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Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Armenia has always had an ambiguous place between the major powers, be they the East Roman empire and Sasanian Iran, the Byzantine empire and the caliphate, or the Ottoman empire and the Safavids. Armenian loyalties have not been consistent, either in support of a coherent internal policy or with regard to external diplomacy. The very definition of Armenia highlights the problem. Does the term refer to a geographical entity – and if so, what are its borders? Or does it refer to a people with common bonds – and if so, are those bonds linguistic, religious, cultural or political?
Rare clasts of limestone contained in the uppermost Carboniferous Fitzroy Tillite Formation of the Falkland Islands contain a rich Cambrian fauna of archaeocyaths together with a radiocyath and a few trilobites. Neither Cambrian strata nor limestone are present in the indigenous rock succession and the clasts are regarded as exotic erratics, introduced during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of southern Gondwana, prior to its Mesozoic break-up. Nineteen archaeocyath taxa have been identified, with seven (plus a radiocyath) occurring in a single clast. Trilobite identifications are less definitive, but they are compared to Yorkella and the Siberian genera Edelsteinaspis, Namanoia and Chondrinouyina. The archaeocyath fauna has an Australo–Antarctic character and the Transantarctic Mountains seem the most likely source for these unusual erratics. Most recent reconstructions of Gondwana rotate a Falklands microplate into a position between South Africa and East Antarctica. There, it is in proximity with the Eastern Cape Province, where tillites within the Permo-Carboniferous Dwyka Group are correlatives of the Fitzroy Tillite Formation, and the ‘Atlantic’ end of the Transantarctic Mountains. The Dwyka Group tillites also contain rare clasts of archaeocyathan limestone and the rotational reconstruction produces a continuity of the apparent ice-flow directions in South Africa and the Falkland Islands.
From time to time workers in various laboratories have published details of diets capable of maintaining their respective rat colonies in good health and supplying reasonably uniform animals for laboratory requirements. In response to enquiries regarding our feeding methods, the present note records the stock diet used at this Institute.
A new form of photo-electric photometer or colorimeter is described which permits of accurate and objective readings in a wide range of colorimetric work with small quantities of solutions. The instrument is of the null-point type and hence requires calibration to suit the particular estimation.
The writer is indebted to the Earl of Moray Fund of the University of Edinburgh for financial assistance towards the expenses of the earlier part of the work.
The original model was made by A. H. Baird of Edinburgh, the model described above by Wm. Watson and Sons, London, to whom, and to Mr W. E. Watson-Baker, I am indebted for suggestions on a number of points.
Dideoxy nucleotide sequencing of a portion of the 1D gene of SAT-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) was used to derive phylogenetic relationships between viruses recovered from the oesophageo-pharyngeal secretions of buffalo in the Kruger National Park as well as several other wildlife areas in southern Africa. The three serotypes differed from one another by more than 40 % while intratypic variation did not exceed 29%. Within each type, isolates from particular countries were more closely related to one another than to isolates from other countries lending credence to previous observations that FMDV evolve independently in different regions of the subcontinent.
In a school with 250 pupils all under the age of 10, sixty-four suffered from diarrhoea and abdominal pain. The victims sickened on 5 and 6 February, but it was not until 12 February that the first cases (bacteriologically confirmed) were notified to the Health Authority. All the notified cases were between the ages of 6 and 9 years and attended the same school. Older children, who attended other schools, were not affected.
A survey of ABO blood groups, secretor status and smoking habits among 389 students and staff of a school in which there was an outbreak of meningococcal disease found no difference in the distribution of the ABO blood groups but a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors (37·6%) in the population examined compared with that reported for previous surveys of the neighbouring population in Glasgow (26·2%) (P < 0·0005). There was also a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors among carriers of meningococci (47%) compared with non-carriers (32%). Increased carriage of meningococci among non-secretors might contribute to the increased susceptibility of individuals with this genetic characteristic to meningococcal disease observed in previous studies. Although passive exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with meningococcal disease, there was no association between passive smoking and carriage. There was, however, a significant association between active smoking and carriage.
1. A group of rats has been fed on a poor human dietary supplemented with milk and green food. A further group has been given the same dietary supplemented with Ca and P as salts, equivalent in amount to that present in the milk and green food. The experiment has been continued over three generations.
2. The diet supplemented with Ca and P salts has been found to be as effective as that containing milk and green food in promoting reproduction, calcification and tooth formation; it has induced growth as effectively in the first generation of rats but is unable to maintain this growth rate as effectively over several generations. It is obvious that Ca and P are of the chief deficiencies in the poor diet. The addition of these elements greatly increases the nutritive value of this diet, but they are inferior in this respect to milk and green food supplements.
3. Under conditions of Ca and P lack, tooth formation is much less adversely affected than is skeletal ossification.
Sequencing of part of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to determine the relationships between SAT-2 viruses isolated from outbreaks which occurred in cattle in Zimbabwe and Namibia and in impala in South Africa between 1979 and 1989. The results demonstrated that the outbreaks in different countries were unrelated. Surprisingly close relationships were shown between all SAT-2 viruses isolated from cattle in Zimbabwe since 1983 but the two major epizootics which occurred in 1989 were caused by viruses which were clearly different. Conversely, two apparently unrelated outbreaks in impala in South Africa were caused by viruses which could not be distinguished.
Cases of paratyphoid fever are often not diagnosed until the second, third or subsequent weeks of illness. When calculating clearance rates of a series of cases the calculations must be based only on the numbers known to be positive at the week under consideration. If based throughout on the total number of cases the rates of clearance in the early weeks are greatly reduced.
Cases for which laboratory records are incomplete must not be entirely rejected when calculating clearance rates but must be retained in the population for as long as they were known to be positive.
Analyses designed to show the duration of infection in paratyphoid fever can only be made with accuracy under the most favourable conditions.
A large number of cases of paratyphoid fever were repeatedly examined bacteriologically to establish the duration of the infection as distinct from the clinical illness. After an initial lag the proportion of cases remaining infected fell logarithmically until the carriers revealed themselves.
We are grateful to many medical officers for information about their cases, and to Dr Lewis Fanning and Dr Ian Sutherland for much helpful criticism.