR for both outbreak detection and route attribution is ongoing.
The pulse radiating characteristic of a wrapped bow-tie antenna (WBA) and wrapped resistively loaded bow-tie antenna (WRLBA) is presented for impulse radar applications in this paper. The numerical analysis of the WRLBA is performed by comparing that of the WBA. The wrapped antennas are realized on a flexible substrate. The antennas are fed by an impedance tapered balun, which has an overall transmission loss of −1.4 dB over the balun length. The characteristics of the resistive loading to the wrapped antenna, such as reflection coefficient, reflected pulse in the time domain, voltage standing wave ratio, and input impedance, are experimentally investigated and compared with simulated results. The fidelity factor of the radiated electric field on the boresight direction for the WBA and WRLBA is calculated as 0.82 and 0.96, respectively. The wireless communication ability is evaluated by the transmission coefficient, group delay, boresight gain, and received waveform. The calculated fidelity factor of the received waveform for the WBA and WRLBA is 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. The average and variations of the group delay of both wrapped antennas are observed to be around 2.5 ns and less than 1.5 ns, respectively.
Obesity and hyperglycaemia contribute to the atherosclerotic process in part through oxidative modifications to lipoprotein particles. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on markers of oxidized lipoproteins in obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes.
Participants were enrolled into a 12-week lifestyle intervention. Measurements pre- and post-intervention included anthropometrics and body composition, lipid panel, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), oxidized HDL (oxHDL), intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, and cardiorespiratory fitness.
Thirty-five obese Latino adolescents (seventeen females, eighteen males; mean age 15·5 (sd 1·0) years; mean BMI percentile 98·5 (sd 1·2)) with prediabetes.
Intervention participation resulted in significant reductions in weight (−1·2 %, P = 0·042), BMI and BMI percentile (−2·0 and −0·4 %, respectively, P < 0·001), body fat (−7·0 %, P = 0·025), TAG (−11·8 %, P = 0·032), total cholesterol (−5·0 %, P = 0·002), VLDL-cholesterol (−12·5 %, P = 0·029), and non-HDL-cholesterol (−6·7 %, P = 0·007). Additionally, fitness (6·4 %, P < 0·001) and intake of fruits and vegetables (42·4 %, P = 0·025) increased significantly. OxLDL decreased significantly after the intervention (51·0 (sd 14·0) v. 48·7 (sd 12·8) U/l, P = 0·022), while oxHDL trended towards a significant increase (395·2 (sd 94·6) v. 416·1 (sd 98·4) ng/ml, P = 0·056).
These data support the utility of lifestyle intervention to improve the atherogenic phenotype of Latino adolescents who are at high risk for developing premature CVD and type 2 diabetes.
Recovery of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae from a cluster of patients in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) prompted an epidemiologic investigation for a common exposure.
Clinical and microbiologic data from MICU patients were retrospectively reviewed, MICU bronchoscopes underwent culturing and borescopy, and bronchoscope reprocessing procedures were reviewed. Bronchoscope and clinical MDR isolates epidemiologically linked to the cluster underwent molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) followed by whole-genome sequencing.
Of the 33 case patients, 23 (70%) were exposed to a common bronchoscope (B1). Both MDR P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia were recovered from the bronchoscope’s lumen, and borescopy revealed a luminal defect. Molecular testing demonstrated genetic relatedness among case patient and B1 isolates, providing strong evidence for horizontal bacterial transmission. MDR organism (MDRO) recovery in 19 patients was ultimately linked to B1 exposure, and 10 of 19 patients were classified as belonging to an MDRO pseudo-outbreak.
Surveillance of bronchoscope-derived clinical culture data was important for early detection of this outbreak, and whole-genome sequencing was important for the confirmation of findings. Visualization of bronchoscope lumens to confirm integrity should be a critical component of device reprocessing.
Although relapse in psychosis is common, a small proportion of patients will not relapse in the long term. We examined the proportion and predictors of patients who never relapsed in the 10 years following complete resolution of positive symptoms from their first psychotic episode.
Patients who previously enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial on medication discontinuation and relapse following first-episode psychosis (FEP) were followed up after 10 years. Relapse of positive symptoms was operationalized as a change from a Clinical Global Impression scale positive score of <3 for at least 3 consecutive months to a score of ⩾3 (mild or more severe). Baseline predictors included basic demographics, premorbid functioning, symptoms, functioning, and neurocognitive functioning.
Out of 178 first-episode patients, 37 (21%) never relapsed during the 10-year period. Univariate predictors (p ⩽ 0.1) of patients who never relapsed included a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) ⩽30 days, diagnosed with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders, having less severe negative symptoms, and performing better in logical memory immediate recall and verbal fluency tests. A multivariate logistic regression analysis further suggested that the absence of any relapsing episodes was significantly related to better short-term verbal memory, shorter DUP, and non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Treatment delay and neurocognitive function are potentially modifiable predictors of good long-term prognosis in FEP. These predictors are informative as they can be incorporated into an optimum risk prediction model in the future, which would help with clinical decision making regarding maintenance treatment in FEP.
Recent funding from Welsh Government for mental health has helped to develop liaison psychiatry services in Wales. Systematic data collection was undertaken to map the liaison psychiatry services in Wales in collaboration with the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Wales and Public Health Wales 1000 Lives Improvement. A questionnaire was designed and circulated to all the health boards in Wales to gather information to map liaison psychiatry services in Wales. Up-to-date information was confirmed in January 2018, via email.
Over the past 2 years, liaison psychiatry services have been set up in six out of seven health boards in Wales. Staffing levels have increased and the remit of services has broadened.
Mapping has highlighted that liaison psychiatry services in Wales continue to evolve. It will be important to continue to monitor these developments and their effects. Comparison with services in England will provide a useful comparison of service provision. A particular challenge will be to establish and monitor liaison psychiatry standards in Wales.
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of recovery from insomnia is an important goal for improving existing treatments. In a randomised controlled trial, 57 participants with insomnia disorder were given either cognitive therapy (CT) or mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) following 4 sessions of CBT. Each participant was assessed on process measures related to CT and MBT. MBT resulted in improvement on mindfulness process measures and the size of the improvement was significantly greater than achieved in the CT condition. Interestingly, CT and MBT both resulted in significant improvement on the cognitive process measures. Treatment outcome on the primary outcome measure (Insomnia Severity Index) was not predicted by type of treatment but was predicted by posttreatment scores on the cognitive process measures. The results suggest that changes in cognitive processes are especially important in treating insomnia, and that there are different therapeutic modalities through which this can be achieved.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a device implanted into the brain of a paralyzed or injured patient to control an external assistive device, such as a cursor on a computer screen, a motorized wheelchair, or a robotic limb. We hypothesize we can utilize electrical stimulation of subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes as a method of generating the percepts of somatosensation such as vibration, temperature, or proprioception. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: There will be 10 subjects, who are informed, willing, and consented epilepsy patients undergoing initial surgery for placement of subdural ECoG electrodes in the brain for seizure monitoring. ECoG will be used as a platform for recording high-resolution local field potentials during real-touch behavioral tasks. In addition, ECoG will also be used to electrically stimulate the human cerebral cortex in order to map and understand how varying stimulation parameters produce percepts of sensation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To determine how tactile and proprioceptive signals are integrated in S1, we will perform spectral analysis of the broadband local field potentials to look for increased power in specific frequency bands in the ECoG recordings while touching or moving the hand. To explore generating artificial sensation, the subject will be asked to perform a variety of tasks with and without the aid of stimulation. We anticipate the subject’s performance will be enhanced with the addition of artificial sensation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many patients might benefit from a BMI, such as those with stroke, amputation, spinal cord injury, or brain trauma. The current generation of BMI devices are guided by visual feedback alone. However, without somatosensory feedback, even the most basic limb movements are difficult to perform in a fluid and natural manner. The results from this project will be crucial to developing a closed loop motor/sensory BMI.